Leibniz Institute for Catalysis

Rostock, Germany

Leibniz Institute for Catalysis

Rostock, Germany

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News Article | April 1, 2016
Site: www.nanotech-now.com

Abstract: Splitting water into its hydrogen and oxygen parts may sound like science fiction, but it's the end goal of chemists and chemical engineers like Christopher Murray of the University of Pennsylvania and Matteo Cargnello of Stanford University. They work in a field called photocatalysis, which, at its most basic, uses light to speed up chemical reactions. They've come a step closer to such a feat by tailoring the structure of a material called titania, one of the best-known photocatalysts, to hasten hydrogen production from biomass-derived compounds. Through a five-year collaboration with Drexel University, the University of Trieste in Italy, the University of Cadiz in Spain and the Leibniz Institute for Catalysis in Germany, the researchers determined that lengthening nanorods to 50 nanometers, a size 1,000 times smaller than the diameter of a hair, increased the hydrogen production rate of a rare form of titania called brookite, only accessible at the nanoscale. Using this unique crystal structure and controlling the nanorod dimensions offer new avenues for engineering the material's activity, and, because the process is theoretically simple to replicate, even at a large scale, it could have real implications for the future of clean energy and sustainable hydrogen production. The researchers published their results in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "These insights are one more piece in an important puzzle as we work to harness the phenomena exhibited by Earth's materials," said Murray, a Penn Integrates Knowledge Professor and the Richard Perry University Professor of Chemistry and Materials Science and Engineering. One such material comes from the sun. "One idea behind photocatalysis is, what if we could make hydrogen using sunlight from abundant compounds? We wouldn't have to produce it from fossil fuels, which has global warming effects," said Cargnello, a former Penn postdoc who is now a Stanford assistant professor of chemical engineering. "If we could get that hydrogen from a renewable source, then the entire process would be totally sustainable" said Paolo Fornasiero, a University of Trieste professor of chemical and pharmaceutical sciences who collaborated with the Murray team on hydrogen measurements. On its face, the process sounds straightforward: Titania absorbs sunlight, which initiates a chemical reaction that generates hydrogen. But the vehicles responsible for this response, called electrons and holes, tend to jump the gun, reacting with each other almost immediately due to their opposite charges. They also execute different functions, with the negatively charged electrons carrying out reductions, and the positively charged holes performing oxidations. "What you want is that electron to reduce the water to hydrogen and that hole to oxidize the water to oxygen, such that the combination of these two half-reactions produces hydrogen gas on one side and oxygen gas on the other," Cargnello said. To attempt to stop the electrons and holes from reacting too soon, the research team put space between them using nanorods sized precisely from 15 to 50 nanometers, eventually determining that the longest rod resulted in the best activity. Though the experiment parameters didn't allow them to build beyond 50 nanometers, the scientists had essentially forced the electrons and holes to react with water rather than each other. Cargnello said what they've learned can be a playbook for others in the field. "If you want to have more efficient photocatalysts," he said, "make elongated structures to create these highways for electrons to escape from holes and react much faster with the molecules." This team isn't the first to attempt such an experiment with titania, according to Murray, who has appointments in the School of Arts & Sciences and the School of Engineering and Applied Science. "Titania is Earth-abundant and non-toxic, highly desirable as a material for solar-energy conversion," he said. "Many researchers are working to improve the efficiency with which it uses the solar spectrum." Murray's team opted to use solution-phase chemistry, a bottom-up approach, instead of a process many others employ called fabrication, which is top-down. "With fabricated structures, you take a big chunk and cut it down into smaller and smaller features," Cargnello said. "There is a limit to how small these structures can be, however, and the production is not scalable. In the Murray lab, we added one atom to another to make the nanorods, with precise control at the nanoscale and potential scalability." Jason Baxter's team at Drexel explored the photo-dynamics of these systems. Though the chemical process gets much more exact, it hasn't yet lead Murray's team to that dream of splitting pure water. To date, the scientists have employed biomass-derived compounds such as alcohols, breaking them down into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. That this generates CO2 may be counter to the clean-energy ideal, but Cargnello has an answer to this concern: Plants will absorb and turn the otherwise-discarded CO2 into additional biomass. "This would give us a close to carbon-neutral cycle," he said. Right now, that's precisely what's happening. "The nanorods take the light and the biomass-derived compound and transform them into hydrogen and CO2." Hydrogen has shown great promise as an emission-free alternative fuel when not made from natural gas. One challenge to wide acceptance, though, is the low cost and convenience of fossil fuels. That could change with the discovery of more efficient materials capable of producing hydrogen from sunlight and abundant compounds at higher rates. Then "we may be more competitive with hydrogen production from fossil fuels," Cargnello said. "Our work is one step in that direction." ### Funding for the U.S. research came primarily from the National Science Foundation, with additional support from the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and Stanford University's School of Engineering and SUNCAT Center. Support for the European collaborators came from the Ministero dell'Istruzione, Università e Ricerca and the University of Trieste. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


