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Patro K.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Nuerk H.-C.,University of Tübingen | Cress U.,University of Tübingen
Child Development Perspectives | Year: 2016

Numbers and space are strongly related in the human mind. In particular, small and large numbers are mentally linked to spatial directions, forming the so-called mental number line. Traditionally, the direction of the number line was thought to emerge from cultural spatial experience with reading and writing. In this article, we review recent developmental data that put constraints on this traditional account and suggest that directional number representation develops even before the acquisition of literacy. On the basis of these data, we argue that the link between numbers and space is triggered by systematic involvement in directional actions of any kind rather than by reading and writing per se. Before school begins, children are exposed to many directional cues by observing the world around them and interacting with their parents. We propose a hypothetical mechanism through which this preliterate experience might activate spatially oriented numerical representation. © 2016 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

Cress U.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Rose C.P.,Carnegie Mellon University
Proceedings of International Conference of the Learning Sciences, ICLS | Year: 2016

The CSCL community is at a crossroads - at the brink of new paradigms in theories, methods, and forms of support, as new opportunities for impact in the expanding Web 2.0 space present themselves. As a community, we must find a strategic footing within the changing landscape. We need to advance and integrate new theories, methods, and supportive technologies. To that end, one goal of the workshop is to identify cross-cutting themes in CSCL research related to alternative Web 2.0 platforms. Another goal is to identify a strategic positioning for research in CSCL in synergy with the HCI/CSCW literature. © ISLS.

Lin R.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Utz S.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2015

Abstract On Facebook, users are exposed to posts from both strong and weak ties. Even though several studies have examined the emotional consequences of using Facebook, less attention has been paid to the role of tie strength. This paper aims to explore the emotional outcomes of reading a post on Facebook and examine the role of tie strength in predicting happiness and envy. Two studies - one correlational, based on a sample of 207 American participants and the other experimental, based on a sample of 194 German participants - were conducted in 2014. In Study 2, envy was further distinguished into benign and malicious envy. Based on a multi-method approach, the results showed that positive emotions are more prevalent than negative emotions while browsing Facebook. Moreover, tie strength is positively associated with the feeling of happiness and benign envy, whereas malicious envy is independent of tie strength after reading a (positive) post on Facebook. © 2015 The Authors.

Kolodziej R.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Hesse F.W.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Engelmann T.,Practice for Giftedness and High Achievement Potential
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2016

Negotiations seldom lead to optimal results for the negotiators. The missing knowledge about the priorities of the negotiating parties is one known reason for this. This experimental study examines the effects of priority awareness on different measures of negotiation outcomes. Priority awareness is the awareness of one negotiator about the priorities of the other negotiator. One hundred thirty-two participants were randomly assigned to negotiation pairs in an experimental condition with priority awareness-created implicitly through the usage of an ordinary bar chart-or a control condition without priority awareness. They took over the roles of a car seller or buyer and negotiated within an experimental negotiation support system. They were neither explicitly instructed to use the bar chart in the negotiation or about its benefits, nor were they restricted in sharing any kind of information. The experimental condition showed not only a significantly higher negotiation performance in the form of joint outcome and pareto efficiency than the control condition, but also a higher impasse rate. Creating awareness about each other's priorities in a negotiation has a positive effect on the negotiation performance without noticeable negative effects on satisfaction with, or fairness and duration of, the negotiation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Ltd. All rights reserved.

Levordashka A.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Utz S.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Utz S.,University of Tübingen
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2016

Ambient awareness refers to the awareness social media users develop of their online network in result of being constantly exposed to social information, such as microblogging updates. Although each individual bit of information can seem like random noise, their incessant reception can amass to a coherent representation of social others. Despite its growing popularity and important implications for social media research, ambient awareness on public social media has not been studied empirically. We provide evidence for the occurrence of ambient awareness and examine key questions related to its content and functions. A diverse sample of participants reported experiencing awareness, both as a general feeling towards their network as a whole, and as knowledge of individual members of the network, whom they had not met in real life. Our results indicate that ambient awareness can develop peripherally, from fragmented information and in the relative absence of extensive one-to-one communication. We report the effects of demographics, media use, and network variables and discuss the implications of ambient awareness for relational and informational processes online. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Sassenberg K.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Sassenberg K.,University of Tübingen | Greving H.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien
Journal of Medical Internet Research | Year: 2016

