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Batulevicius D.,Lithuanian University of Health Sciences | Frese T.,Leipzig Medical School | Peschke E.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Pauza D.H.,Lithuanian University of Health Sciences | Batuleviciene V.,Kaunas College
Cardiovascular Diabetology | Year: 2013

Background: Although cardiac autonomic neuropathy is one of major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), anatomical data on cardiac innervation of diabetic animal models is scant and controversial. We performed this study to check whether long-term diabetic state impacts the anatomy of intracardiac ganglia in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a genetic model of type 2 DM.Methods: Twelve GK rats (276 ± 17 days of age; mean ± standard error) and 13 metabolically healthy Wistar rats (262 ± 5 days of age) as controls were used for this study. Blood glucose was determined using test strips, plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. Intrinsic ganglia and nerves were visualized by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry on whole hearts. Ganglion area was measured, and the neuronal number was assessed according to ganglion area.Results: The GK rats had significantly elevated blood glucose level compared to controls (11.0 ± 0.6 vs. 5.9 ± 0.1 mmol/l, p < 0.001), but concentration of plasma insulin did not differ significantly between the two groups (84.0 ± 9.8 vs. 67.4 ± 10.9 pmol/l, p = 0.17). The GK rats contained significantly fewer intracardiac ganglia, decreased total area of intracardiac ganglia (1.4 ± 0.1 vs. 2.2 ± 0.1 mm2, p < 0.001) and smaller somata of ganglionic neurons. Mean total number of intracardiac neurons in GK rats was 1461 ± 62, while this number in control rats was higher by 39% and reached 2395 ± 110 (p < 0.001).Conclusions: Results of our study demonstrate the decreased number of intracardiac neurons in GK rats compared to metabolically healthy Wistar rats of similar age. It is likely that the observed structural remodelling of intracardiac ganglia in GK rats is caused by a long-term diabetic state. © 2013 Batulevicius et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Frese T.,Leipzig Medical School | Herrmann K.,Leipzig Medical School | Bungert-Kahl P.,University of Leipzig
Swiss Medical Weekly | Year: 2012

QUESTIONS: Three- and four-digit International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) is not a reliable classification system in primary care. The reliability of the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2) as an alternative coding system has not yet been investigated in a German general practice setting. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected during a one year period in a general practice setting. Participants: A total of 8,877 patients were randomly selected. Main outcome measures: The first of the reasons for encounter was taken into account on new and chronic managed problems. The ICPC-2 coding of each case was performed by two raters to investigate the inter-rater agreement. The degree of agreement between the raters was assessed by using Cohen's kappa (κ ≥ 0.61 meaning high or satisfactory and κ ≤ 0.6 (incl. ≤ 0.000) meaning low or unsatisfactory). RESULTS: The reliability was good to excellent at the chapter level, at the component level the reliability was moderate though good in the components 1-symptoms and 7-diseases. At single code level the agreement was only fair to moderate in both chapters and components. One third to half of the used codes showed good inter-rater agreement. CONCLUSION: The ICPC-2 is an adequate and feasible instrument for routine use in general practice. The fair to moderate reliability on the single code level should be considered when designing studies and interpreting data that are based on the ICPC-2.


Igenbergs E.,Leipzig Medical School | Deutsch T.,Leipzig Medical School | Frese T.,Leipzig Medical School | Sandholzer H.,Leipzig Medical School
BMC Medical Education | Year: 2013

Background: With regard to the growing proportion of elderly multimorbid patients, a sound undergraduate geriatric education becomes more important. Therefore we included the execution and interpretation of a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) into a mandatory two-week clerkship at a general practitioner's office. The present study examined the effect of a guide structuring the students' considerations when interpreting a CGA on the quantity and accuracy of the documented findings and conclusions. Methods. We compared random samples out of two cohorts of fourth-year medical students (interpreting the CGA with and without using the structured interpretation guide) completing their clerkship between April 2006 and March 2008 with regard to the content of the CGA interpretation and the grades the students achieved for their clerkship documentation, which were substantially determined by the quantity and accuracy of the documentation and interpretation of the CGA. Results: The structured interpretation guide led to significantly more mentions of aspects that have to be considered in geriatric patient care and to a higher documentation rate of respective positive results. Furthermore, students who analysed the CGA by using the interpretation guide achieved significantly better grades. Conclusions: An additional tool structuring medical students' considerations when interpreting a CGA increases the quantity and the accuracy of the documented findings and conclusions. This may enhance the students' learning gain. © 2013 Igenbergs et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Frese T.,Leipzig Medical School | Deutsch T.,Leipzig Medical School | Keyser M.,Leipzig Medical School | Sandholzer H.,Leipzig Medical School
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics | Year: 2012

The study should prove the effectiveness of a preventive in-home CGA regarding mortality and time able to stay in the community. We performed a randomized controlled trial with a mean follow-up of 6.2 years. The home visits were performed in Germany. 1620 community-living persons aged 70 years and older (n= 630 intervention; 990 controls) from 20 general practitioner surgeries were visited. The intervention was performed by trained medical students it included a CGA using the STEP-tool (standardized assessment of elderly people in primary care in Europe; a combination of a structured questionnaire and a structured physical examination) and additional tests, followed by recommendations for the general practitioner. The controls received usual general practitioner care. Follow-up visit was made at mean 6.2 years after randomization. The main outcome parameters were mortality and time able to stay at home. Follow-up-rate was 75%. In COX-regression-analyses, a 20% reduction of mortality and a 22% lower risk of nursing-home admission were shown in the intervention group at the follow up. Despite the main limitations of the study (general practitioners volunteered to participate, follow-up-rate <80%, possible performance of geriatric assessments also in the control group, intervention group had poorer health status than the control group, adherence to recommendations from the assessment was not verified) we conclude that the implementation of a preventive geriatric assessment into primary care in Germany seems to be reasonable. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Braunseis F.,Leipzig Medical School | Deutsch T.,Leipzig Medical School | Frese T.,Leipzig Medical School | Sandholzer H.,Leipzig Medical School
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics | Year: 2012

In an aging population the burden on health care systems depends on the proportion of lifetime spent in good or poor health. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a ten-year cohort difference on NHA, indicating changes in lifetime spent without severe disabilities. Additionally, important risk factors for NHA were identified. The data were obtained from two cohort studies of elderly people. Cohort A (1991-1993) comprised 74+ patients from 20 German general practices and cohort B (2002-2003) 70+ patients from 14 general practices. The merged sample consisted of 2301 community dwelling patients that contacted their general practitioner within a 12-month period during the respective enquiry period. After an initial assessment at study entry, participants were monitored over a five-year period respective NHA and death. The Cox proportional hazards model was used including socio-epidemic data, state of health, chronic diseases, dementia, health system usage, and social support. The ten-year cohort-difference was no predictor of NHA within a 5-year period. Significant influencing variables were: age (OR 1.10), living with others (OR 0.59), no auxiliary person (OR 1.69), mild forgetfulness (OR 2.12), clear cognitive impairment (OR 3.74), severe cognitive disturbance (3.61), loss of memory (11.83), walking difficulties (OR 1.53), impaired vision (OR 1.90), and cancer (OR 0.22). This study could not find a cohort effect on NHA. With regard to increased life expectancy the findings do not support the compression of morbidity hypothesis. The identified influencing variables contribute to the understanding of NHA risk factors. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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