Hickory, NC, United States
Hickory, NC, United States

Lenoir–Rhyne University is a co-educational, private liberal arts university founded in 1891 and located in Hickory, North Carolina, USA. The university is affiliated with the North Carolina Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America .In 2011–12 Lenoir–Rhyne enrolled approximately 1,980 students of whom 1,653 were undergraduate with a gender distribution of 35.4 percent male students and 64.6 percent female students. 55.0 percent of the students live in college-owned, -operated, or -affiliated housing and 45.0 percent of students live off campus. Dormitory visitation hours by the same or opposite sex is strictly regulated. Lenoir–Rhyne University participates in NCAA Division II athletics. Wikipedia.


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Koch A.J.,Lenoir-Rhyne University | Pereira R.,State University of Southwest Bahia | Machado M.,Universitary Foundation of Itaperuna | Machado M.,Iguaçu University
Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions | Year: 2014

Resistance exercise can result in localized damage to muscle tissue. This damage may be observed in sarcolemma, basal lamina, as well as, in the contractile elements and the cytoskeleton. Usually the damage is accompanied by release of enzymes such as creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase, myoglobin and other proteins into the blood. Serum CK has been proposed as one of the best indirect indicators of muscle damage due to its ease of identification and the relatively low cost of assays to quantify it. Thus, CK has been used as an indicator of the training intensity and a diagnostic marker of overtraining. However, some issues complicate CK's use in this manner. There is great interindividual variability in serum CK, which complicates the assignment of reliable reference values for athletes. Furthermore, factors such as training level, muscle groups involved, and gender can influence CK levels to a greater extent than differences in exercise volume completed. This review will detail the process by which resistance exercise induces a rise in circulating CK, illuminate the various factors that affect the CK response to resistance exercise, and discuss the relative usefulness of CK as a marker of training status, in light of these factors.


Schreiber C.,Lenoir-Rhyne University | Carley K.M.,Institute for Software Research
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Part A:Systems and Humans | Year: 2013

Validating a computational model is important as it establishes that the model has met its intended purpose of representing the system under study. In this paper, we perform a validation study on Construct, a multiagent network model for the coevolution of agents and the sociocultural environments that they inhabit. In particular, we focus on validating agent interactions produced by the model against empirical communication networks collected in real-world organizations. Validation is performed using our novel calibrated grounding technique. Results show that Construct can produce valid agent interactions. The benefits and implications of the study are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.


Hulsey C.R.,Truman State University | Soto D.T.,Truman State University | Koch A.J.,Lenoir-Rhyne University | Mayhew J.L.,Truman State University | Mayhew J.L.,A.T. Still University
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to compare metabolic demand of a kettlebell (KB) swing routine with treadmill (TM) running at equivalent rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Thirteen subjects (11 male, 2 female, age = 21.4 ± 2.1 years, weight = 73.0 ± 9.2 kg) completed a 10-minute KB swing routine consisting of 35-second swing intervals followed by 25-second rest intervals. Men used a 16-kg KB, and women used an 8-kg KB. After 48 hours of rest, the subjects completed a 10-minute TM run at equivalent RPEs as measured during the swing workout. Metabolic data were monitored each minute during each exercise using an automated cart, with the final 7 minutes used for analysis. The RPE and heart rate (HR) recorded at minutes 5, 7, 9, and 10 increased by 2-3 and 7-9%, respectively, for each exercise, producing a significantly increasing pattern but no significant difference between exercises. Average HR and RPE were not significantly different between KB and TM and averaged 90 and 89%, respectively, of agepredicted HRmax. Oxygen consumption, METS, pulmonary ventilation, and calorie expenditure were significantly higher for TM (25-39%) than for KB. Respiratory exchange ratio (TM = 0.94 ± 0.04, KB = 0.95 ± 0.05) and respiratory rate (TM= 38 ± 7, KB = 36 ± 4b•min -1) were not significantly different between the exercises at any time point. During TM and KB exercises matched for RPE, the subjects are likely to have higher oxygen consumption, work at a higher MET level, and burn more kilocalories per minute during TM running than during KB swings. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association.


