Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe

Halle, Germany

Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe is a research institute located in Halle , Germany. IAMO pursues basic and applied research in the field of agricultural economics. It analyses economic, social and political processes of change in the agricultural and food sector, and in rural areas. The geographic focus covers the enlarging EU, transition regions of Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe, as well as Central and Eastern Asia. Wikipedia.

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Bobojonov I.,Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe | Aw-Hassan A.,Economic and Policy Research Program
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2014

Increased risk due to global warming has already become embedded in agricultural decision making in Central Asia and uncertainties are projected to increase even further. Agro-ecology and economies of Central Asia are heterogenous and very little is known about the impact of climate change at the sub-national levels. The bio-economic farm model (BEFM) is used for ex ante assessment of climate change impacts at sub-national levels in Central Asia. The BEFM is calibrated to 10 farming systems in Central Asia based on the household survey and crop growth experiment data. The production uncertainties and the adaptation options of agricultural producers to changing environments are considered paramount in the simulations.Very large differences in climate change impacts across the studied farming systems are found. The positive income gains in large-scale commercial farms in the northern regions of Kazakhstan and negative impact in small-scale farms in arid zones of Tajikistan are likely to happen. Producers in Kyrgyzstan may expect higher revenues but also higher income volatilities in the future. Agricultural producers in Uzbekistan may benefit in the near future but may lose their income in the distant future. The negative impacts could be further aggravated in arid zones of Central Asia if irrigation water availability decline due to climate change and water demand increase in upstream regions. The scenario simulations show that market liberalization and improved commodity exchange between the countries have very good potential to cope with the negative consequences of climate change. © 2014 The Authors.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: H2020-TWINN-2015 | Award Amount: 1.10M | Year: 2016

The project coordinator is among Romanias most competitive agricultural universities, yet at international level and in the agricultural economics discipline still struggles to become fully competitive. Three extremely innovative and well-known Western institutions of agricultural economics research have agreed to deliver the necessary know-how to improve this situation. Mainly four important bricks have been designed in response to the call text of Significantly strengthening a defined field of research in a particular knowledge institution by creating a link between this institution and internationally-leading research institutions: 1. Institutional support is provided to implement internal review processes and to strengthen the motivation of the workforce 2. Quarterly training sessions on scientometrics, supply and demand analysis and modelling is going to support the scientific staff of the faculty to become more proficient in applying quantitative methods. 3. Summer schools will be held on game theory, full-cost-calculation and policy analysis in which students of the faculty, but also of other Romanian universities may train their handling of economic issues. 4. Three-months exchanges in both directions will stabilize the exchange of methods and theories and will provide opportunities for joint research and publication. Two groups will support the process: An International Advisory Board will evaluate the quality of the process from a scientific viewpoint after one year and at the end of the project. The Stakeholder Board has the objective of formulating local needs and to link them with the process of scientific development in the faculty. Intensive communication activities additionally contribute to inform the local and scientific public about the twinning project.

Wandel J.,Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe
Review of Austrian Economics | Year: 2011

The paper questions from an Austrian perspective the hypotheses that enjoy widespread support in mainstream economics that business groups are a symptom of imperfect competition and a threat to competition with negative impacts on social welfare. For this, an Austrian theoretical framework is developed and then applied to analyze the interaction of competition and business groups regarding the case of "agroholdings" in Russia. It is maintained that the orthodox literature does not adequately account for the characteristic features of competition in the real world, and therefore may lead to wrong normative conclusions on the relation between business groups and competition. It is argued that also in transition economies for competition to function as an entrepreneurial discovery process, no perfect markets are needed but only freedom to entry and property rights security. Then there is no pattern of action, which in and of itself is inconsistent with competition. Therefore, unless there is evidence for government support, business groups must principally be seen as the result of competitive entrepreneurial discoveries. It is further argued that the only real danger of business groups for competition does not come from their ability to raise non-legal barriers to entry, but from government protection. This may either result from successful lobbying of business groups or from the preference of government officials for this particular form of business organization. Case studies evidence from business groups in Russia's agro-food sector illustrates these arguments. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Valentinov V.,Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe
Ecological Economics | Year: 2014

In developing his famous theory of social costs, K. William Kapp claimed to draw inspiration from the theory of open systems. The present paper reconstructs the notion of social costs from the perspective of the Luhmannian theory of autopoietic social systems, an alternative systems-theoretic paradigm. According to Luhmann, these systems build up their internal complexity at the cost of lowering their sensitivity to the complexity of their environment, both societal and ecological. From the Luhmannian perspective, social costs can be understood as those segments of environmental feedback that are thus ignored by social systems. This perspective is not only consistent with Kapp's own vision of social costs as a systematic outcome of private business enterprise, but also even more radical as it traces these costs back to the regime of functional differentiation of society, and thus to human civilization generally. It follows from the Luhmannian perspective that social costs can be reduced by improving the coordination between the individual functional systems, such as economy, law, politics, and science. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Theesfeld I.,Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe
Water Alternatives | Year: 2011

This paper discusses various concepts of power. Its goal is to shed light on a better method for implementing the power concept. The case of Bulgaria's water user associations' failure shows the abuse of power by local actors who fear they will lose their influence and the private benefits that they have enjoyed under the former system. The paper provides an empirical study of power resources verified by actors' perceptions rather than having resource endowments quantified. It also illustrates the contrast between empirically revealed perceived power resources in a local context and their theoretical examination in the distributional theory of institutional change. Studies that set power resources in relation to one another are scarce. Therefore, in this study an innovative, interactive method is used that leads to a ranking of perceived power resources, which is robust against the impact of belonging to different territorial, social, and agricultural producer groups: 1) unrestricted access to information, 2) personal relationships, 3) trustworthiness, 4) cash resources for bribing, 5) menace, and 6) physical power and violence. The implication of this gradation of power resources on collective action solutions addresses complementary measures to disseminate information and compensation measures for those who fear losing their benefits and may therefore oppose the new institutions.