News Article | March 31, 2016
Site: www.rdmag.com

Splitting water into its hydrogen and oxygen parts may sound like science fiction, but it’s the end goal of chemists and chemical engineers like Christopher Murray of the University of Pennsylvania and Matteo Cargnello of Stanford University. They work in a field called photocatalysis, which, at its most basic, uses light to speed up chemical reactions. They’ve come a step closer to such a feat by tailoring the structure of a material called titania, one of the best-known photocatalysts, to hasten hydrogen production from biomass-derived compounds. Through a five-year collaboration with Drexel University, the University of Trieste in Italy, the University of Cadiz in Spain and the Leibniz Institute for Catalysis in Germany, the researchers determined that lengthening nanorods to 50 nanometers, a size 1,000 times smaller than the diameter of a hair, increased the hydrogen production rate of a rare form of titania called brookite, only accessible at the nanoscale. Using this unique crystal structure and controlling the nanorod dimensions offer new avenues for engineering the material’s activity, and, because the process is theoretically simple to replicate, even at a large scale, it could have real implications for the future of clean energy and sustainable hydrogen production. The researchers published their results in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. “These insights are one more piece in an important puzzle as we work to harness the phenomena exhibited by Earth’s materials,” said Murray, a Penn Integrates Knowledge Professor and the Richard Perry University Professor of Chemistry and Materials Science and Engineering. One such material comes from the sun. “One idea behind photocatalysis is, what if we could make hydrogen using sunlight from abundant compounds? We wouldn’t have to produce it from fossil fuels, which has global warming effects,” said Cargnello, a former Penn postdoc who is now a Stanford assistant professor of chemical engineering. “If we could get that hydrogen from a renewable source, then the entire process would be totally sustainable” said Paolo Fornasiero, a University of Trieste professor of chemical and pharmaceutical sciences who collaborated with the Murray team on hydrogen measurements. On its face, the process sounds straightforward: Titania absorbs sunlight, which initiates a chemical reaction that generates hydrogen. But the vehicles responsible for this response, called electrons and holes, tend to jump the gun, reacting with each other almost immediately due to their opposite charges. They also execute different functions, with the negatively charged electrons carrying out reductions, and the positively charged holes performing oxidations. “What you want is that electron to reduce the water to hydrogen and that hole to oxidize the water to oxygen, such that the combination of these two half-reactions produces hydrogen gas on one side and oxygen gas on the other,” Cargnello said. To attempt to stop the electrons and holes from reacting too soon, the research team put space between them using nanorods sized precisely from 15 to 50 nanometers, eventually determining that the longest rod resulted in the best activity. Though the experiment parameters didn’t allow them to build beyond 50 nanometers, the scientists had essentially forced the electrons and holes to react with water rather than each other. Cargnello said what they’ve learned can be a playbook for others in the field. “If you want to have more efficient photocatalysts,” he said, “make elongated structures to create these highways for electrons to escape from holes and react much faster with the molecules.” This team isn’t the first to attempt such an experiment with titania, according to Murray, who has appointments in the School of Arts & Sciences and the School of Engineering and Applied Science. “Titania is Earth-abundant and non-toxic, highly desirable as a material for solar-energy conversion,” he said. “Many researchers are working to improve the efficiency with which it uses the solar spectrum.” Murray’s team opted to use solution-phase chemistry, a bottom-up approach, instead of a process many others employ called fabrication, which is top-down. “With fabricated structures, you take a big chunk and cut it down into smaller and smaller features,” Cargnello said. “There is a limit to how small these structures can be, however, and the production is not scalable. In the Murray lab, we added one atom to another to make the nanorods, with precise control at the nanoscale and potential scalability.” Jason Baxter’s team at Drexel explored the photo-dynamics of these systems. Though the chemical process gets much more exact, it hasn’t yet lead Murray’s team to that dream of splitting pure water. To date, the scientists have employed biomass-derived compounds, such as alcohols, breaking them down into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. That this generates CO2 may be counter to the clean-energy ideal, but Cargnello has an answer to this concern: Plants will absorb and turn the otherwise-discarded CO2 into additional biomass. “This would give us a close to carbon-neutral cycle,” he said. Right now, that’s precisely what’s happening. “The nanorods take the light and the biomass-derived compound and transform them into hydrogen and CO2.” Hydrogen has shown great promise as an emission-free alternative fuel when not made from natural gas. One challenge to wide acceptance, though, is the low cost and convenience of fossil fuels. That could change with the discovery of more efficient materials capable of producing hydrogen from sunlight and abundant compounds at higher rates. Then “we may be more competitive with hydrogen production from fossil fuels,” Cargnello said. “Our work is one step in that direction.” Funding for the U.S. research came primarily from the National Science Foundation, with additional support from the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and Stanford University’s School of Engineering and SUNCAT Center. Support for the European collaborators came from the Ministero dell’Istruzione, Università e Ricerca and the University of Trieste.


