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Walz U.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung | Hoechstetter S.,German Research Center for Geosciences
gis.Science - Die Zeitschrift fur Geoinformatik | Year: 2014

Landscape metrics are used for quantifying the composition and configuration of landscape mosaics. They are usually calculated by means of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on the basis of planar (two-dimensional) spatial data. The article at hand covers the issue of how the third spatial dimension can be included into landscape structure analysis using appropriate indicators and methods. Important prerequisites for this task are appropriate elevation and surface models, e. g. from Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) campaigns. The examples presented here reveal how the resulting values of area-, perimeter- and distance-based landscape metrics are affected by the integration of height information into the corresponding calculation procedure. Based on these findings, the behaviour of the modified "three-dimensional" index values is examined on the basis of various German test regions. The results suggest that, under certain conditions, the calculation of landscape metrics based on true surface geometries may lead to significantly different index values when compared to the standard "planar" procedure. This particularly applies to landscapes characterised by a steep and rough terrain. The effect can be observed in a pronounced way when high-resolution geodata are used. In these cases, the consideration of relief characteristics enables an enhancement of landscape structure analysis, which in turn may be highly relevant for the improvement of ecological modelling approaches.

Wirth V.P.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung | Scharfe S.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung | Walz U.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung
Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung | Year: 2015

Ever increasing importance is being placed on public participation within the decision-making process for topics with an environmental impact. Public authorities currently face major challenges in the planning and development of large nature reserves. In a retrospective study, the authors discuss the participation process in the elaboration of a development concept for the landscape conservation area Sachsische Schweiz (Saxon Switzerland). The analysis is based on a set of criteria devised by M.S. Reed which highlights key elements of good practice in the field of public participation (e.g. participation as early as possible, involvement of all relevant actors, professional mediation of all interests and concerns). The case study reveals the scope and restrictions of public participation. In particular, the communicative and cooperative approach of the responsible authority created a solid basis for intensive interaction. However, the anticipated wide-ranging social participation in the concept development was not realized. This failure can be attributed to a lack of legal provisions for such participation as well as little enthusiasm on the part of municipal actors to foster such a process voluntarily. © 2015, Verlag Eugen Ulmer. All rights reserved.

Stein C.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung | Walz U.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung
Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung | Year: 2012

The existing national indicator systems so far have no indi cator for the consideration of the naturalness respectively hemeroby of land use. The paper discusses the various concepts of natu ralness and hemeroby and develops a methodology for two indicators of hemeroby. Based on ATKIS data and on the map of potential natural vegetation these indicators can deliver information at the level of administrative units. The method was tested on the example of Saxony, and should be integrat ed into the landuse monitor (IOERMonitor). A hemeroby index involving all hemeroby classes of a reference area (e.g. municipality) as well as an indicator named "percentage of certain natural areas" are proposed.

Ortlepp R.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung | Schiller G.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung
Bautechnik | Year: 2014

The preservation of the natural resources moves more and more into the focus of the politics. It is expected that this shift in perspective will have a future effect on the building and construction industry too. To the judgement of the future requirements for building-materials knowledge is required besides reliable forecasts about the building activity both in the new construction and in the rehabilitation also about the amounts of building-materials which can be regained by deconstruction measures as recycling material from the existing built volumes. The knowledge about the amount and distribution of the building- materials forms the base for a systematic and economic use in terms of circular flow because the attainable level of utilisation also depends on the availability of corresponding amounts of recycled material besides structurally engineered requirements on the building materials in proportion to the general requirements for building-materials. This contribution is thematically particularly aimed at the trade associations of the building-material manufacturers, planners and further persons responsible for announcements. It shall show future evolutional trends of the legislative framework and give insights into the building stock. The article deals with the topic of the building material composition at the example of non-residential buildings in Germany. Different databases are introduced and judged with regard to that one of the quality regarding the information derivable from it. The evaluation of the current building activity statistics gives an impression about the quantitative distribution of the building-materials used mainly over different kinds of non-residential buildings. The result of an analysis based on the BKI object database is opposed to it comparatively. It is shown at the example of agricultural buildings in which places the essential material depositories are located and which quantity these have in the building. © 2014 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.

Constructivist landscape research has attracted increasing attention. It can be approached from different angles. In critical refection upon a paper by Bruns & Kühne in NuL 45 (3), the paper introduces a discourse theoretic variant of constructivist landscape research underpinned with an empirical example. The case study deals with a controversy about wind energy in Ingersheim near Stuttgart. The aim is to compare the two approaches to constructivist landscape research with regard to materiality and power, and to draw conclusions for planning practice. The paper recommends, other than Bruns & Kühne, that landscape planners should not confine themselves to act as facilitators of the debate, but to advocate their concerns more confidently in the public and become more active in the production of discourses. Furthermore public debates about landscapes should be encouraged. This would help to evolve 'landscape policies' which are mentioned in the European Landscape Convention into 'landscape politics'.

Stein C.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung | Wende W.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung | Walz U.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung
Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung | Year: 2014

Local landscape planning is the basis for realizing objectives of nature conservation at the level of land use planning. In this context it contributes to the safeguarding of the natural base of life. Based on a representative random sample the paper presents the current nationwide state of local landscape planning in Germany. The results show that 72.5 % of all local authorities have drawn up a local landscape plan, but there are some major differences between the Federal States. Especially peripheral rural municipalities have less often established a local landscape plan than urban municipalities. Particularly in rural areas it is necessary to promote the instrument of landscape planning for a closer cooperation of nature conservation and agriculture in view of the coming challenges such as the coordination of the greening of the EU agricultural policy, the conservation of biodiversity in general, adaptations to climate change and increased biomass production.

