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Kimmerle J.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | Kimmerle J.,University of Tübingen | Bientzle M.,University of Tübingen | Cress U.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | Cress U.,University of Tübingen
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2017

Medical laypeople frequently use forums on the Internet for communicating about various health-related topics. How they communicate with other users and which content they select to recommend to each other depends on personal as well as on social factors. In this study we examined two influencing factors in an experimental online forum where 61 women as participants exchanged opinions and information about mammography screening. We studied as a personal factor the impact of participants' personal behavioral intentions with regard to participation in mammography screening. We examined as a social factor the wording of the preceding post of an inquirer, which either emphasized the relevance of scientific evidence or of “holistic” medicine. We found that the more the participants were willing to participate in mammography, the more they recommended scientifically phrased arguments to an inquirer. Moreover, participants adapted their replies to the (scientific vs. holistic) orientation of the inquirers. Finally, we found that scientifically phrased inquiries elicited stronger recommendations in general. We discuss implications of our findings and provide suggestions for future research on online forums. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Dietrich J.F.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | Dietrich J.F.,University of Tübingen | Huber S.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | Klein E.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

The approximate number system (ANS) was proposed to be a building block for later mathematical abilities. Several measures have been used interchangeably to assess ANS acuity. Some of these measures were based on accuracy data, whereas others relied on response time (RT) data or combined accuracy and RT data. Previous studies challenged the view that all these measures can be used interchangeably, because low correlations between some of the measures had been observed. These low correlations might be due to poor reliability of some of the measures, since the majority of these measures are mathematically related. Here we systematically investigated the relationship between common ANS measures while avoiding the potential confound of poor reliability. Our first experiment revealed high correlations between all accuracy based measures supporting the assumption that all of them can be used interchangeably. In contrast, not all RT based measures were highly correlated. Additionally, our results revealed a speed-Accuracy trade-off. Thus, accuracy and RT based measures provided conflicting conclusions regarding ANS acuity. Therefore, we investigated in two further experiments which type of measure (accuracy or RT) is more informative about the underlying ANS acuity, depending on participants' preferences for accuracy or speed. To this end, we manipulated participants' preferences for accuracy or speed both explicitly using different task instructions and implicitly varying presentation duration. Accuracy based measures were more informative about the underlying ANS acuity than RT based measures. Moreover, the influence of the underlying representations on accuracy data was more pronounced when participants preferred accuracy over speed after the accuracy instruction as well as for long or unlimited presentation durations. Implications regarding the diffusion model as a theoretical framework of dot comparison as well as regarding the relationship between ANS acuity and math performance are discussed. © 2016 Dietrich et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien, Hall University of Applied Sciences and RWTH Aachen
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

The approximate number system (ANS) was proposed to be a building block for later mathematical abilities. Several measures have been used interchangeably to assess ANS acuity. Some of these measures were based on accuracy data, whereas others relied on response time (RT) data or combined accuracy and RT data. Previous studies challenged the view that all these measures can be used interchangeably, because low correlations between some of the measures had been observed. These low correlations might be due to poor reliability of some of the measures, since the majority of these measures are mathematically related. Here we systematically investigated the relationship between common ANS measures while avoiding the potential confound of poor reliability. Our first experiment revealed high correlations between all accuracy based measures supporting the assumption that all of them can be used interchangeably. In contrast, not all RT based measures were highly correlated. Additionally, our results revealed a speed-accuracy trade-off. Thus, accuracy and RT based measures provided conflicting conclusions regarding ANS acuity. Therefore, we investigated in two further experiments which type of measure (accuracy or RT) is more informative about the underlying ANS acuity, depending on participants preferences for accuracy or speed. To this end, we manipulated participants preferences for accuracy or speed both explicitly using different task instructions and implicitly varying presentation duration. Accuracy based measures were more informative about the underlying ANS acuity than RT based measures. Moreover, the influence of the underlying representations on accuracy data was more pronounced when participants preferred accuracy over speed after the accuracy instruction as well as for long or unlimited presentation durations. Implications regarding the diffusion model as a theoretical framework of dot comparison as well as regarding the relationship between ANS acuity and math performance are discussed.


