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Forcher B.,Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information ZPID | Roth-Berghofer T.,University of West London | Agne S.,German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence | Dengel A.,German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence
Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence

To some extent, explanations in computer science are answers to questions. Often an explanatory dialogue is necessary to satisfy needs of software users. In this paper, we introduce the concept of intuitive explanation representing the first explanations in an explanatory dialogue. This kind of explanation does not require a situational context to be established or that there is a user model. Depending on an abstract model of explanation generation we present the generic explanation component Kalliope applying Semantic Technologies to construct intuitive explanations. We illustrate our generation approach by means of the semantic search engine KOIOS++ enabling keyword-based search on medical articles. Since semantic search results are often hard to understand Kalliope was integrated into KOIOS++ in order to justify search results. In this work we describe in detail the construction of intuitive explanations for inexperienced users in the medical domain building on the concepts of Semantic Frequency Classes and Semantic Cooccurrence Classes. Various user experiments illustrate that these concepts enable the explanation component to rate the understandability of labels and of label connections. We show how Kalliope exploits these valuations to construct and select understandable explanations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Krampen G.,Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information ZPID | Krampen G.,University of Trier | Krampen G.,University of Luxembourg

Examines scientometrically the trends in and the recent situation of research on and the teaching of the history of psychology in the German-speaking countries and compares the findings with the situation in other countries (mainly the United States) by means of the psychology databases PSYNDEX and PsycINFO. Declines of publications on the history of psychology are described scientometrically for both research communities since the 1990s. Some impulses are suggested for the future of research on and the teaching of the history of psychology. These include (1) the necessity and significance of an intensified use of quantitative, unobtrusive scientometric methods in historiography in times of digital “big data”, (2) the necessity and possibilities to integrate qualitative and quantitative methodologies in historical research and teaching, (3) the reasonableness of interdisciplinary cooperation of specialist historians, scientometricians, and psychologists, (4) the meaningfulness and necessity to explore, investigate, and teach more intensively the past and the problem history of psychology as well as the understanding of the subject matter of psychology in its historical development in cultural contexts. The outlook on the future of such a more up-to-date research on and teaching of the history of psychology is—with some caution—positive. © 2016 The Author(s) Source

Krampen G.,Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information ZPID | Krampen G.,University of Trier | Weiland P.,Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information ZPID | Wiesenhutter J.,Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information ZPID

Scientometric data on the citation success of different publication types and publication genres in psychology publications are presented. Data refer to references that are cited in these scientific publications and that are documented in PSYNDEX, the exhaustive database of psychology publications from the German-speaking countries either published in German or in English language. Firstly, data analyses refer to the references that are cited in publications of 2009 versus 2010 versus 2011. With reference to all cited references, the portion of journal articles ranges from 57 to 61 %, of books from 22 to 24 %, and of book chapters from 14 to 15 %, with a rather high stability across the three publication years analysed. Secondly, data analyses refer to the numbers of cited references from the German-speaking countries, which are also documented in PSYNDEX. These compose about 11 % of all cited references indicating that nearly 90 % of the references cited are of international and/or interdisciplinary publications not stemming from the German-speaking countries. The subsample shows the proportion of journal articles, books, and chapters, and these are very similar to the percentages identified for all references that are cited. Thirdly, analyses refer to document type, scientific genre, and psychological sub-discipline of the most frequently cited references in the psychology publications. The frequency of top-cited references of books and book chapters is almost equal to that of journal articles; two-thirds of the top-cited references are non-empirical publications, only one-third are empirical publications. Top-cited references stem particularly from clinical psychology, experimental psychology, as well as tests, testing and psychometrics. In summary, the results point to the fact that citation analyses, which are limited to journal papers, tend to neglect very high portions of references that are cited in scientific publications. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

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