Leipzig Medical School

Leipzig, Germany

Leipzig Medical School

Leipzig, Germany

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Batulevicius D.,Lithuanian University of Health Sciences | Frese T.,Leipzig Medical School | Peschke E.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Pauza D.H.,Lithuanian University of Health Sciences | Batuleviciene V.,Kaunas College
Cardiovascular Diabetology | Year: 2013

Background: Although cardiac autonomic neuropathy is one of major complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), anatomical data on cardiac innervation of diabetic animal models is scant and controversial. We performed this study to check whether long-term diabetic state impacts the anatomy of intracardiac ganglia in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a genetic model of type 2 DM.Methods: Twelve GK rats (276 ± 17 days of age; mean ± standard error) and 13 metabolically healthy Wistar rats (262 ± 5 days of age) as controls were used for this study. Blood glucose was determined using test strips, plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. Intrinsic ganglia and nerves were visualized by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry on whole hearts. Ganglion area was measured, and the neuronal number was assessed according to ganglion area.Results: The GK rats had significantly elevated blood glucose level compared to controls (11.0 ± 0.6 vs. 5.9 ± 0.1 mmol/l, p < 0.001), but concentration of plasma insulin did not differ significantly between the two groups (84.0 ± 9.8 vs. 67.4 ± 10.9 pmol/l, p = 0.17). The GK rats contained significantly fewer intracardiac ganglia, decreased total area of intracardiac ganglia (1.4 ± 0.1 vs. 2.2 ± 0.1 mm2, p < 0.001) and smaller somata of ganglionic neurons. Mean total number of intracardiac neurons in GK rats was 1461 ± 62, while this number in control rats was higher by 39% and reached 2395 ± 110 (p < 0.001).Conclusions: Results of our study demonstrate the decreased number of intracardiac neurons in GK rats compared to metabolically healthy Wistar rats of similar age. It is likely that the observed structural remodelling of intracardiac ganglia in GK rats is caused by a long-term diabetic state. © 2013 Batulevicius et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Braunseis F.,Leipzig Medical School | Deutsch T.,Leipzig Medical School | Frese T.,Leipzig Medical School | Sandholzer H.,Leipzig Medical School
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics | Year: 2012

In an aging population the burden on health care systems depends on the proportion of lifetime spent in good or poor health. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a ten-year cohort difference on NHA, indicating changes in lifetime spent without severe disabilities. Additionally, important risk factors for NHA were identified. The data were obtained from two cohort studies of elderly people. Cohort A (1991-1993) comprised 74+ patients from 20 German general practices and cohort B (2002-2003) 70+ patients from 14 general practices. The merged sample consisted of 2301 community dwelling patients that contacted their general practitioner within a 12-month period during the respective enquiry period. After an initial assessment at study entry, participants were monitored over a five-year period respective NHA and death. The Cox proportional hazards model was used including socio-epidemic data, state of health, chronic diseases, dementia, health system usage, and social support. The ten-year cohort-difference was no predictor of NHA within a 5-year period. Significant influencing variables were: age (OR 1.10), living with others (OR 0.59), no auxiliary person (OR 1.69), mild forgetfulness (OR 2.12), clear cognitive impairment (OR 3.74), severe cognitive disturbance (3.61), loss of memory (11.83), walking difficulties (OR 1.53), impaired vision (OR 1.90), and cancer (OR 0.22). This study could not find a cohort effect on NHA. With regard to increased life expectancy the findings do not support the compression of morbidity hypothesis. The identified influencing variables contribute to the understanding of NHA risk factors. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Frese T.,Leipzig Medical School | Deutsch T.,Leipzig Medical School | Keyser M.,Leipzig Medical School | Sandholzer H.,Leipzig Medical School
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics | Year: 2012

The study should prove the effectiveness of a preventive in-home CGA regarding mortality and time able to stay in the community. We performed a randomized controlled trial with a mean follow-up of 6.2 years. The home visits were performed in Germany. 1620 community-living persons aged 70 years and older (n= 630 intervention; 990 controls) from 20 general practitioner surgeries were visited. The intervention was performed by trained medical students it included a CGA using the STEP-tool (standardized assessment of elderly people in primary care in Europe; a combination of a structured questionnaire and a structured physical examination) and additional tests, followed by recommendations for the general practitioner. The controls received usual general practitioner care. Follow-up visit was made at mean 6.2 years after randomization. The main outcome parameters were mortality and time able to stay at home. Follow-up-rate was 75%. In COX-regression-analyses, a 20% reduction of mortality and a 22% lower risk of nursing-home admission were shown in the intervention group at the follow up. Despite the main limitations of the study (general practitioners volunteered to participate, follow-up-rate <80%, possible performance of geriatric assessments also in the control group, intervention group had poorer health status than the control group, adherence to recommendations from the assessment was not verified) we conclude that the implementation of a preventive geriatric assessment into primary care in Germany seems to be reasonable. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Deutsch T.,Leipzig Medical School | Lippmann S.,Leipzig Medical School | Frese T.,Leipzig Medical School | Sandholzer H.,Leipzig Medical School
Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care | Year: 2015

