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Orsay, France

Thomas B.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | David G.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Anselmo C.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Cariou J.-P.,Leosphere | And 2 more authors.
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics | Year: 2013

In this paper, the first experimental demonstration of the optical correlation spectroscopy lidar (OCS-lidar) is proposed. It is a new active remote sensing methodology to measure range-resolved atmospheric gas concentrations, based on broadband laser spectroscopy and light amplitude modulation. As a first step, a numerical study is performed for OCS-lidar measurements to optimize the accuracy of the range-resolved gas concentration measurement. Then, we demonstrate the ability of the OCS-lidar methodology to monitor the water vapor in the planetary boundary layer using the 4ν 720-nm absorption band. In addition to this first experimental proof, two different experimental configurations are proposed. The amplitude modulation, related to the optical correlation spectroscopy, is operated either at the emission with an active amplitude modulator before the backscattering process, or with passive optical filters on the laser backscattered light. For both configurations, range-resolved gas concentration measurements, achieved with a micro-pulse ground-based OCS-lidar, are presented. An extended discussion presents the mixing-ratio accuracy, which reaches ±1,000 ppm at a 2,000-m range for a range resolution of 200 m. The differences between the two experimental configurations are also discussed. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Thomas B.,CNRS Laboratory of Ionic and Molecular Spectrometry | Miffre A.,CNRS Laboratory of Ionic and Molecular Spectrometry | David G.,CNRS Laboratory of Ionic and Molecular Spectrometry | Cariou J.-P.,Leosphere | Rairoux P.,CNRS Laboratory of Ionic and Molecular Spectrometry
Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics | Year: 2012

In this paper, we propose a new active remote sensing methodology, based on laser spectroscopy, to evaluate the content of atmospheric trace gases. Its principle consists in coupling a lidar with optical correlation spectroscopy (OCS-lidar). Our theoretical and numerical studies show that OCS-lidar is a robust measurement methodology allowing trace gases environmental, agricultural, and industrial plants surveys. The novelty of this work is threefold. Firstly, we develop a new formalism to remotely evaluate the target gas concentration from optical correlation spectroscopy. Secondly, an acousto-optical programmable dispersive filter has been used to ensure that the lidar signal be spectrally correlated with the target gas of interest. It avoids using a hazardous gas reference cell, as operated in conventional OCS devices. Moreover, a clever spectral correlation is achieved since the contribution of absorption interfering species can then be minimized. Thirdly, to evaluate the performance of the OCS-lidar methodology, a numerical study of methane greenhouse gas is presented to evidence that atmospheric methane mixing ratios are retrievable over two orders of magnitude, from background level up to 100 ppb, within 100-m range resolution. Evaluation of the accuracy and the detection limit, including statistical and systematic errors assessment, are then objectively presented and discussed. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source

Duflot V.,University of Reunion Island | Royer P.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Royer P.,Leosphere | Chazette P.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2011

We document aerosol extinction properties in the southern Indian Ocean. A unique data set of shipborne measurements has been collected with a dual Rayleigh-Mie lidar aboard the research vessel Marion Dufresne during two campaigns: one around Madagascar during the Southern Hemisphere late summer and one close to the Kerguelen Islands during the biomass burning (BB) season. During this latter, a layer containing a mix of BB and marine aerosols extending up to ∼3 km above mean sea level (amsl) has been observed from [31S, 69E] to [24S, 59E]. Both vertical structure and aerosol optical properties have been retrieved from the inversion of the lidar signals. Sun photometer-derived aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 355 nm is used to constrain the lidar inversion. We obtain a mean integrated value of backscatter-to-extinction ratio (BER) (extinction-to-backscatter ratio, or so-called lidar ratio, LR) of 0.039 0.009 sr-1 (26 6 sr) and 0.021 0.006 sr-1 (48 12 sr) for the marine aerosols layer, and for the mixing between BB and marine aerosols with an uncertainty of 0.009 sr-1 (6 sr) and 0.004 sr-1 (9 sr), respectively. Lidar calibration is used to inverse data without any simultaneous Sun photometer measurements (as nighttime data), and the temporal evolution of the optical properties and vertical extension of the BB aerosol plume is documented. The presence of BB aerosols is in agreement with Lagrangian model GIRAFE v3 (reGIonal ReAl time Fire plumEs) simulations, which show the South American and Southern African BB origin of the encountered aerosol layer. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

