Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien

fur, Germany

Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien

fur, Germany
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Kozlov M.D.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Grosse C.S.,University of Bremen
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2016

Research on collaborative learning traditionally assumes a certain degree of symmetry between the learning partners in terms of both their learning-relevant traits and their individual learning outcomes. However, if one collaborative partner is clearly more able, skilled, or knowledgeable than the other partner, then it remains unclear who profits more from the collaboration. The present study aimed to explore this issue by manipulating symmetry in prior knowledge within small groups of online learners (dyads) and measuring their problem-solving efficiency and incidental learning gain on an individual and dyad level. Awareness of this symmetry/asymmetry was manipulated, too, to discern it as a potential moderator. Dyads with symmetrical and asymmetrical prior knowledge performed equally well on most measures. Moreover, on average, the more and the less knowledgeable partners in the asymmetrical conditions had equal learning gains. However, while in dyads with symmetrical knowledge learning gains were correlated between the partners, in the asymmetrical dyads they were not. Awareness of symmetry/asymmetry did not act as a moderator, but, overall, dyads with awareness of each other's knowledge learned more from each other than dyads without such awareness. The benefit of awareness was, however, specific to the learning content exposed via awareness. We conclude that researchers and practitioners should be careful when choosing or assigning collaborative partners to each other, as only for partners with symmetrical prior knowledge can a symmetrical increase in knowledge be expected. We further discuss the implications of these findings for research on knowledge awareness and collaboration. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Buttliere B.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Buder J.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien
Scientometrics | Year: 2017

Despite their important position in the research environment, there is a growing theoretical uncertainty concerning what research metrics indicate (e.g., quality, impact, attention). Here we utilize the same tools used to study latent traits like Intelligence and Personality to get a quantitative understanding of what over 20 common research metrics indicate about the papers they represent. The sample is all of the 32,962 papers PLoS published in 2014, with results suggesting that there are at least two important underlying factors, which could generally be described as Scientific Attention/Discussion (citations), General Attention/Discussion (views, tweets), and potentially Media Attention/Discussion (media mentions). The General Attention metric is correlated about .50 with both the Academic and Media factors, though the Academic and Media attention are only correlated with each other below .05. The overall best indicator of the dataset was the total lifetime views on the paper, which is also probably the easiest to game. The results indicate the need for funding bodies to decide what they value and how to measure it (e.g., types of attention, quality). © 2017 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary

Papenmeier F.,University of Tübingen | Schwan S.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien
Acta Psychologica | Year: 2016

Viewing objects with stereoscopic displays provides additional depth cues through binocular disparity supporting object recognition. So far, it was unknown whether this results from the representation of specific stereoscopic information in memory or a more general representation of an object's depth structure. Therefore, we investigated whether continuous object rotation acting as depth cue during encoding results in a memory representation that can subsequently be accessed by stereoscopic information during retrieval. In Experiment 1, we found such transfer effects from continuous object rotation during encoding to stereoscopic presentations during retrieval. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we found that the continuity of object rotation is important because only continuous rotation and/or stereoscopic depth but not multiple static snapshots presented without stereoscopic information caused the extraction of an object's depth structure into memory. We conclude that an object's depth structure and not specific depth cues are represented in memory. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

De Vreeze J.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Matschke C.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

Information exchange is a crucial process in groups, but to date, no one has systematically examined how a group member's relationship with a group can undermine this process. The current research examined whether disidentified group members (i.e., members who have a negative relationship with their group) strategically undermine the group outcome in information exchange. Disidentification has been found to predict negative group-directed behaviour, but at the same time disidentified members run the risk of being punished or excluded from the group when displaying destructive behaviour. In three studies we expected and found that disidentified group members subtly act against the interest of the group by withholding important private information, while at the same time they keep up appearances by sharing important information that is already known by the other group members. These findings stress the importance of taking a group member's relationship with a group into account when considering the process of information exchange. © 2017 de Vreeze, Matschke. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Buttliere B.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Buder J.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2017

A growing literature suggests that situational cues have a strong influence on behavior, especially online. Here we conducted a within subjects experiment where participants saw 16 forum discussion posts on the topic of alternative medicine, twice. The participant's reactions to conflicting information are modulated by changing the possible affordances of the situation. In one condition, designed to be similar to Wikipedia or other information seeking websites, participants were asked how much they would like to read more about information they are presented. In the other condition, the opportunity to respond to the author was provided (i.e., more like Facebook, Twitter or a blog post). In line with the hypotheses, the participants avoided uncongenial information when they only had the opportunity to read more, but wanted to respond to most to conflicting information. These results might help explain the differences in tone and content between Wikipedia, a more passive website, and Facebook or Twitter, which often thrive on controversiality and argument. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Oeberst A.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Matschke C.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General | Year: 2017