Objective. Because of the increasing shortage of general practitioners (GPs) in many countries, this study aimed to explore factors related to GP career choice in recent medical graduates. Particular focus was placed on the impact of specific practice-orientated GP courses at different stages of the medical undergraduate curriculum. Design. Observational study. Multivariable binary logistic regression was used to reveal independent associations with career choice. Setting. Leipzig Medical School, Germany. Subjects. 659 graduates (response rate = 64.2%). Main outcome measure. Choice of general practice as a career. Results. Six student-associated variables were found to be independently related to choice of general practice as a career: age, having family or friends in general practice, consideration of a GP career at matriculation, preference for subsequent work in a rural or small-town area, valuing the ability to see a broad spectrum of patients, and valuing long-term doctor-patient relationships. Regarding the curriculum, after adjustment independent associations were found with a specific pre-clinical GP elective (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.3), a four-week GP clerkship during the clinical study section (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.0), and a four-month GP clinical rotation during the final year (OR = 10.7, 95% CI 4.3-26.7). It was also found that the work-related values of the female participants were more compatible with those of physicians who opt for a GP career than was the case for their male colleagues. Conclusion. These results support the suggestion that a practice-orientated GP curriculum in both the earlier and later stages of undergraduate medical education raises medical schools' output of future GPs. The findings are of interest for medical schools (curriculum design, admission criteria), policy-makers, and GPs involved in undergraduate medical education. More research is needed on the effectiveness of specific educational interventions in promoting interest in general practice as a career. © 2015 The Author(s).


Frese T.,Leipzig Medical School | Herrmann K.,Leipzig Medical School | Bungert-Kahl P.,University of Leipzig
Swiss Medical Weekly | Year: 2012

QUESTIONS: Three- and four-digit International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) is not a reliable classification system in primary care. The reliability of the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2) as an alternative coding system has not yet been investigated in a German general practice setting. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected during a one year period in a general practice setting. Participants: A total of 8,877 patients were randomly selected. Main outcome measures: The first of the reasons for encounter was taken into account on new and chronic managed problems. The ICPC-2 coding of each case was performed by two raters to investigate the inter-rater agreement. The degree of agreement between the raters was assessed by using Cohen's kappa (κ ≥ 0.61 meaning high or satisfactory and κ ≤ 0.6 (incl. ≤ 0.000) meaning low or unsatisfactory). RESULTS: The reliability was good to excellent at the chapter level, at the component level the reliability was moderate though good in the components 1-symptoms and 7-diseases. At single code level the agreement was only fair to moderate in both chapters and components. One third to half of the used codes showed good inter-rater agreement. CONCLUSION: The ICPC-2 is an adequate and feasible instrument for routine use in general practice. The fair to moderate reliability on the single code level should be considered when designing studies and interpreting data that are based on the ICPC-2.


Deutsch T.,Leipzig Medical School | Herrmann K.,Leipzig Medical School | Frese T.,Leipzig Medical School | Sandholzer H.,Leipzig Medical School
Computers and Education | Year: 2012

Interest in the educational use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in higher education is increasing. For successful implementation, it is important to know students' attitudes and reservations and how they can be positively influenced. The objective of the present study was to examine possible attitudinal changes towards computer-based assessment (CBA) in students, after undergoing one such assessment. A web-based mock examination was provided to all fourth year medical students at Leipzig Medical School in 2008 and 2009. Before and after the web test, students were asked to document their agreement with statements concerning CBA. A large number of students made use of the offered web-based assessment. 383 participants could be analysed for the pre-post comparisons. The majority of the students rated their computer self-efficacy as high. In summary, students' attitudes towards CBA in higher education tended to be positive. Gender differences seemed to be substantially influenced by differences in computer self-efficacy and were reduced considerably after only one practical experience. The actual experience had a positive influence on attitudes towards CBA. Nevertheless there were strong reservations about technical problems influencing the test performance when used for summative assessment. These concerns should not be ignored when trying to implement CBA. Optional formative CBA, perhaps early in higher education, seems to be a promising possibility of attracting students to computer- or web-based examination and learning methods, and may be a useful component of a successful implementation strategy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Deutsch T.,Leipzig Medical School | Honigschmid P.,Leipzig Medical School | Frese T.,Leipzig Medical School | Sandholzer H.,Leipzig Medical School
BMC Family Practice | Year: 2013

