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Mitchell A.J.,Leicester General Hospital
Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) | Year: 2010

We have previously documented inequalities in the quality of medical care provided to those with mental ill health but the implications for mortality are unclear. We aimed to test whether disparities in medical treatment of cardiovascular conditions, specifically receipt of medical procedures and receipt of prescribed medication, are linked with elevated rates of mortality in people with schizophrenia and severe mental illness. We undertook a systematic review of studies that examined medical procedures and a pooled analysis of prescribed medication in those with and without comorbid mental illness, focusing on those which recruited individuals with schizophrenia and measured mortality as an outcome. From 17 studies of treatment adequacy in cardiovascular conditions, eight examined cardiac procedures and nine examined adequacy of prescribed cardiac medication. Six of eight studies examining the adequacy of cardiac procedures found lower than average provision of medical care and two studies found no difference. Meta-analytic pooling of nine medication studies showed lower than average rates of prescribing evident for the following individual classes of medication; angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (n = 6, aOR = 0.779, 95% CI = 0.638-0.950, p = 0.0137), beta-blockers (n = 9, aOR = 0.844, 95% CI = 0.690-1.03, p = 0.1036) and statins (n = 5, aOR = 0.604, 95% CI = 0.408-0.89, p = 0.0117). No inequality was evident for aspirin (n = 7, aOR = 0.986, 95% CI = 0.7955-1.02, p = 0.382). Interestingly higher than expected prescribing was found for older non-statin cholesterol-lowering agents (n = 4, aOR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.04-2.32, p = 0.0312). A search for outcomes in this sample revealed ten studies linking poor quality of care and possible effects on mortality in specialist settings. In half of the studies there was significantly higher mortality in those with mental ill health compared with controls but there was inadequate data to confirm a causative link. Nevertheless, indirect evidence supports the observation that deficits in quality of care are contributing to higher than expected mortality in those with severe mental illness (SMI) and schizophrenia. The quality of medical treatment provided to those with cardiac conditions and comorbid schizophrenia is often suboptimal and may be linked with avoidable excess mortality. Every effort should be made to deliver high-quality medical care to people with severe mental illness.

Mitchell A.J.,Leicester General Hospital | Mitchell A.J.,Royal Infirmary
JNCCN Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network | Year: 2010

Clinicians are increasingly seeking efficient methods to identify distress in cancer settings, using short screening tools with fewer than 14 items that take less than 5 minutes to complete. This article examines the value of these tools for identifying cancer-related distress, defined by semi-structured interview. An updated search, appraisal, and meta-analysis, with adjustments made for heterogeneity and underlying prevalence variations, identified 45 potentially useful short and ultra-short tools, although most were intended to help diagnose depression, with few targeted at distress (or anxiety). Very few studies attempted robust validation in cancer settings. When studies were limited to those tested against distress defined by semi-structured interview, only 6 methods had been validated, namely the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; 13 studies, 14 items), the Distress Thermometer (DT; 4 studies, 1 item), a single verbal question (4 studies, 1 item), the Psychological Distress Inventory (PDI; 1 study, 13 items), combined DT and an impact thermometer (1 study, 2 items), and combined 2 verbal questions (1 study, 2 items). Comparing these 6 approaches side-by-side suggests that for screening, all tools have approximately the same accuracy. Therefore, choice of a short screening tool for distress can be based on acceptability or cost-effectiveness. Here, best evidence supports use of the DT or single verbal question. Remarkably, the overall accuracy of these single-item approaches seems comparable to that of the 14-item HADS (total score), whereas their efficiency is superior. For case-finding, data are sparse but no method seems to be entirely satisfactory. Current evidence suggests that the optimal short methods for identifying distress are 2 verbal questions or PDI. Of these approaches, the 2 verbal questions has superior efficiency. All short methods may be augmented by repeated application, an assessment of unmet needs (problem list), and clarification regarding the need for professional help. No screening tool should be seen as an alternative to careful clinical assessment and management. Despite much interest in the development of short and ultra-short tools, data on validation and implementation are currently incomplete. Nevertheless, short methods seem to be at least as successful as the HADS, although substantially more efficient and hence more acceptable, and therefore may be a suitable initial method of assessment in busy clinical settings. © Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

