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Grunewald K.,Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development | Scheithauer J.,Landscape Research Center Dresden
Journal of Glaciology | Year: 2010

The southernmost glaciers in Europe are located on the Iberian, Apennine and Balkan Peninsulas in mid-latitudes between 41° N and 44° N at altitudes ranging from 2000 to 3000ma.s.l. All these glaciers are a legacy of the Little Ice Age (LIA). They survive in a relatively warm environment (mean annual temperature 0° C to +1° C) due to local topographic controls and high levels of accumulation as a result of avalanche and wind-blown snow. In the Pirin Mountains, Bulgaria, Snezhnika glacieret has been cored, providing an archive of recent climate change. Small glaciers such as this respond quickly to climatic extremes. Since the LIA maximum during the 19th century, all southern European glaciers have retreated, losing 30-100% of their volume. However, despite the trend towards warmer years since the late 1970s, some glaciers still survive, even after some of the hottest summers on record. Predicted future warming, especially in summer, and drier conditions in the Mediterranean basin may result in the disappearance of all glacier features at these latitudes in Europe within the next few decades. Source


Dragut L.,University of Salzburg | Dragut L.,West University of Timisoara | Walz U.,Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development | Blaschke T.,University of Salzburg
Landscape Online | Year: 2010

Relating spatial patterns to ecological processes is one of the central goals of landscape ecology. The patch-corridor-matrix model and landscape metrics have been the predominant approach to describe the spatial arrangement of discrete elements ("patches") for the last two decades. However, the widely used approach of using landscape metrics for characterizing categorical map patterns is connected with a number of problems. We aim at stimulating further developments in the field of the analysis of spatio-temporal landscape patterns by providing both a critical review of existing techniques and clarifying their pros and cons as well as demonstrating how to extent common approaches in landscape ecology (e.g. the patch-corridor-matrix model). The extension into the third dimension means adding information on the relief and height of vegetation, while the fourth dimension means the temporal, dynamic aspect of landscapes. The contribution is structured around three main topics: the third dimension of landscapes, the fourth dimension of landscapes, and spatial and temporal scales in landscape analysis. Based on the results of a symposium on this theme at the IALE conference in 2009 in Salzburg and a literature review we emphasize the need to add topographic information into evaluations of landscape structure, the appropriate consideration of scales; and to consider the ambiguity and even contradiction between landscape metrics. © 2010 IALE-D. Source


Meinel G.,Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2010

A concept and the first results of the Monitor of settlement and open space development are presented. The monitoring system will describe the state and the development of land use especially in regard to its sustainability for the entire Federal Republic of Germany. To this end, for the first time ever it makes use of topographical geobasis data (digital landscape model of the Authoritative Topographic-Cartographic Information System. These data allow for a more precise spatial and content-wise description of land use than that of the land register data, which serve as the basis for the official land use statistics. On the basis of the geobasis data an automatic calculation of indicators from the fields of settlement, open space, nature reserves, population and traffic occurs. The indicators are depicted in thematic maps, thus allowing for spatial and chronological comparisons. In addition to administrative spatial units (federal state, district, municipality), the indicator values are also presented in scales of various cell widths. For calculating building-based settlement indicators, the patented program SEMENTA © is used, which is based on an automated evaluation of analogue maps. Source


Leibenath M.,Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development | Otto A.,Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development
Land Use Policy | Year: 2013

The word 'landscape' has attracted increasing attention from both researchers and practitioners in recent years. Although much has been written about the meanings of 'landscape', little is yet known about local landscape discourses in Germany. The article gives an overview of local debates in which 'landscape' plays a role and introduces a framework for studying the discursive constitution of landscapes. The empirical part is based on a comprehensive telephone survey among representatives of regional planning agencies. Among the key findings is that wind energy and regional development seem to be the most frequent subjects of landscape-related debates at the local level - particularly in the southern states of Bavaria and Baden-Wuerttemberg, where comparably few renewable energy facilities have so far been installed. The article concludes with an outlook on how the survey might be used in further discourse analytical studies. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Walz U.,Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development | Hoechstetter S.,German Research Center for Geosciences | Dragut L.,West University of Timisoara | Blaschke T.,University of Salzburg
Landscape Research | Year: 2016

Abstract: Over the last decades, landscape metrics have been increasingly used to describe and analyse landscape structure. This article highlights some limitations of standard landscape structure analysis approaches and examines four major developments in this field: ways of integrating the height dimension of surface and vegetation into landscape metrics, the delineation of ‘meaningful’ landscape units comprising the relief, the problem of relating pattern and scale, and the challenges posed by the analysis of the temporal dimension of landscapes. We demonstrate that (1) the integration of height information and gradients into the approach of landscape metrics is both necessary and possible by means of using digital elevation models from remote sensing and novel analysis techniques, (2) the delineation of 3-D landscape units has enormous potential and (3) there are useful methodical extensions for two-dimensional objects in spatiotemporal investigations of landscapes, namely for analysing land use change and for exploring the interrelations between landscape diversity and species diversity. © 2015 Landscape Research Group Ltd. Source

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