Williams P.J.,East Tennessee State University | Williams P.J.,Lenoir-Rhyne University | Dick K.B.,East Tennessee State University | Yampolsky L.Y.,East Tennessee State University
Evolutionary Ecology | Year: 2012

Daphnia is a widespread freshwater zooplankton species, which is both a classic and emerging new model for research in ecological physiology, ecotoxicology and evolutionary biology of adaptation to novel environments. Heat tolerance in Daphnia is known to depend both upon evolutionary history of a genotype and on individuals' acclimation to elevated temperature and to correlate with the level of haemoglobin expression. We demonstrate the existence of north-south gradient of heat tolerance in North American D. pulex, which is not associated with any parallel changes in haemoglobin expression. Geographically distinct clones differ in the way their haemoglobin expression changes due to acclimation to a sub-stressful (28°C) temperature, but these changes are not correlated with the latitude of clones' origin. Likewise, the effect of acclimation to sub-stressful temperature is independent from, and cannot be fully explained by, haemoglobin expression changes during acclimation. The degree of oxidative damage to haemoglobin, measured as the ratio of absorbance at 540:576 nm at the acclimation temperature, is a strong predictor of 28°C-acclimated Daphnia survival during an acute heat exposure. The comparison of haemoglobin expression in resistant and tolerant clones acclimated to different temperatures indicates that tolerant clones exhibit canalization of haemoglobin expression, possessing a high level of haemoglobin even at non-stressful temperatures. We discuss the evolutionary biology of adaptation and acclimation to elevated temperatures in an ecologically important component of freshwater ecosystems in the context of global climate change. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Carnevale T.,Medical University of South Carolina | Carnevale T.,Lenoir-Rhyne University
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing | Year: 2011

Background: Major depression is a significant yet underdiagnosed problem of adolescence. The consequences of undiagnosed and untreated depression in this vulnerable population can have detrimental effects. School nurses are in a prime position to perform early screening and referral. However, the school environment requires special consideration as the setting for screening of adolescent depression. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to identify instruments that can be utilized by the school nurse to performeasily administered, rapid adolescent depression screenings that are valid, reliable, and economical. Methods: An integrative review of current depression instruments used in adolescents was conducted. Results: Of the seven most commonly used instruments, only four of those fit the criteria listed for conducting screening in the school setting by the school nurse. The four instruments include the Beck Depression Inventory-Youth (BDI-Y), the Children's Depression Inventory, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale for Children, and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale. Conclusion: Although all four of the identified instruments provide reliability and validity in the school setting, it is the other criteria: affordability, ease of administration, and the ability of the instrument to be rapidly scored, that placed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale for Children and the BDI-Y as the reasonable choice of instruments for use by the school nurse. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Basu S.,Purdue University | Zell T.,Lenoir-Rhyne University
Foundations of Computational Mathematics | Year: 2010

Toda (in SIAM J. Comput. 20(5):865-877, 1991) proved in 1989 that the (discrete) polynomial time hierarchy, PH, is contained in the class P#P, namely the class of languages that can be decided by a Turing machine in polynomial time given access to an oracle with the power to compute a function in the counting complexity class #P. This result, which illustrates the power of counting, is considered to be a seminal result in computational complexity theory. An analogous result in the complexity theory over the reals (in the sense of Blum-Shub-Smale real machines in Bull. Am. Math. Soc. (NS) 21(1): 1-46, 1989) has been missing so far. In this paper we formulate and prove a real analogue of Toda's theorem. Unlike Toda's proof in the discrete case, which relied on sophisticated combinatorial arguments, our proof is topological in nature. As a consequence of our techniques, we are also able to relate the computational hardness of two extremely well-studied problems in algorithmic semi-algebraic geometry: the problem of deciding sentences in the first-order theory of the reals with a constant number of quantifier alternations, and that of computing Betti numbers of semi-algebraic sets. We obtain a polynomial time reduction of the compact version of the first problem to the second. This latter result may be of independent interest to researchers in algorithmic semi-algebraic geometry. © 2010 SFoCM.