Mitchell A.J.,Leicester General Hospital | Mitchell A.J.,Royal Infirmary | Chan M.,National Collaborating Center for Mental Health | Bhatti H.,National Collaborating Center for Mental Health | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Substantial uncertainty exists about prevalence of mood disorders in patients with cancer, including those in oncological, haematological, and palliative-care settings. We aimed to quantitatively summarise the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and adjustments disorders in these settings. Methods: We searched Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Knowledge for studies that examined well-defined depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorder in adults with cancer in oncological, haematological, and palliative-care settings. We restricted studies to those using psychiatric interviews. Studies were reviewed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines and a proportion meta-analysis was done. Findings: We identified 24 studies with 4007 individuals across seven countries in palliative-care settings. Meta-analytical pooled prevalence of depression defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) or International Classification of Diseases (ICD) criteria was 16·5% (95% CI 13·1-20·3), 14·3% (11·1-17·9) for DSM-defined major depression, and 9·6% (3·6-18·1) for DSM-defined minor depression. Prevalence of adjustment disorder alone was 15·4% (10·1-21·6) and of anxiety disorders 9·8% (6·8-13·2). Prevalence of all types of depression combined was of 24·6% (17·5-32·4), depression or adjustment disorder 24·7% (20·8-28·8), and all types of mood disorder 29·0% (10·1-52·9). We identified 70 studies with 10 071 individuals across 14 countries in oncological and haematological settings. Prevalence of depression by DSM or ICD criteria was 16·3% (13·4-19·5); for DSM-defined major depression it was 14·9% (12·2-17·7) and for DSM-defined minor depression 19·2% (9·1-31·9). Prevalence of adjustment disorder was 19·4% (14·5-24·8), anxiety 10·3% (5·1-17·0), and dysthymia 2·7% (1·7-4·0). Combination diagnoses were common; all types of depression occurred in 20·7% (12·9-29·8) of patients, depression or adjustment disorder in 31·6% (25·0-38·7), and any mood disorder in 38·2% (28·4-48·6). There were few consistent correlates of depression: there was no effect of age, sex, or clinical setting and inadequate data to examine cancer type and illness duration. Interpretation: Interview-defined depression and anxiety is less common in patients with cancer than previously thought, although some combination of mood disorders occurs in 30-40% of patients in hospital settings without a significant difference between palliative-care and non-palliative-care settings. Clinicians should remain vigilant for mood complications, not just depression. Funding: None. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Biers S.M.,Leicester General Hospital | Venn S.N.,St Richards Hospital | Greenwell T.J.,University College London
BJU International | Year: 2012

What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? There is a wealth of evidence on the development, indications, outcomes and complications of augmentation cystoplasty (AC). Over the last decade, new evidence has been emerging to influence our clinical practice and application of this technique. AC is indicated as part of the treatment pathway for both neurogenic and idiopathic detrusor overactivity, usually where other interventions have failed or are inappropriate. The most commonly used technique remains augmentation with a detubularised patch of ileum (ileocystoplasty). Controversy persists over the role of routine surveillance following ileocystoplasty for the detection of subsequent bladder carcinoma; however the indication for surveillance after gastrocystoplasty is clearer due to a rising incidence of malignancy in this group. Despite a reduction in the overall numbers of AC operations being performed, it clearly still has a role to play, which we re-examine with contemporary studies from the last decade. © 2011 The Authors BJU International © 2011 BJU International.

Niraj G.,Leicester General Hospital
Pain Management Nursing | Year: 2014

Phantom limb pain is a puzzling phenomenon, from the viewpoints of both the patient experiencing it and the clinician trying to treat it. This review focuses on psychologic aspects in the origin of the PLP and critically evaluates the various psychologic interventions in the management of PLP. Whereas pharmacologic and surgical treatments often fail, psychologic interventions may hold promise in managing PLP. Studies using cognitive-behavioral therapies and hypnotherapy are reviewed. The outcome reports for psychologic therapies have been mainly positive. The results of the majority of these studies show a reduction in PLP. However, the lack of well controlled and randomized trials makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions regarding the effectiveness of these psychologic therapies in the treatment of PLP. © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing.

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