News Article | March 31, 2016
Site: cleantechnica.com

Cheap, sustainable hydrogen seemed like a pipe dream just a few years ago, when practically all hydrogen fuel was sourced from fossil natural gas. It still is, but researchers have been hammering away at various methods for deploying sunlight to pry hydrogen loose from alternative sources. In the latest development, a multinational team has capped a five-year research project with a breakthrough based on a nanoscale form of titanium dioxide, aka titania. Hydrogen fuel cell EVs (FCEVs) currently face an uphill climb in terms of competing with EVs on the open road, but hydrogen fuel cells are rapidly slipping into logistics, aircraft, seaports and seacraft, and other niche markets, and that makes sustainable hydrogen sourcing a critical issue. The new sustainable hydrogen research comes from the University of Pennsylvania and Stanford University with Drexel University, Italy’s University of Trieste, the University of Cadiz (Spain) and the Leibniz Institute for Catalysis (Germany). The team built on extensive, previous research demonstrating that sunlight kicks off a chemical reaction in titania, resulting in hydrogen production. That’s simple enough. The sticky wicket is controlling the reaction and scaling it up to an efficient system that lends itself to commercial production. Here’s how the research team describes the conundrum: …the vehicles responsible for this response, called electrons and holes, tend to jump the gun, reacting with each other almost immediately due to their opposite charges. In addition, getting the electrons and holes to behave according to plan is a classic case of cat herding. They each do something different. The electrons are negatively charged and they carry out reductions, while the holes are positively charged holes and do oxidations. The challenge is to get them both to do the same thing, “splitting” water into oxygen and hydrogen gas. The research team explored the idea that titania’s reactive powers are too rapid because the electrons and holes are too close together. To slow the whole thing down, they tailored a nanoscale form of titania and used nanorods to separate the holes and electrons. The team started with a range of 15 to 50 nanometers and determined that the longer end of the range performed more efficiently. Without each other to keep themselves busy, the electrons and holes were forced to react with other molecules, as explained by Matteo Cargnello of Stanford: If you want to have more efficient photocatalysts, make elongated structures to create these highways for electrons to escape from holes and react much faster with the molecules. Titania is an abundant, naturally occurring form of titanium. What is not so abundant is a nanoscale form of titania called brookite, upon which the new research is based. Typically, brookite is fabricated in the lab by reducing larger pieces down to nanosize. For the new breakthrough, the research team built their own brookite from scratch, one atom at a time, using a process called solution-phase chemistry. According to the team, this “bottom-up” approach is more precise and potentially more scalable for sustainable hydrogen production. However, the research still has a long way to go before it gets to the water-splitting stage. So far the team has demonstrated their process on alcohols derived from biomass, resulting in the production of the undesirable byproduct carbon dioxide as well as hydrogen. On the other hand, the team foresees that if the carbon dioxide is recycled for biomass production, the result would be a closed, carbon neutral cycle — or something close to it, at least. You can read more about the sustainable hydrogen study by turning to the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences under the title “Engineering titania nanostructure to tune and improve its photocatalytic activity.” Speaking of what to do with waste carbon, last year the US Department of Energy pulled the plug on the massive FutureGen project, which was supposed to demonstrate an economical way of diverting carbon from coal fired power plants and sequestering it under ground. Sequestration is not entirely dead, but the fate of FutureGen is another example of how the whole “out of sight, out of mind” strategy for airborne waste is slowly withering on the vine. In addition to recycling carbon for biomass production, researchers are also looking at power plant and industrial waste gases for conversion to liquid fuel and solid plastics, with the potential for carbon-negative processes in sight. Follow me on Twitter and Google+. Image: “Crystal structure of brookite” via Wikipedia.    Get CleanTechnica’s 1st (completely free) electric car report → “Electric Cars: What Early Adopters & First Followers Want.”   Come attend CleanTechnica’s 1st “Cleantech Revolution Tour” event → in Berlin, Germany, April 9–10.   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.  