Forest is commonly perceived as a natural landscape element, which, in contrast to other anthropogenic forms of land use, persists over long periods of time. Yet the woodlands of Central Europe have in fact undergone major structural transformations as a repercussion of centuries of shifting land use. Using historical and current forest management plans as well as other historical maps, such changes have been analysed to a high spatial precision for the national park region of Saxon Switzerland over the timeframe of the past two hundred years. The main purpose of this work is to check the suitability of historical forest maps for digitization, and thereafter to analyze the resulting datasets to derive new information on the structural changes of woodland. The conclusions were linked to findings on spatial changes in forest cover within the Saxon Switzerland national park. The results show that the generated data can be used as a basis for the spatial-statistic analysis of woodland development, resulting in quantitative as well as qualitative statements on structural changes as well as changes in patterns of forest usage. Analyses based on historical topographic maps show that in the period from 1780 until today the extent of forest coverage has dropped only minimally from 60 % to 56 %. However, some large-scale felling of woodland can be observed at the edges of clearings as well as reductions in small, isolated stands situated in open land. On the other hand, reforestation measures are evident in former small glades within large closed stands. A comparison of the relative coverage of individual age classes and groups of tree species as derived from forest maps produced quantifiable statements on developments such as the increase of old-age stands in the national park or a reduction of silver fir over the entire national park region. High-resolution analyses were undertaken in order to detect changes in the distribution of the various tree species, for example allowing a reconstruction of the developments leading to the currently very low occurrence of silver fir. Such analyses also pinpoint which tree species have replaced the traditional silver fir found in this area. Results show that the intensification of forest management at the beginning of last century created stands which were little suited to the respective location. In the meantime, however, we can detect structural changes in terms of the composition of species and age classes towards a near-natural state. A considerable benefit of such investigations is that generated data can be used to scrutinize the formulation of development goals as well as supporting the planning of forest maintenance and development.

Walz U.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung | Kruger T.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung | Schumacher U.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung
Natur und Landschaft | Year: 2013

The system to monitor the development of housing and open space - which is operated by the Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development - provides nation-wide indicators for forest land and forest fragmentation in Germany (http://www.ioer-monitor. de). This work is performed because of the major importance of large contiguous forests as habitat for animals and plants as well as recreation areas for people. This paper first discusses the existing approaches and indicators for monitoring and analysing the fragmentation of open spaces and of forests. The indicators introduced here are based on a regular evaluation of the digital basis landscape model (Basic DLM) of the Authoritative Topographic-Cartographic Information System (ATKIS). The following forest-related indicators are provided: • • Proportion of forest land of surface area, • • proportion of undissected forests larger than 50 km2 of surface area, • • effective mesh size of undissected forests. These indicators usefully supplement the indicator systems concerned with biological diversity and the German National Sustainability Strategy (http://www. bmu.de/english/strategy-legislation/ sustainability/doc/46448.php). This con- tributes to the attainment of the goals of the International Year of Forests © 2011 by delivering spatial information.

Meinel G.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung | BurcKhardt M.,Regionaler Planungsverband Oberes Elbtal Osterzgebirge
Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung, Geoinformation | Year: 2013

The Digital Basic Geodata Sets "Hausumringe" and "Hauskoordinaten" - Characterization and Pre-processing for Building Stock Analysis. Although the building stock of Germany has a very high economic value, the related information is limited and requires completion. For instance, area-wide data are missing for the following properties: number of buildings, footprint, building type, number of floors, and usage with a high thematic and spatial resolution. However, this information is needed to successfully take energy saving and climate protecting targets into account in political programs and actions, all with a sufficient level of detail. The results of the 2011 census will improve the statistics of the building stock, but will not fully meet all data requirements. The German AAA basic geodata products ALKIS and ATKIS contain detailed information about buildings according to the model definition. However, those models are not yet area-wide available. Therefore, the article deals with the question, whether the combination of the new digital geodata sets "Amtliche Hausumringe" (administrative building footprints) and "Amtliche Hauskoordinaten" (administrative georeferenced addresses) are suitable for providing information of the building stock and how they have to be processed in order to describe the building stock with a high spatial resolution. The article describes the two data products and explains their pre-processing, correction, homogenization, distinction in main- and auxiliary buildings, as well as classification of uses and building types. To conclude, the German-wide dataset of the geometry of the buildings is suitable for analyses regarding buildings and add-ons to other statistical data. This is true though the data are captured according to slightly different rules caused by the responsibility of the German states (Bundesländer) and thus are not fully homogenous. Currently, time-series analyses based on these data products are heavier influenced by the migration of the former ALKsystem to the new ALKIS-system which erroneously sometimes causes changes of the data.

The improvement of biodiversity by means of conservation activities involving cross-sectoral coordination requires state-wide planning and anticipatory strategies. We made an inventory of landscape structures within the rural landscape of Saxony, from which we derived requirements for restructuring measures as a contribution to a new Landscape Management Strategy for the German Land (state) of Saxony. The article outlines and discusses the methodological framework for structural investigation. Analyses and inventories were produced for running waters and accompanying structural elements. The resulting requirements include the uncovering of 300km culverted rivulets, the planting of copses along 680km bare streams, and the abandonment of 23,700 hectares of arable land to floodplains. Furthermore, 2.500km tree lines, hedgerows and field margins are required outside of waters. The article proposes priority areas where extensive restructuring measures are needed on 26%of Saxonys biotope network area. © 2013 W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart.

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