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Épinal, France

Jana P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Fierro V.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Pizzi A.,LERMAB | Celzard A.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Society of Plastics Engineers - 12th International Conference on Foam Materials and Technology, FOAMS 2014 | Year: 2014

Carbon foams with improved thermal conductivity and mechanical properties were prepared from a tanninbased resin and exfoliated graphite used as filler. Organic foams were first prepared by suspending exfoliated graphite in an aqueous solution of tannin, furfuryl alcohol, formaldehyde, diethyl ether and para-toluene-4-sulphonic acid at room temperature. Spontaneous foaming started after a short induction time, and the resultant dark brown, hard, foams were carbonized at 1173 K. The addition of exfoliated graphite in the foam matrix increased the thermal conductivity by more than one order of magnitude, passing from 0.11 W m-1 K-1 for pure tanninbased carbon foams to 3.65 W m-1 K-1 for composite foams. In the same time, compressive strength and elastic modulus increased from 3.6 to 6.9 MPa and from 30.1 to 61 MPa, respectively. Such biomass-derived carbon foams are suitable porous structures for hosting phase change materials for seasonal storage applications. Source

Amaral-Labat G.,CNRS Jean Lamour Institute | Grishechko L.,CNRS Jean Lamour Institute | Grishechko L.,RAS Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology | Szczurek A.,CNRS Jean Lamour Institute | And 4 more authors.
Green Chemistry | Year: 2012

The first organic aerogels natural at the 91% level, based on soy and tannin, are reported. Such materials were prepared from denatured soy protein which was formylated, crosslinked with flavonoid tannin at different pHs, gelled and cured at 85 °C, and finally dried with supercritical CO 2. The resultant aerogels presented both low bulk density and high mesopore volumes. Morphology, pore texture, chemical structure and thermal performances have been investigated by SEM, envelope and helium pycnometry, nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, FTIR, elemental analysis, XPS, NMR and hot disk transient plane source methods, respectively. We show that soy-tannin aerogels are among the "greenest" organic aerogels combining low cost, renewable character, highly developed mesopore texture and good thermal performances. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Meyer J.,MAP | Duchanois G.,MAP | Bignon J.-C.,MAP | Bouali A.,LERMAB
CAADRIA 2015 - 20th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia: Emerging Experiences in the Past, Present and Future of Digital Architecture | Year: 2015

The research presented in this paper revolves around the experimental development of the morpho-structural potential of folded architectural structures made of wood. The aims are to develop an innovative system for timber used in sustainable construction and to increase the inventory of wood architectural tectonics. Laminated timber panels associated with "digital production line" approach have opened up new perspectives for the building industry in creating prefabricated wooden structures. This article provides a characterization of the digital chain associated to the development of non-standard folded structures which consist of wood panels by way of a full-scale experimental pavilion. The purpose is the study of architectural design process from parametric modeling (through CNC machining) and assembly operations to production. Towards the completion of the pavilion, a number of analytical experiments have been performed. © 2015 All rights reserved and published by The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong. Source

Authier O.,Electricite de France | Cluet B.,LERMAB | Cluet B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Delebarre A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Mauviel G.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2014

The fast devolatilization of biomass is the first step of thermochemical conversion in fluidized bed boilers or gasifiers. Some advanced devolatilization models applicable to a wide range of biomasses and process conditions have been developed on the basis of a detailed description of the physico-chemical mechanisms and of biomass standard analysis. In this study, the results of a biomass devolatilization model taking into account the main physical and chemical phenomena are reported. Attention is focused on biomass thermal properties derived from its composition and density. The kinetic scheme is based on the lumped kinetic model of (Ranzi et al., 2008) and its further development. Predictions of the complete devolatilization time of biomass thick particles are compared with experimental results obtained in different high-temperature fluidized bed reactors. Experimental results obtained with biomass pellets under image furnace conditions are also used to assess the dynamic release of volatile matter predicted in transient state. The great interest of predictive model able to reduce the number of input parameters for any biomass type is finally underlined. Copyright © 2014,AIDIC Servizi S.r.l. Source

Bilot N.,ONF R and D pole de Dole | Bilot N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Andre L.S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Rogaume Y.,LERMAB | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2014

In the context of increasing energy demand, forest timber residues and leaves are a potential resource for fuel. How renewable are these resources? What are their qualities as a fuel? These issues can be answered through parallel works in two research fields: forest sciences considering nutrients cycles between plants and soil and growth and yield dynamics of the trees, and energy sciences considering the qualities of fuel such as heating value, and ash content. This interdisciplinary interaction leads to the balanced thinking between nutrient dynamics (harvesting forest residues while maintaining soil fertility and wood production) and energy interests. In a previous work, a study was presented that intended to bridge the two research fields by predicting the ash content and higher heating value in trees from a model developed by biogeochemists for predicting elemental composition distributed in several tree compartments. The models developed were applied on predictions of characteristics of forest products. These characteristics were outputted from a growth and yield simulator developed by forest research. This application added energy characterization to the wood biomass described biochemically. This connexion was the first step for the development of a simulation package which aims at characterizing the production chain of energy wood from forest growth and yield simulations (developed by forest sciences), through energy characterization (use of the interdisciplinary model), to harvesting and transformation chain characterization (energy and engineering sciences). Here, we quickly describe the models connecting biochemistry to fuel characterization of forest biomass; then we describe the simulation package and how these models are connected to biochemists models in the simulation package and finally we explain why the use of such a package is an important tool toward the improvement of the biomass production chain quality. Copyright © 2014,AIDIC Servizi S.r.l. Source

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