News Article | March 30, 2016
Site: phys.org

They work in a field called photocatalysis, which, at its most basic, uses light to speed up chemical reactions. They've come a step closer to such a feat by tailoring the structure of a material called titania, one of the best-known photocatalysts, to hasten hydrogen production from biomass-derived compounds. Through a five-year collaboration with Drexel University, the University of Trieste in Italy, the University of Cadiz in Spain and the Leibniz Institute for Catalysis in Germany, the researchers determined that lengthening nanorods to 50 nanometers, a size 1,000 times smaller than the diameter of a hair, increased the hydrogen production rate of a rare form of titania called brookite, only accessible at the nanoscale. Using this unique crystal structure and controlling the nanorod dimensions offer new avenues for engineering the material's activity, and, because the process is theoretically simple to replicate, even at a large scale, it could have real implications for the future of clean energy and sustainable hydrogen production. The researchers published their results in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "These insights are one more piece in an important puzzle as we work to harness the phenomena exhibited by Earth's materials," said Murray, a Penn Integrates Knowledge Professor and the Richard Perry University Professor of Chemistry and Materials Science and Engineering. One such material comes from the sun. "One idea behind photocatalysis is, what if we could make hydrogen using sunlight from abundant compounds? We wouldn't have to produce it from fossil fuels, which has global warming effects," said Cargnello, a former Penn postdoc who is now a Stanford assistant professor of chemical engineering. "If we could get that hydrogen from a renewable source, then the entire process would be totally sustainable" said Paolo Fornasiero, a University of Trieste professor of chemical and pharmaceutical sciences who collaborated with the Murray team on hydrogen measurements. On its face, the process sounds straightforward: Titania absorbs sunlight, which initiates a chemical reaction that generates hydrogen. But the vehicles responsible for this response, called electrons and holes, tend to jump the gun, reacting with each other almost immediately due to their opposite charges. They also execute different functions, with the negatively charged electrons carrying out reductions, and the positively charged holes performing oxidations. "What you want is that electron to reduce the water to hydrogen and that hole to oxidize the water to oxygen, such that the combination of these two half-reactions produces hydrogen gas on one side and oxygen gas on the other," Cargnello said. To attempt to stop the electrons and holes from reacting too soon, the research team put space between them using nanorods sized precisely from 15 to 50 nanometers, eventually determining that the longest rod resulted in the best activity. Though the experiment parameters didn't allow them to build beyond 50 nanometers, the scientists had essentially forced the electrons and holes to react with water rather than each other. Cargnello said what they've learned can be a playbook for others in the field. "If you want to have more efficient photocatalysts," he said, "make elongated structures to create these highways for electrons to escape from holes and react much faster with the molecules." This team isn't the first to attempt such an experiment with titania, according to Murray, who has appointments in the School of Arts & Sciences and the School of Engineering and Applied Science. "Titania is Earth-abundant and non-toxic, highly desirable as a material for solar-energy conversion," he said. "Many researchers are working to improve the efficiency with which it uses the solar spectrum." Murray's team opted to use solution-phase chemistry, a bottom-up approach, instead of a process many others employ called fabrication, which is top-down. "With fabricated structures, you take a big chunk and cut it down into smaller and smaller features," Cargnello said. "There is a limit to how small these structures can be, however, and the production is not scalable. In the Murray lab, we added one atom to another to make the nanorods, with precise control at the nanoscale and potential scalability." Jason Baxter's team at Drexel explored the photo-dynamics of these systems. Though the chemical process gets much more exact, it hasn't yet lead Murray's team to that dream of splitting pure water. To date, the scientists have employed biomass-derived compounds such as alcohols, breaking them down into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. That this generates CO2 may be counter to the clean-energy ideal, but Cargnello has an answer to this concern: Plants will absorb and turn the otherwise-discarded CO2 into additional biomass. "This would give us a close to carbon-neutral cycle," he said. Right now, that's precisely what's happening."The nanorods take the light and the biomass-derived compound and transform them into hydrogen and CO2." Hydrogen has shown great promise as an emission-free alternative fuel when not made from natural gas. One challenge to wide acceptance, though, is the low cost and convenience of fossil fuels. That could change with the discovery of more efficient materials capable of producing hydrogen from sunlight and abundant compounds at higher rates. Then "we may be more competitive with hydrogen production from fossil fuels," Cargnello said. "Our work is one step in that direction." Explore further: Material inspired by nature could turn water into fuel More information: Matteo Cargnello et al. Engineering titania nanostructure to tune and improve its photocatalytic activity, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1524806113


