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Reinert R.M.,Hogrefe AG | Reinert R.M.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | Huber S.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | Nuerk H.-C.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | And 3 more authors.
Cognitive Processing | Year: 2015

For bounded number line estimation, recent studies indicated influences of proportion-based strategies as documented by eye-tracking data. In the current study, we investigated solution strategies in bounded and unbounded number line estimation by directly comparing participants’ estimation performance as well as their corresponding eye-fixation behaviour. For bounded number line estimation, increased numbers of fixations at and around reference points (i.e. start, middle and endpoint) confirmed the prominent use of proportion-based strategies. In contrast, in unbounded number line estimation, the number of fixations on the number line decreased continuously with increasing magnitude of the target number. Additionally, we observed that in bounded and unbounded number line estimation participants’ first fixation on the number line was a valid predictor of the location of the target number. In sum, these data corroborate the idea that unbounded number line estimation is less influenced by proportion-based estimation strategies not directly related to numerical estimations. © 2015, Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Feinkohl I.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | Feinkohl I.,Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine | Flemming D.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | Cress U.,Leibniz Institute fuer Wissensmedien | And 3 more authors.
Cognitive Processing | Year: 2016

Scientific research findings are frequently picked up by the mainstream media, but it is largely unclear which factors have an impact on laypeople’s processing of the presented scientific information. In this study, we investigated the influence of cognitive and metacognitive inter-individual differences on recall and on critical evaluation of new scientific information that was presented in a journalistic article. Sixty-three participants (80 % female; mean age 24.1 ± 3.3 years) read a newspaper article reporting research findings on a recently developed and yet unproven treatment for depression. We found that more sophisticated, domain-specific epistemological beliefs and a higher cognitive ability were independently associated with better recall of content from the article. Additionally, participants with more sophisticated epistemological beliefs displayed a more critical evaluation of the article. Cognitive ability was unrelated to critical evaluation and to epistemological beliefs. There were also no interaction effects of cognitive ability and epistemological beliefs on recall or on critical evaluation. Based on our preliminary findings and previous evidence of epistemological beliefs as a modifiable feature, we discuss this inter-individual characteristic as a potential target for the promotion of better understanding of scientific topics by the general public. © 2016 Marta Olivetti Belardinelli and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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