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Asnières-sur-Seine, France

Harbeby E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Jouin M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Alessandri J.-M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lallemand M.-S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 5 more authors.
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2012

n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) support whole brain energy metabolism but their impact on neuroenergetics in specific brain areas and during neuronal activation is still poorly understood. We tested the effect of feeding rats as control, n-3 PUFA-deficient diet, or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-supplemented diet on the expression of key genes in fronto-parietal cortex and hippocampal neuroenergetics before and after neuronal stimulation (activated) by an enriched environment. Compared to control rats, n-3 deficiency specifically repressed GLUT1 gene expression in the fronto-parietal cortex in basal state and also during neuronal activation which specifically stimulated GLUT1. In contrast, in the CA1 area, n-3 deficiency improved the glutamatergic synapse function in both neuronal states (glutamate transporters, Na +/K + ATPase). DHA supplementation induced overexpression of genes encoding enzymes of the oxidative phosphorylation system and the F1F0 ATP synthase in the CA1 area. We conclude that n-3 deficiency repressed GLUT1 gene expression in the cerebral cortex, while DHA supplementation improved the mitochondrial ATP generation in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Harbeby E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Pifferi F.,CNRS Mechanical Adaptation and Evolution | Jouin M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Pelerin H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 6 more authors.
OCL - Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides | Year: 2012

The content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in brain membranes is of crucial importance for the optimum development of brain functions. A lack of DHA accretion in the brain is accompanied by deficits in learning behavior linked to impairments in neurotransmission processes, which might result from alteration of brain fuel supply and hence energy metabolism. Experimental data we published support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids may modulate brain glucose utilization and metabolism. Indeed rats made deficient in DHA by severe depletion of total n-3 fatty acid intake have 1) a lower brain glucose utilization, 2) a decrease of the glucose transporter protein content GLUT1 both in endothelial cells and in astrocytes, 3) a repression of GLUT1 gene expression in basal state as well as upon neuronal activation. This could be due to the specific action of DHA on the regulation of GLUT1 expression since rat brain endothelial cells cultured with physiological doses of DHA had an increased GLUT1 protein content and glucose transport when compared to non-supplemented cells. These experimental data highlight the impact of n-3 fatty acids on the use of brain glucose, thereby constituting a key factor in the control of synaptic activity. This emerging role suggests that dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids can help to reduce the cognitive deficits in the elderly and possibly symptomatic cerebral metabolic alterations in Alzheimer disease by promoting brain glucose metabolism. Source

Gladine C.,Clermont University | Gladine C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Combe N.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Vaysse C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Rapeseeds are naturally rich in cardioprotective micronutrients but refining leads to substantial losses or the production of undesirable compounds. The Optim'Oils European project proposed innovative refining conditions to produce an optimized rapeseed oil enriched in micronutrients and low in trans linolenic acid. We aimed to investigate cardioprotective properties of this Optimized oil. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 59 healthy normolipidaemic men consumed either Optimized or Standard rapeseed oils (20. g/d) and margarines (22. g/d) for 3. weeks. The Optimized oil reduced the trans FA concentration (p = 0.009) and increased the contents of alpha-tocopherol (p = 0.022) and coenzyme Q10 (p < 0.001) in comparison with the Standard oil. Over the 3-week trial, Total-/HDL-cholesterol and LDL-/HDL-cholesterol were increased by 4% (p < 0.05) with the Standard oil consumption whereas none of them rose with the Optimized rapeseed oil which increased the HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 plasma content (+. 2%, NS and +. 3%, p < 0.05 respectively). The effects observed on the plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (p = 0.059), the Total-/HDL-cholesterol ratio (p = 0.092), and on the ApoA1 concentrations (p = 0.060) suggest an improvement of the cholesterol profile with the Optimized rapeseed oil. Finally, the Optimized oil reduced the plasma content of LDLox (-6%, NS), this effect being significantly different from the Standard oil (p = 0.050). In conclusion, reasonable intake of an Optimized rapeseed oil resulting from innovative refining processes and enriched in cardioprotective micronutrients represent a relevant nutritional approach to prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving the cholesterol profile and reducing LDL oxidation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Dhaussy A.,Lesieur
OCL - Oilseeds and fats, crops and lipids | Year: 2014

The vitamin D has recently been the subject of many researches, demonstrating new effects, reinforcing the interest for this molecule. The interest to develop products fortified with vitamin D is thus very important. Regarding references values, it is necessary to distinguish the RDAs (Recommended Daily Allowances), single value set up at 5 μg/d for vitamin D at the European level, in order to be a reference and a labeling value, from the nutritional recommendations. These recommendations are defined by groups of population. The values vary according to the countries and the dates on which they were set, the most recent being usually higher. The vitamin D fortification is less constrained in France today than before 2006. To fortify a food with vitamin D, it is necessary to follow the rules set by the Regulation 1925/2006/EC, and use the formulations authorized, demonstrate the nutritional benefit of the fortification, and ensure that the fortification does not lead to a risk for the health of the consumers. In some countries, the vitamin D fortification has been made mandatory for some foods. In France, several products are fortified with vitamin D, especially dairy products, but also some breakfast cereals and vegetable oils. Finally, the communication that can be made on vitamin D in food or advertising is strictly regulated by the Regulation 1924/2006/EC. © A. Dhaussy, published by EDP Sciences, 2014. Source

Lesieur | Date: 2009-06-23

edible oils namely olive oils.

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