Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC

Leiden, Netherlands

Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC

Leiden, Netherlands
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de Lange F.P.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Toni I.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Roelofs K.,Leiden University | Roelofs K.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC
Neuropsychologia | Year: 2010

Conversion paralysis (CP) is a frequent and impairing psychiatric disorder, affecting voluntary motor function. Yet, we have previously shown that the motor system of CP patients with a unilateral conversion paresis is recruited to a similar degree during imagined movements of the affected and unaffected limb. In contrast, imagery of movements with the affected limb results in larger prefrontal activation. It remains unclear how this hand-specific increased prefrontal activity relates to the reduced responsiveness of motor and somatosensory areas, a consistent and important feature of CP patients.In the current study, we investigated changes in the inter-regional coupling between prefrontal cortex (PFC) and sensorimotor regions when CP patients imagined movements involving either the affected or the unaffected hand. We found that there were distinct connectivity patterns for different parts of the PFC. While ventromedial PFC was not functionally connected to the motor system, we observed strong functional coupling between the dorsolateral PFC and various sensorimotor areas. Furthermore, this coupling was modulated by whether patients imagined movements of their affected or unaffected hand. Together, these results suggest that the reduced motor responsitivity observed in CP may be linked to altered dorsolateral prefrontal-motor connectivity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Biro S.,Leiden University | Biro S.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC | Verschoor S.,Leiden University | Verschoor S.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC | Coenen L.,Leiden University
Developmental Science | Year: 2011

We investigated whether infants can transfer their goal attribution between situations that contain different types of information about the goal. We found that 12-month-olds who had attributed a goal based on the causal efficacy of a means-end action generated expectations about the actor's action in another scenario in which the actor could choose between alternative outcomes. This finding suggests that, by 12 months, infants possess a unitary concept of goal. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Gunther Moor B.,University of Amsterdam | Gunther Moor B.,Leiden University | Gunther Moor B.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC | Guroglu B.,Leiden University | And 9 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2012

Social exclusion is a distressing experience and can result in a reduction of prosocial behavior. In this fMRI study we examined the neural networks involved in social exclusion and subsequent fairness considerations across adolescent development. Participants from 3 age groups (10-12, 14-16 and 19-21 year olds) participated in the study and performed two tasks; first, participants played Cyberball to induce feelings of social inclusion and exclusion, followed by a Dictator game in which participants were asked to divide coins between themselves and the players who previously included or excluded them. Results revealed a network of regions associated with social exclusion, which involve the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), subgenual ACC and the lateral PFC, as well as the insula and the dorsal ACC. Although social exclusion generated strong distress for all age groups, 10-12 year olds showed increased activity in the subgenual ACC in the exclusion game, which has been associated in previous studies with negative affective processing. Results of the Dictator game revealed that all age groups selectively punished the excluders by making lower offers. These offers were associated with activation in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the lateral PFC. Age comparisons revealed that adults showed additional activity in the insula and dorsal ACC when making offers to the excluders. The results are discussed in the light of recent findings on neural networks involved in social exclusion and the development of social brain regions. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Prochazkova E.,Leiden University | Prochazkova E.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC | Kret M.E.,Leiden University | Kret M.E.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2017

During social interactions, people tend to automatically align with or mimic their interactor's facial expressions, vocalizations, postures, and other bodily states. Automatic mimicry might be implicated in empathy, affiliation, and empathy, and is impaired in several pathologies. Despite a growing body of literature on its phenomenology, the function and underlying mechanisms of mimicry remain poorly understood. The current review puts forward a new Neurocognitive Model of Emotional Contagion (NMEC) demonstrating how basic automatic mimicry can give rise to emotional contagion. We combine neurological, developmental, and evolutionary insights to argue that automatic mimicry is a precursor to healthy social development. We show that i) strong synchronization exists between people, ii) that this resonates on different levels of processing and iii) demonstrate how mimicry translates into the emotional contagion. We conclude that our synthesized model, build on integrating knowledge from various fields provides a promising avenue for future research on the role of mimicry in human mental health and social development. © 2017 The Authors

Braams B.R.,Leiden University | Braams B.R.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC | Peper J.S.,Leiden University | Peper J.S.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC | And 5 more authors.
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience | Year: 2016

During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12-17 years old) and young adults (18-26 years old). Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development. © 2015 The Authors.