Theesfeld I.,Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe
Ground Water | Year: 2010

Understanding the issues surrounding groundwater governance is a precondition for developing policy recommendations for both national and transboundary groundwater governance. This review discusses groundwater attributes relevant to the design of governance systems and provides a systematic review of current national groundwater governance differentiated by various policy instruments. The synthesis of both resource system characteristics and experience with policy instruments allows us to conceptualize institutional aspects of groundwater governance. This leads to six institutional aspects: (1) voluntary compliance; (2) tradition and mental models; (3) administrative responsibility and bureaucratic inertia; (4) conflict resolution mechanisms; (5) political economy; and (6) information deficits. Each of these issues embodies institutional challenges for national and international policy implementation. © 2009 National Ground Water Association.

Valentinov V.,Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology | Year: 2013

The modern discourse on corporate social responsibility is framed by ideas many of which have important parallels in the literature on the general and social systems theory. Particularly the conceptions of the interdependence between business and society, and of the societal embeddedness of business, revolve around the theme of system-environment interaction that is potentially unsustainable. The paper draws upon the systems-theoretic arguments of Luhmann and Boulding in order to explain how sustainability is enhanced by corporate social responsibility practices. Systems are shown to risk becoming unsustainable if they develop their complexity to the point of overstraining the carrying capacity of the environment. To forestall this scenario, systems can improve their sensitivity to the environment and constrain their own complexity. These sustainability strategies reveal the systems-theoretic meaning of corporate social responsibility. Explained in this way, corporate social responsibility turns out to be a functional equivalent of vertical integration seen from the perspective of Williamson's transaction cost economics. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Sun Z.,Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe | Muller D.,Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2013

We present an integrated modeling framework for simulating land-use decision making under the influence of payments for ecosystem services. The model combines agent-based modeling (ABM) with Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) and opinion dynamics models (ODM). The model endows agents with the ability to make land-use decisions at the household and plot levels. The decision-making process is captured with the BBNs that were constructed and calibrated with both qualitative and quantitative information, i.e., knowledge gained from group discussions with stakeholders and empirical survey data. To represent interpersonal interactions within social networks, the decision process is further modulated by the opinion dynamics model. The goals of the model are to improve the ability of ABM to emulate land-use decision making and thus provide a better understanding of the potential impacts of payments for ecosystem services on land use and household livelihoods. Our approach provides three important innovations. First, decision making is represented in a causal directed graph. Second, the model provides a natural framework for combining knowledge from experts and stakeholders with quantitative data. Third, the modular architecture and the software implementation can be customized with modest efforts. The model is therefore a flexible, general platform that can be tailored to other studies by mounting the appropriate case-specific " brain" into the agents. The model was calibrated for the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP) in Yunnan, China using data from participatory mapping, focus group interviews, and a survey of 509 farm households in 17 villages. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Larsen K.,Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe
Agricultural Economics | Year: 2010

The effects of partnerships, in the form of machinery-sharing arrangements, on farm efficiency are analyzed using data for Swedish crop and livestock farms. Efficiency scores are obtained using Data Envelopment Analysis and the findings suggest that efficiency is, on average, higher among partnership farms compared to nonpartnership farms. Moreover, partnership farms that are characterized by the most extensive form of collaboration, that is, that share all machinery with one or several other farms, display the highest average efficiency. In a two-stage procedure in which efficiency determinants are analyzed in the second stage, the bootstrap procedures suggested by Simar and Wilson (2007) are applied in addition to the conventionally used Tobit regression. Participation in partnership arrangements is found to have a positive and statistically significant impact on farm efficiency. © 2010 International Association of Agricultural Economists.

Valentinov V.,Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe
Kybernetes | Year: 2012

Purpose: Despite the worldwide importance of third sector organizations in rural areas, the theoretical connection between the third sector and rural development remains largely unexplored. The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical explanation of why and how third sector organizations contribute to rural development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper builds upon the institutional economics of Thorstein Veblen and the tektology of Alexander Bogdanov. Tektology is used as an instrument to bring Veblenian criticism of pecuniary culture to bear on the explanation of the rural third sector. Findings: Based on the tektological law of systems divergence, the Veblenian pecuniary-industrial dichotomy and rural-urban disparities are shown to be interrelated evolutionary consequences of pecuniary culture. Third sector organizations' contribution to rural development is explained in terms of the tektological notion of counter-differentiation. Applied to pecuniary culture, counter-differentiation involves attenuating its basic ingredients, such as private ownership and pecuniary motivation. This is achieved through third sector organizations' characteristics such as profit appropriation constraint and nonpecuniary goal orientation, respectively. Originality/value: The paper identifies the institutional economics implications of the general systems theory and utilizes these implications to inform the research on the internationally relevant problem of rural development. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

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