The title of a historical event is usually the first thing we learn about that event. This article investigateswhether group order in supposedly neutral conflict titles (e.g., Polish-Russian War) is systematicallybiased toward naming the in-group first (e.g., Polish-Russian War in Polish; Russian-Polish War inRussian) and whether group order affects perceptions of the groups involved. Based on linguisticevidence that individuals have the tendency to name themselves first, we expected and found a systematictendency to name the in-group first in N = 172 real-world titles of historical conflicts from more than40 languages (Study 1), under controlled conditions with participants from different cultures (Studies 2aand 2b), and in a minimal group experiment (Study 3), which identifies group membership as a crucialfactor and rules out alternative explanations. Furthermore, based on findings on perception, it is predictedand found in 3 studies (Study 4, 5a, and 5b) that a group is perceived as more important when mentionedfirst rather than second. This effect depended, however, on group order in the questions asked.Additionally, the first group was consistently associated with more power. Combined, seemingly neutralconflict titles may therefore increase ethnocentrism as it is the in-group that is mostly mentioned first andbecause of that perceived as more important. © 2017 American Psychological Association.

Landkammer F.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Sassenberg K.,University of Tübingen
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General | Year: 2016

Numerous studies comparing the effects of competition and cooperation demonstrated that competition is detrimental on the social level. However, instead of purely competing, many social contexts require competing while cooperating with the same social target. The current work examined the consequences of such "co-opetition" situations between individuals. Because having to compete and to cooperate with the same social target constitutes conflicting demands, co-opetition should lead to more flexibility, such as (a) less rigid transfer effects of competitive behavior and (b) less rigidity/more flexibility in general. Supporting these predictions, Studies 1a and 1b demonstrated that co-opetition did not elicit competitive behavior in a subsequent task (here: enhanced deceiving of uninvolved others). Study 2 showed that adding conflicting demands (independent of social interdependence) to competition likewise elicits less competitive transfer than competition without such conflicting demands. Beyond that, co-opetition reduced rigid response tendencies during a classification task in Studies 3a and 3b and enhanced flexibility during brainstorming in Study 4, compared with other forms of interdependence. Together, these results suggest that co-opetition leads to more flexible behavior when individuals have to reconcile conflicting demands. Implications for research on social priming, interdependence and competition in everyday life are discussed. © 2016 American Psychological Association.

Meyerhoff H.S.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Papenmeier F.,University of Tübingen | Jahn G.,University of Lübeck | Huff M.,University of Tübingen
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance | Year: 2016

The dynamic environment of human observers requires continuous reallocations of visual attention to compensate for location changes of the attended objects. Particularly, situations with reduced spatial distance between targets and other objects in the display are crucial for keeping track of the target objects. In the present experiments, we explored how the temporal dynamics of such moments of reduced spacing affects the reallocation of visual attention. We asked participants to track 4 targets among indistinguishable distractors. Hereby, we manipulated whether target and distractor objects moved at a constant speed or whether their actual speed followed a sine wave profile. The variable speed oscillated around the constant speed thus maintaining average speed as well as traveled distance and average spatial proximity. We observed inferior tracking performance with variable speed profiles relative to constant speed profiles (Experiments 1a and 1b). When we increased the number of pairs of targets and distractors moving with a variable speed profile (Experiment 2), performance declined continuously. Remarkably, tracking performance also declined when only distractors moved at variable speeds, suggesting that the dynamic changes in interobject spacing rather than the variable speed impairs tracking (Experiment 3). In sum, our results provide evidence for a flexible allocation of the attentional resource toward targets suffering spatial interference by demonstrating the temporal constraints of the reallocation process. © 2015 American Psychological Association.

Lin R.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Utz S.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2015

Abstract On Facebook, users are exposed to posts from both strong and weak ties. Even though several studies have examined the emotional consequences of using Facebook, less attention has been paid to the role of tie strength. This paper aims to explore the emotional outcomes of reading a post on Facebook and examine the role of tie strength in predicting happiness and envy. Two studies - one correlational, based on a sample of 207 American participants and the other experimental, based on a sample of 194 German participants - were conducted in 2014. In Study 2, envy was further distinguished into benign and malicious envy. Based on a multi-method approach, the results showed that positive emotions are more prevalent than negative emotions while browsing Facebook. Moreover, tie strength is positively associated with the feeling of happiness and benign envy, whereas malicious envy is independent of tie strength after reading a (positive) post on Facebook. © 2015 The Authors.

Wessel D.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien
International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies | Year: 2015

Direct behavior observation, i.e., without first creating a video recording, is a challenging, one-shot task. The behavior has to be coded accurately during the situation itself. Mobile devices can assist direct observation, and there already are applications available for these purposes. However, the mobile revolution has led to new developments in devices, infrastructure, and market penetration that have opened up new, yet untapped, possibilities. In this article, expanded activity theory is used to highlight the unused potential of computer assisted direct observation (CADO) apps. If this potential is realized, it can provide observation with the same advantages online questionnaires and sites like Mechanical Turk have provided for surveys and Internet experiments.

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