Background: The Internet is one of the primary sources for health information. However, in research, the effects of Internet use on the perception of one's own health have not received much attention so far. Objective: This study tested how Internet use for acquiring health information and severity of illness influence patients with a chronic disease with regard to the perception of their own health. Negative psychological states are known to lead to preferential processing of positive information. In particular, the self-directed nature of Internet use provides room for such biases. Therefore, we predicted that patients experiencing negative health states more frequently, due to more frequent episodes of a chronic illness, will gain a more positive perception of their health if they use the Internet frequently to gain health information, but not if they use the Internet rarely. This effect was not expected for other sources of information. Methods: A longitudinal questionnaire study with two measurement points-with a 7-month time lag-tested the hypothesis in a sample of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (n=208). This study assessed patients' frequency of Internet use, their participation in online social support groups, their use of other sources of health information, and several indicators of the participants' perceptions of their own health. A structure equation model (SEM) was used to test the predictions separately for Internet searches and other sources of information. Results: Data analysis supported the prediction; the interaction between frequency of health-related information searches and frequency of episodes at the first measurement point (T1) was related to participants' positive perceptions of their own health at the second measurement point (T2) (B=.10, SE=.04, P=.02) above and beyond the perceptions of their own health at T1. When participants used the Internet relatively rarely (-1 SD), there was no relationship between frequency of episodes and positive perceptions of their own health (B=-.11, SE=.14, t203=-0.82, P=.41). In contrast, when participants used the Internet relatively often (+1 SD), the more frequently they had those episodes the more positive were the perceptions of their own health (B=.36, SE=.15, t203=2.43, P=.02). Additional SEM analyses revealed that this effect occurs exclusively when information is searched for on the Internet, but not when other sources of information are consulted, nor when online social support groups are joined. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that patients might process information from the Internet selectively, in an unbalanced, biased fashion, with the formation of a self-serving (ie, positive) perception of own health. At the same time, this bias contributes to the ability of patients to cope psychologically with their disease.

Wessel D.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien
International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies | Year: 2015

Direct behavior observation, i.e., without first creating a video recording, is a challenging, one-shot task. The behavior has to be coded accurately during the situation itself. Mobile devices can assist direct observation, and there already are applications available for these purposes. However, the mobile revolution has led to new developments in devices, infrastructure, and market penetration that have opened up new, yet untapped, possibilities. In this article, expanded activity theory is used to highlight the unused potential of computer assisted direct observation (CADO) apps. If this potential is realized, it can provide observation with the same advantages online questionnaires and sites like Mechanical Turk have provided for surveys and Internet experiments.

Oeberst A.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Moskaliuk J.,University of Tübingen
Educational Technology and Society | Year: 2016

This paper examines whether conversational norms that have been observed for face-to-face communication also hold in the context of a specific type of computer-mediated communication: collaboration (such as in Wikipedia). Specifically, we tested adherence to Grice's (1975) maxim of relation-the implicit demand to contribute information that is relevant (only) for the purpose of the communication. In two experiments about a historical event, we manipulated the relevance of information provided as well as the context of the collaboration (i.e., encyclopedia article vs. contemporary witness compendium). In line with Grice's maxim, participants indeed reliably preferred information that was relevant for the specific context (e.g., information of general relevance to a broader audience in the encyclopedia context).

Oeberst A.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien
Berichte zur Deutschen Landeskunde | Year: 2012

What do we know? And how do we know? Unlike most scientific inquiries the contribution of Steinbrink et al. focuses on the scientific System itself - or a subsection of it. The present comment focuses on two main points: On the one hand it discusses various aspects that limit the range of conclusions that may be drawn from the network analyses presented by Steinbrink et al. (e.g., non-normativity of the analysis; limitation to successful scientists). On the other hand it elaborates on theoretically derived conditions that are beneficial for the common goal of knowledge construction (e.g., diversity among scientists; public debate) and contrasts them with current practice (e.g., conservatism in the peer review process).

Huber S.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Huber S.,University of Tübingen | Klein E.,Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien | Klein E.,RWTH Aachen | And 3 more authors.
Cortex | Year: 2015

In neuropsychological research, single-cases are often compared with a small control sample. Crawford and colleagues developed inferential methods (i.e., the modified t-test) for such a research design. In the present article, we suggest an extension of the methods of Crawford and colleagues employing linear mixed models (LMM). We first show that a t-test for the significance of a dummy coded predictor variable in a linear regression is equivalent to the modified t-test of Crawford and colleagues. As an extension to this idea, we then generalized the modified t-test to repeated measures data by using LMMs to compare the performance difference in two conditions observed in a single participant to that of a small control group. The performance of LMMs regarding Type I error rates and statistical power were tested based on Monte-Carlo simulations. We found that starting with about 15-20 participants in the control sample Type I error rates were close to the nominal Type I error rate using the Satterthwaite approximation for the degrees of freedom. Moreover, statistical power was acceptable. Therefore, we conclude that LMMs can be applied successfully to statistically evaluate performance differences between a single-case and a control sample. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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