Reinert R.M.,Hogrefe AG | Reinert R.M.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | Huber S.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | Nuerk H.-C.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | And 3 more authors.
Cognitive Processing | Year: 2015

For bounded number line estimation, recent studies indicated influences of proportion-based strategies as documented by eye-tracking data. In the current study, we investigated solution strategies in bounded and unbounded number line estimation by directly comparing participants’ estimation performance as well as their corresponding eye-fixation behaviour. For bounded number line estimation, increased numbers of fixations at and around reference points (i.e. start, middle and endpoint) confirmed the prominent use of proportion-based strategies. In contrast, in unbounded number line estimation, the number of fixations on the number line decreased continuously with increasing magnitude of the target number. Additionally, we observed that in bounded and unbounded number line estimation participants’ first fixation on the number line was a valid predictor of the location of the target number. In sum, these data corroborate the idea that unbounded number line estimation is less influenced by proportion-based estimation strategies not directly related to numerical estimations. © 2015, Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Feinkohl I.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | Feinkohl I.,Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine | Flemming D.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | Cress U.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | And 3 more authors.
Cognitive Processing | Year: 2016

Scientific research findings are frequently picked up by the mainstream media, but it is largely unclear which factors have an impact on laypeople’s processing of the presented scientific information. In this study, we investigated the influence of cognitive and metacognitive inter-individual differences on recall and on critical evaluation of new scientific information that was presented in a journalistic article. Sixty-three participants (80 % female; mean age 24.1 ± 3.3 years) read a newspaper article reporting research findings on a recently developed and yet unproven treatment for depression. We found that more sophisticated, domain-specific epistemological beliefs and a higher cognitive ability were independently associated with better recall of content from the article. Additionally, participants with more sophisticated epistemological beliefs displayed a more critical evaluation of the article. Cognitive ability was unrelated to critical evaluation and to epistemological beliefs. There were also no interaction effects of cognitive ability and epistemological beliefs on recall or on critical evaluation. Based on our preliminary findings and previous evidence of epistemological beliefs as a modifiable feature, we discuss this inter-individual characteristic as a potential target for the promotion of better understanding of scientific topics by the general public. © 2016 Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


PubMed | Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien, Leiden University and University of Tübingen
Type: | Journal: Psychological research | Year: 2015

Being able to adequately process numbers is a key competency in everyday life. Yet, self-reported negative affective responses towards numbers are known to deteriorate numerical performance. Here, we investigated how physiological threat responses predict numerical performance. Physiological responses reflect whether individuals evaluate a task as exceeding or matching their resources and in turn experience either threat or challenge, which influences subsequent performance. We hypothesized that, the more individuals respond to a numerical task with physiological threat, the worse they would perform. Results of an experiment with cardiovascular indicators of threat/challenge corroborated this expectation. The findings thereby contribute to our understanding of the physiological mechanism underlying the influence of negative affective responses towards numbers on numerical performance.


PubMed | Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien
Type: Letter | Journal: Cognitive processing | Year: 2016

Scientific research findings are frequently picked up by the mainstream media, but it is largely unclear which factors have an impact on laypeoples processing of the presented scientific information. In this study, we investigated the influence of cognitive and metacognitive inter-individual differences on recall and on critical evaluation of new scientific information that was presented in a journalistic article. Sixty-three participants (80 % female; mean age 24.1 3.3 years) read a newspaper article reporting research findings on a recently developed and yet unproven treatment for depression. We found that more sophisticated, domain-specific epistemological beliefs and a higher cognitive ability were independently associated with better recall of content from the article. Additionally, participants with more sophisticated epistemological beliefs displayed a more critical evaluation of the article. Cognitive ability was unrelated to critical evaluation and to epistemological beliefs. There were also no interaction effects of cognitive ability and epistemological beliefs on recall or on critical evaluation. Based on our preliminary findings and previous evidence of epistemological beliefs as a modifiable feature, we discuss this inter-individual characteristic as a potential target for the promotion of better understanding of scientific topics by the general public.


PubMed | Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien
Type: | Journal: Health expectations : an international journal of public participation in health care and health policy | Year: 2016

This study aimed at examining the impact of different types of physicians communication styles on peoples subsequent evaluation of physician attributes as well as on their information processing, attitude and decision making.In a between-group experiment, 80 participants watched one of three videos in which a gynaecologist displayed a particular communication style in a consultation situation on contraception with an intrauterine device. We compared doctor-centred communication (DCC) vs patient-centred communication (PCC) vs patient-centred communication with need-orientation (PCC-N).In the PCC condition, participants perceived the physician to be more empathetic and more competent than in the DCC condition. In the DCC condition, participants showed less attitude change compared to the other conditions. In the PCC-N condition, the physician was perceived as more empathetic and more socially competent than in the other conditions. However, participants acquired less knowledge in the PCC-N condition.We conclude that appropriate application of particular communication styles depends on specific consultation goals. Our results suggest that patients needs should be addressed if the main goal is to build a good relationship, whereas a traditional PCC style appears to be more effective in communicating factual information.

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