Royer P.,French Climate and Environment Sciences Laboratory | Royer P.,Leosphere | Chazette P.,French Climate and Environment Sciences Laboratory | Sartelet K.,University Paris Est Creteil | And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2011

An innovative approach using mobile lidar measurements was implemented to test the performances of chemistry-transport models in simulating mass concentrations (PM10) predicted by chemistry-transport models. A ground-based mobile lidar (GBML) was deployed around Paris onboard a van during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) summer experiment in July 2009. The measurements performed with this Rayleigh-Mie lidar are converted into PM10 profiles using optical-to-mass relationships previously established from in situ measurements performed around Paris for urban and peri-urban aerosols. The method is described here and applied to the 10 measurements days (MD). MD of 1, 15, 16 and 26 July 2009, corresponding to different levels of pollution and atmospheric conditions, are analyzed here in more details. Lidar-derived PM10 are compared with results of simulations from POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE chemistry-transport models (CTM) and with ground-based observations from the AIRPARIF network. GBML-derived and AIRPARIF in situ measurements have been found to be in good agreement with a mean Root Mean Square Error RMSE (and a Mean Absolute Percentage Error MAPE) of 7.2 μg m-3 (26.0%) and 8.8 μg m-3 (25.2%) with relationships assuming peri-urban and urban-type particles, respectively. The comparisons between CTMs and lidar at 200 m height have shown that CTMs tend to underestimate wet PM10 concentrations as revealed by the mean wet PM10 observed during the 10 MD of 22.4, 20.0 and 17.5 μg m-3 for lidar with peri-urban relationship, and POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE models, respectively. This leads to a RMSE (and a MAPE) of 6.4 μg m-3 (29.6%) and 6.4 μ4g m-3 (27.6%) when considering POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE CTMs, respectively. Wet integrated PM10 computed (between the ground and 1 km above the ground level) from lidar, POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE results have been compared and have shown similar results with a RMSE (and MAPE) of 6.3 mg m-2 (30.1%) and 5.2 mg m-2 (22.3%) with POLYPHEMUS and CHIMERE when comparing with lidar-derived PM10 with periurban relationship. The values are of the same order of magnitude than other comparisons realized in previous studies. The discrepancies observed between models and measured PM10 can be explained by difficulties to accurately model the background conditions, the positions and strengths of the plume, the vertical turbulent diffusion (as well as the limited vertical model resolutions) and chemical processes as the formation of secondary aerosols. The major advantage of using vertically resolved lidar observations in addition to surface concentrations is to overcome the problem of limited spatial representativity of surface measurements. Even for the case of a well-mixed boundary layer, vertical mixing is not complete, especially in the surface layer and near source regions. Also a bad estimation of the mixing layer height would introduce errors in simulated surface concentrations, which can be detected using lidar measurements. In addition, horizontal spatial representativity is larger for altitude integrated measurements than for surface measurements, because horizontal inhomogeneities occurring near surface sources are dampened. © 2011 Author(s). Source

Chazette P.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Royer P.,Leosphere
EPJ Web of Conferences | Year: 2016

The great particulate pollution event that affected the Paris Megalopolis in March 2014 was due to long-range transport from the northern-northeastern Europe. Although this phenomenon has appeared as exceptional in the media, this is not an exception and similar events have already been observed by lidar measurements. Here we will briefly describe and illustrate the origin of this intense pollution obviously harmful to health. © 2016 Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences. Source

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