Schel M.A.,Leiden University | Schel M.A.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC | Scheres A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Crone E.A.,Leiden University | Crone E.A.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC
Neuropsychologia | Year: 2014

The ability to exert self-control over one[U+05F3]s thoughts and actions is crucial for successful functioning in daily life. To date, self-control development has been primarily studied from the perspective of externally driven inhibition. In this review, we introduce a new perspective on the development of self-control by highlighting the importance of intentional inhibition. First, we will review the existing behavioral and neuroscientific literature on the development of self-control from the perspective of externally driven inhibition. Next, we will introduce a new framework for studying the development of self-control from the perspective of intentional inhibition. We will discuss several recent studies in this domain, showing that intentional inhibition within cold contexts has an early development, but continues to develop through adolescence in motivational contexts. We conclude that understanding the developmental trajectory of intentional inhibition in cold and motivationally relevant contexts and its underlying mechanisms is an important direction for future research, which has important implications for our understanding of developmental disorders associated with problems in self-control, such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

van Duijvenvoorde A.C.K.,Leiden University | van Duijvenvoorde A.C.K.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC | Op de Macks Z.A.,University of California at Berkeley | Overgaauw S.,Leiden University | And 6 more authors.
Brain and Cognition | Year: 2014

Neurobiological models suggest that adolescents are driven by an overactive ventral striatum (VS) response to rewards that may lead to an adolescent increase in risk-taking behavior. However, empirical studies showed mixed findings of adolescents' brain response to rewards. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the relationship between reward-related brain activation and risky decision-making. In addition, we examined effects of age, puberty, and individuals' reward sensitivity. We collected two datasets: Experiment 1 reports cross-sectional brain data from 75 participants (ages 10-25) who played a risky decision task. Experiment 2 presents a longitudinal extension in which a subset of these adolescents (n= 33) was measured again 2. years later. Results showed that (1) a reward-related network including VS and medial PFC was consistently activated over time, (2) the propensity to choose the risky option was related to increased reward-related activation in VS and medial PFC, and (3) longitudinal comparisons indicated that self-reported reward sensitivity was specifically related to VS activation over time. Together, these results advance our insights in the brain circuitry underlying reward processing across adolescence. © 2014.

Schel M.A.,Leiden University | Schel M.A.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC | Ridderinkhof K.R.,University of Amsterdam | Crone E.A.,Leiden University | Crone E.A.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Choosing not to act, or the ability to intentionally inhibit your actions lies at the core of self-control. Even though most research has focused on externally primed inhibition, an important question concerns how intentional inhibition develops. Therefore, in the present study children (aged 10-12) and adults (aged 18-26) performed the marble task, in which they had to choose between acting on and inhibiting a prepotent response, while fMRI data were collected. Intentional inhibition was associated with activation of the fronto-basal ganglia network. Activation in the subthalamic nucleus and dorsal fronto-median cortex, regions which have previously been associated with intentional inhibition, did not differ between intentional inhibition and intentional action. Even though both children and adults intentionally inhibited their actions to a similar extent, children showed more activation in the fronto-basal ganglia network during intentional inhibition, but not in the subthalamic nucleus and dorsal fronto-median cortex. Furthermore, a positive relation between self-reported impulsivity and intentional inhibition was observed. These findings have important implications for our understanding of disorders of impulsivity, such as ADHD, which are associated with poor self-control abilities. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

van Peer J.M.,Leiden University | Spinhoven P.,Leiden University | Roelofs K.,Leiden University | Roelofs K.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2010

The stress hormone cortisol is important for the regulation of social motivational processes. High cortisol levels have been associated with social fear and avoidance, which play an important role in social anxiety disorder (SAD), as does hypervigilant processing of social threat. However, causal effects of cortisol on threat processing in SAD remain unclear. In an event-related potential (ERP) study we investigated the effects of cortisol on task-irrelevant (implicit) processing of social threat in SAD, exploring the temporal dynamics as well as the role of symptom severity and stimulus awareness. Angry face processing was measured in participants with clinical SAD after double-blind, within-subject oral administration of cortisol (50 mg) and placebo, using a masked and an unmasked emotional Stroop task. Both tasks showed significantly increased P2 midline ERP amplitudes for angry compared to neutral and happy faces in the placebo condition, reflecting an early attentional bias for social threat in SAD. Furthermore, cortisol administration significantly decreased P2 amplitudes for masked angry faces. This effect correlated with social anxiety, showing stronger decreases in patients with higher levels of social anxiety. These results indicate a highly specific effect of cortisol on early motivated attention to social threat and, together with previous findings, highlight the importance of motivational context (stimulus- or task-relevance) as well as symptom severity. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Timmer K.,Leiden University | Timmer K.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC | Schiller N.O.,Leiden University | Schiller N.O.,Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition LIBC
Brain Research | Year: 2012

This study investigated the role of orthographic and phonological information in reading aloud. Dutch-English bilinguals (L2) and native English (L1) participants read aloud English words. The contribution of orthographic and phonological activation was distinguished with prime manipulation. Phonological overlap, but not orthographic overlap, facilitated the response latencies for both English L1 and L2 speakers. In contrast, event-related brain potentials also revealed orthographic priming for both groups. Altogether, the present results demonstrate that late L2 speakers exhibit a Masked Onset Priming Effect similar to that of native speakers. In addition, the ERP results revealed that orthographic information is activated earlier during reading, but is not detectable anymore at the behavioral response level when the task is reading aloud. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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