MacCarone A.D.,Friends University | Brzorad J.N.,Lenoir-Rhyne University | Stone H.M.,Friends University
Waterbirds | Year: 2012

To better understand how birds balance the demands of reproduction and food-provisioning, Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula) were studied from May-July 2009 and 2010 in a mixed-species colony in Wichita, Kansas. Observations included 68 h of scan samples at 34 nests which yielded >11,000 instantaneous records; the durations of 57 food-provisioning trips made by eight radio-tagged birds; 73 records of foraging locations, and 27 h of foraging activity and aggressive intraspecific interactions. Adult activities at the nest included sitting (41% of the time), standing (18%), preening (10%), nest maintenance (7%) and feeding chicks (<1%). Incubating adults spent significantly more time sitting but less time standing than did adults with chicks. The amount of time that both parents were away from the nest increased significantly with chick age. Multiple regression analysis with AIC modeling showed that Julian date, chick stage, and year were important predictor variables in nest activity patterns. Mean food-provisioning intervals (242 ±22 min; range = 52-539 min) differed among radio-tagged birds, but did not differ by time of day or date. Round-trip flight distances averaged 16.1 ±3.2 km (range = 6-49 km), and also differed among birds. Distances to foraging sites were combined with published energetic values to estimate flight costs. Compared with birds that used distant foraging sites (>18 km from the colony), birds that used sites near the colony (<3 km) had higher capture efficiencies but caught smaller prey, had much higher rates of aggression, and lower rates of energy intake.


Linton J.N.,Lenoir-Rhyne University
American Journal of Distance Education | Year: 2015

This qualitative interpretive case study used Wenger’s (1998) communities of practice (CoP) framework to analyze how the electronic learning community (eLC) process at an established state virtual high school operated like a community of practice. Components of the eLC process were analyzed according to elements of the CoP framework, which provided a theoretical lens through which to analyze data gathered through interviews, observations, and document collection. Findings revealed several areas of alignment between the eLC process and the CoP framework, particularly with Wenger’s notion of practice within a CoP as a duality between participation and reification. © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Johanson L.S.,Lenoir-Rhyne University
Journal of Christian nursing : a quarterly publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship | Year: 2010

Academic dishonesty, whether intentional cheating or plagiarism, or unintentional sharing of work or confusion about referencing, is nothing new to the college environment but is especially disturbing within nursing. The integrity of the nursing profession may, in fact, be jeopardized as students with the habit of cheating graduate and enter the field. This article discusses how educators, students, university administration, and nurses in practice can discourage cheating and plagiarism and promote honesty.


Brzorad J.N.,Lenoir-Rhyne University | MacCarone A.D.,Friends University
Waterbirds | Year: 2013

Studies must be performed throughout the year to determine how the seasonal energy requirements of Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula) and Great Egrets (Ardea alba) change. Foraging behavior was quantified during the breeding season in Kansas and during the non-breeding season in Florida using energetic algorithms and scan sampling. Fifty-eight percent (n = 287) of breeding Snowy Egrets were observed ambulating while 51% (n = 271) of non-breeding Snowy Egrets were observed loafing. Standing foraging was the most commonly observed behavior among Great Egrets in both the breeding (54%, n = 91) and non-breeding (38%, n = 164) seasons. Behavior was dependent on season for both Snowy Egrets (x 2= 200.1, P < 0.001) and Great Egrets (x2= 187.4, P < 0.001). During the breeding season, Snowy Egrets expended 0.13 ± 0.06 W (Watts) in rivers and 0.08 + 0.02 W at weirs. During the non-breeding season Snowy Egrets expended 0.06 ± 0.01 W. During the breeding season Great Egrets expended 0.11 + 0.02 W at both weirs and in rivers, and 0.09 ± 0.02 W during the non-breeding season (F2,46 = 7.86, P < 0.0012). Snowy and Great egrets appear to vary their caloric demand on aquatic systems over the annual cycle. However, the quantity of energy derived from an ecosystem should not be the only factor taken into consideration in determining the value of that ecosystem.

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