Background: Demographic change and recruitment problems in family practice are increasingly threatening an adequate primary care workforce in many countries. Thus, it is important to attract young physicians to the field. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of an early community-based 28-h family practice elective with one-to-one mentoring on medical students' consideration of family practice as a career option, their interest in working office-based, and several perceptions with regard to specific aspects of a family physician's work. Methods. First- and second-year medical students completed questionnaires before and after a short community-based family practice elective, consisting of a preparatory course and a community-based practical experience with one-to-one mentoring by trained family physicians. Results: We found a significantly higher rate of students favoring family practice as a career option after the elective (32.7% vs. 26.0%, p = 0.039). Furthermore, the ranking of family practice among other considered career options improved (p = 0.002). Considerations to work office-based in the future did not change significantly. Perceptions regarding a family physician's job changed positively with regard to the possibility of long-term doctor-patient relationships and treatment of complex disease patterns. The majority of the students described identification with the respective family physician tutor as a professional role model and an increased interest in the specialty. Conclusions: Our results indicate that a short community-based family practice elective early in medical education may positively influence medical students' considerations of a career in family practice. Furthermore, perceptions regarding the specialty with significant impact on its attractiveness may be positively adjusted. Further research is needed to evaluate the influence of different components of a family practice curriculum on the de facto career decisions of young physicians after graduation. © 2013 Deutsch et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Lippmann S.,Leipzig Medical School | Frese T.,Leipzig Medical School | Herrmann K.,Leipzig Medical School | Scheller K.,Leipzig Medical School | Sandholzer H.,Leipzig Medical School
Swiss Medical Weekly | Year: 2012

PRINCIPLES: Low response rates are common in primary care research. Our study examines the representativeness of respondents in a survey among general practitioners (GPs). One special aim was to evaluate the representativeness of the subgroup of GP teachers for undergraduates (GPTUs) and to investigate the option of a panel of GPTUs. METHODS: The representativeness of the respondents was assessed by the use of pooled public data to compare the respondents and all GPs in the German federal state of Saxony on the basis of socio-demographic and subject-specific characteristics. The representativeness of the GPTUs was examined in the same way. For the analysis, two-sided t-tests and Chi 2 tests were used. RESULTS: The total response rate was low (32.87%). The respondents were not a representative sample; in particular, they were more highly qualified than the mean. However, the response rate among the special group of university-associated GP teachers for undergraduates was significantly higher than among other general practitioners. Because of this, the creation of a panel of these GPTUs for further primary care research was investigated. Unfortunately, analysis of this group showed that GPTUs were not a representative sample as they tended to be younger and more highly qualified. CONCLUSIONS: In general it is possible to create a panel of GPTUs to obtain higher response rates, but investigation of the panel's representativeness is definitely required. If the panel is not representative another option is the creation of a stratified sample according to the target population.


Because of the increasing shortage of general practitioners (GPs) in many countries, this study aimed to explore factors related to GP career choice in recent medical graduates. Particular focus was placed on the impact of specific practice-orientated GP courses at different stages of the medical undergraduate curriculum.Observational study. Multivariable binary logistic regression was used to reveal independent associations with career choice.Leipzig Medical School, Germany.659 graduates (response rate = 64.2%).Choice of general practice as a career.Six student-associated variables were found to be independently related to choice of general practice as a career: age, having family or friends in general practice, consideration of a GP career at matriculation, preference for subsequent work in a rural or small-town area, valuing the ability to see a broad spectrum of patients, and valuing long-term doctor-patient relationships. Regarding the curriculum, after adjustment independent associations were found with a specific pre-clinical GP elective (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.3), a four-week GP clerkship during the clinical study section (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.0), and a four-month GP clinical rotation during the final year (OR = 10.7, 95% CI 4.3-26.7). It was also found that the work-related values of the female participants were more compatible with those of physicians who opt for a GP career than was the case for their male colleagues.These results support the suggestion that a practice-orientated GP curriculum in both the earlier and later stages of undergraduate medical education raises medical schools output of future GPs. The findings are of interest for medical schools (curriculum design, admission criteria), policy-makers, and GPs involved in undergraduate medical education. More research is needed on the effectiveness of specific educational interventions in promoting interest in general practice as a career.


PubMed | Leipzig Medical School
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Rural and remote health | Year: 2016

There is little knowledge about the use of point-of-care (POC) tests among general practitioners (GPs). The aim of this study was to determine which POC tests are known and used by GPs and how they estimate the usefulness of those tests. The use of POC tests among GPs and university-associated general practitioners who teach undergraduates (GPTUs) was elucidated. Differences between GPs working in urban and rural areas were also investigated.The knowledge, utilisation and usefulness (as estimated by the responders) of 27 POC tests were assessed with a self-designed questionnaire in a random sample of GPs (n=244) and GPTUs (n=48) in Saxony, Germany.A total of 63 GPs and 31 GPTUs (response rates 26.5% and 64.6%, respectively) responded. No relevant difference between GPs and GPTUs was found. The GPs were familiar with 22.54.5 (mean standard deviation) of the laboratory parameters, the GPTUs with 22.94.3 (p=0.427). The amount of recognised POC tests was 11.64.9 vs 12.45.5 (GPs vs GPTUs; p=0.441). The amount of utilised POC tests was 5.52.3 vs 6.02.5 (GPs vs GPTUs; p=0.431). Rural GPs were familiar with more POC tests than urban GPs (mean number of tests (rural vs urban): 13.35.5 vs 10.64.4; p=0.011), but there was no difference in the amount of utilised POC tests. Twelve of the 27 POC tests were estimated as useful by more than 50% of the responders who answered this item.Only a limited number of rapid tests are estimated as useful and are used by GPs in Saxony.

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