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Koldrack N.,University of Rostock | Bill R.,University of Rostock | Walz U.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung
gis.Science - Die Zeitschrift fur Geoinformatik | Year: 2014

The change towards a sustainable energy policy in Germany is in progress. The characteristic landscape of Germany will change conspicuously and more and more areas are required for renewable energy. The master's thesis (Koldrack 2013) tries to acquire the current land use of the wind turbines, biogas plants, open space photovoltaic units, hydroelectric power stations and the technical infrastructure. Similarly it is investigating to which point the ATKIS data can be used for the relevant information and which alternative data bases are needed. The spatial distribution of the renewable energy systems is being visualized and analyzed. In concrete terms, a current land use of 180 km2 was observed (up to 2012). There of the open space photovoltaic units take up 60.2 % and thus the most of the area. If the required cultivable acreage for renewable resources for biogas plants included, so the current total land requirement is about 28,000 km2. This represents about 7.8% of the area of the Federal Republic of Germany. During the investigation it became clear, that there are still significant gaps in the data. Therefore the results are underestimated. Further the master's thesis shows in which areas the systems were built and how the land use of the systems has been changed since 2006. Finally the separation of continuous open spaces by the high-voltage grid and large-scale structures of conglomerations of some of these systems was evaluated. Source


Walz U.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung | Hoechstetter S.,German Research Center for Geosciences
gis.Science - Die Zeitschrift fur Geoinformatik | Year: 2014

Landscape metrics are used for quantifying the composition and configuration of landscape mosaics. They are usually calculated by means of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on the basis of planar (two-dimensional) spatial data. The article at hand covers the issue of how the third spatial dimension can be included into landscape structure analysis using appropriate indicators and methods. Important prerequisites for this task are appropriate elevation and surface models, e. g. from Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) campaigns. The examples presented here reveal how the resulting values of area-, perimeter- and distance-based landscape metrics are affected by the integration of height information into the corresponding calculation procedure. Based on these findings, the behaviour of the modified "three-dimensional" index values is examined on the basis of various German test regions. The results suggest that, under certain conditions, the calculation of landscape metrics based on true surface geometries may lead to significantly different index values when compared to the standard "planar" procedure. This particularly applies to landscapes characterised by a steep and rough terrain. The effect can be observed in a pronounced way when high-resolution geodata are used. In these cases, the consideration of relief characteristics enables an enhancement of landscape structure analysis, which in turn may be highly relevant for the improvement of ecological modelling approaches. Source


Forest is commonly perceived as a natural landscape element, which, in contrast to other anthropogenic forms of land use, persists over long periods of time. Yet the woodlands of Central Europe have in fact undergone major structural transformations as a repercussion of centuries of shifting land use. Using historical and current forest management plans as well as other historical maps, such changes have been analysed to a high spatial precision for the national park region of Saxon Switzerland over the timeframe of the past two hundred years. The main purpose of this work is to check the suitability of historical forest maps for digitization, and thereafter to analyze the resulting datasets to derive new information on the structural changes of woodland. The conclusions were linked to findings on spatial changes in forest cover within the Saxon Switzerland national park. The results show that the generated data can be used as a basis for the spatial-statistic analysis of woodland development, resulting in quantitative as well as qualitative statements on structural changes as well as changes in patterns of forest usage. Analyses based on historical topographic maps show that in the period from 1780 until today the extent of forest coverage has dropped only minimally from 60 % to 56 %. However, some large-scale felling of woodland can be observed at the edges of clearings as well as reductions in small, isolated stands situated in open land. On the other hand, reforestation measures are evident in former small glades within large closed stands. A comparison of the relative coverage of individual age classes and groups of tree species as derived from forest maps produced quantifiable statements on developments such as the increase of old-age stands in the national park or a reduction of silver fir over the entire national park region. High-resolution analyses were undertaken in order to detect changes in the distribution of the various tree species, for example allowing a reconstruction of the developments leading to the currently very low occurrence of silver fir. Such analyses also pinpoint which tree species have replaced the traditional silver fir found in this area. Results show that the intensification of forest management at the beginning of last century created stands which were little suited to the respective location. In the meantime, however, we can detect structural changes in terms of the composition of species and age classes towards a near-natural state. A considerable benefit of such investigations is that generated data can be used to scrutinize the formulation of development goals as well as supporting the planning of forest maintenance and development. Source


Ortlepp R.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung | Schiller G.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung
Bautechnik | Year: 2014

The preservation of the natural resources moves more and more into the focus of the politics. It is expected that this shift in perspective will have a future effect on the building and construction industry too. To the judgement of the future requirements for building-materials knowledge is required besides reliable forecasts about the building activity both in the new construction and in the rehabilitation also about the amounts of building-materials which can be regained by deconstruction measures as recycling material from the existing built volumes. The knowledge about the amount and distribution of the building- materials forms the base for a systematic and economic use in terms of circular flow because the attainable level of utilisation also depends on the availability of corresponding amounts of recycled material besides structurally engineered requirements on the building materials in proportion to the general requirements for building-materials. This contribution is thematically particularly aimed at the trade associations of the building-material manufacturers, planners and further persons responsible for announcements. It shall show future evolutional trends of the legislative framework and give insights into the building stock. The article deals with the topic of the building material composition at the example of non-residential buildings in Germany. Different databases are introduced and judged with regard to that one of the quality regarding the information derivable from it. The evaluation of the current building activity statistics gives an impression about the quantitative distribution of the building-materials used mainly over different kinds of non-residential buildings. The result of an analysis based on the BKI object database is opposed to it comparatively. It is shown at the example of agricultural buildings in which places the essential material depositories are located and which quantity these have in the building. © 2014 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin. Source


Meinel G.,Leibniz Institute For Okologische Raumentwicklung | BurcKhardt M.,Regionaler Planungsverband Oberes Elbtal Osterzgebirge
Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung, Geoinformation | Year: 2013

The Digital Basic Geodata Sets "Hausumringe" and "Hauskoordinaten" - Characterization and Pre-processing for Building Stock Analysis. Although the building stock of Germany has a very high economic value, the related information is limited and requires completion. For instance, area-wide data are missing for the following properties: number of buildings, footprint, building type, number of floors, and usage with a high thematic and spatial resolution. However, this information is needed to successfully take energy saving and climate protecting targets into account in political programs and actions, all with a sufficient level of detail. The results of the 2011 census will improve the statistics of the building stock, but will not fully meet all data requirements. The German AAA basic geodata products ALKIS and ATKIS contain detailed information about buildings according to the model definition. However, those models are not yet area-wide available. Therefore, the article deals with the question, whether the combination of the new digital geodata sets "Amtliche Hausumringe" (administrative building footprints) and "Amtliche Hauskoordinaten" (administrative georeferenced addresses) are suitable for providing information of the building stock and how they have to be processed in order to describe the building stock with a high spatial resolution. The article describes the two data products and explains their pre-processing, correction, homogenization, distinction in main- and auxiliary buildings, as well as classification of uses and building types. To conclude, the German-wide dataset of the geometry of the buildings is suitable for analyses regarding buildings and add-ons to other statistical data. This is true though the data are captured according to slightly different rules caused by the responsibility of the German states (Bundesländer) and thus are not fully homogenous. Currently, time-series analyses based on these data products are heavier influenced by the migration of the former ALKsystem to the new ALKIS-system which erroneously sometimes causes changes of the data. Source

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