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Voigt C.C.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research
Biotropica | Year: 2010

Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of plants increase linearly from ground to canopy. Accordingly, I used δ13C for estimating strata use of fig-eating bats. Data suggest that, overall, bats commuted at lower but fed at higher forest strata, and that small bats foraged at lower forest strata than large bats. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation. Source

Wilting A.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research
Raffles Bulletin of Zoology | Year: 2016

The Bornean ferret badger Melogale everetti is one of the least known Bornean carnivores, and is currently classified as Data Deficient on The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Endemic to Borneo, it is associated with upland and highland forests in and around Kinabalu Park and Crocker Range Park. Of 52 Bornean ferret badger occurrence records, 14 were used to estimate potential habitat suitability. This species is likely to be confined to a very small range in western Sabah, potentially the smallest distribution range of any carnivore species in South-east Asia. All occurrence records were above 500 m elevation, which suggests that this species is restricted to upland and highland forests. Areas of particular importance predicted for survival of this species are Kinabalu Park, Crocker Range Park, and unprotected areas and commercial forest reserves east of Crocker Range Park. Because of the low number of recent records, the main threats to the Bornean ferret badger are unknown, but the transformation of forested areas to monoculture plantations and perhaps incidental hunting are likely to have negative effects on this species. As an upland and high-elevation specialist, climate change might also become an important future threat. Of particular importance for long-term survival of the Bornean ferret badger is an improved understanding of its current status, ecology and the threats it actually faces (if any). © 2016 National University of Singapore. Source

Balkenhol N.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research | Landguth E.L.,University of Montana
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2011

With the emergence of landscape genetics, the basic assumptions and predictions of classical population genetic theories are being re-evaluated to account for more complex spatial and temporal dynamics. Within the last decade, there has been an exponential increase in such landscape genetic studies (Holderegger & Wagner 2006; Storfer 2010), and both methodology and underlying concepts of the field are under rapid and constant development. A number of major innovations and a high level of originality are required to fully merge existing population genetic theory with landscape ecology and to develop novel statistical approaches for measuring and predicting genetic patterns. The importance of simulation studies for this specific research has been emphasized in a number of recent articles (e.g., Balkenhol 2009a; Epperson 2010). Indeed, many of the major questions in landscape genetics require the development and application of sophisticated simulation tools to explore gene flow, genetic drift, mutation and natural selection in landscapes with a wide range of spatial and temporal complexities. In this issue, Jaquiéry (2011) provide an excellent example of such a simulation study for landscape genetics. Using a metapopulation simulation design and a novel 'scale of phenomena' approach, Jaquiéry (2011) demonstrate the utility and limitations of genetic distances for inferring landscape effects on effective dispersal. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Roellig K.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research
Nature communications | Year: 2010

The concept of superfetation, a second conception during pregnancy, has been controversial for a long time. In this paper we use an experimental approach to demonstrate that female European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) frequently develop a second pregnancy while already pregnant and thereby increase their reproductive success. After a new, successful copulation, we confirmed additional ovulations before parturition in living, late-pregnant females by detecting a second set of fresh corpora lutea using high-resolution ultrasonography. The presence of early embryonic stages in the oviduct, demonstrated by oviduct flushing, next to fully developed fetuses in the uterus is best explained by passage of semen through the late-pregnant uterus; this was confirmed by paternity analysis using microsatellite profiling. Subsequent implantation occurred after parturition. This superfetation, categorized as superconception, significantly increased litter size and permitted females to produce up to 35.4% more offspring per breeding season. It is therefore most likely an evolutionary adaptation. Source

Muhldorfer K.,Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2013

The occurrence of emerging infectious diseases and their relevance to human health has increased the interest in bats as potential reservoir hosts and vectors of zoonotic pathogens. But while previous and ongoing research activities predominantly focused on viral agents, the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in bats and their impact on bat mortality have largely neglected. Enteric pathogens found in bats are often considered to originate from the bats' diet and foraging habitats, despite the fact that little is known about the actual ecological context or even transmission cycles involving bats, humans and other animals like pets and livestock. For some bacterial pathogens common in human and animal diseases (e.g. Pasteurella, Salmonella, Escherichia and Yersinia spp.), the pathogenic potential has been confirmed for bats. Other bacterial pathogens (e.g. Bartonella, Borrelia and Leptospira spp.) provide evidence for novel species that seem to be specific for bat hosts but might also be of disease importance in humans and other animals. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of bacterial pathogens identified in bats and to consider factors that might influence the exposure and susceptibility of bats to bacterial infection but could also affect bacterial transmission rates between bats, humans and other animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

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