Negassa W.,University of Rostock | Kruse J.,University of Rostock | Michalik D.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis | Appathurai N.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Little is known about P species in agro-industrial byproducts from developing countries, which may be either pollutants or valuable soil amendments. The present study speciated P in dry (COD) and wet (COW) coffee, sisal (SIS), barley malt (BEB) and sugar cane processing (FIC) byproducts, and filter cakes of linseed (LIC) and niger seed (NIC) with sequential fractionation, solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and P K- and L2,3-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The sequential Pfractionation recovered 59% to almost 100% of total P (Pt), and more than 50% of P, was extracted by H2O and NaHCO3 in five out of seven samples. Similarly, the NaOH + EDTA extraction for solution 31P NMR recovered 48-94% of Pt. The 31P NMR spectra revealed orthophosphate (6-81%), pyrophosphate (0-10%), and orthophosphate monoesters (6-94%). Orthophosphate predominated in COD, COW, SIS, and FIC, whereas BEB, LIC, and NIC were rich in orthophosphate monoesters. The concentrations of Pi and Po determined in the sequential and NaOH + EDTA extractions and 31P NMR spectra were strongly and positively correlated (r= 0.88-1.00). Furthermore, the P K- and L2,3-edge XANES confirmed the H2SO4-P i detected in the sequential fractionation by unequivocal identification of Ca-P phases in a few samples. The results indicate that the combined use of all four analytical methods is crucial for comprehensive P speciation in environmental samples and the application of these byproducts to soil. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Peppel T.,University of Rostock | Peppel T.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis | Kockerling M.,University of Rostock
Crystal Growth and Design | Year: 2011

A series of eight new 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derived salts with the pseudotetrahedral Co II-based complex anion, [Co IIBr 3quin] -, quin = quinoline, and 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, AlkMIm, Alk = ethyl, n-butyl, n-hexyl, n-heptyl, n-octyl, n-nonyl, allyl, and propargyl; M = methyl, was synthesized. The melting point of each compound was measured to see if they are designated as metal-containing ionic liquids (magnetic ionic liquids). Each compound was further characterized by elemental analysis, NMR, IR, and UV/vis spectroscopy. From NMR investigations, information about the magnetic behavior was derived using the EVANS method. It has been found that every compound is paramagnetic with effective magnetic moments of spin-only Co II. The solid state structures of the compounds (AlkMIm)[Co IIBr 3quin] with Alk = ethyl, n-butyl, n-hexyl, and n-nonyl were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques with regard to finding correlations between thermal and structural properties: (EMIm)[CoBr 3quin]: triclinic, P1̄ (No. 2), a = 7.4889(3) Å, b = 8.2056(3) Å, c = 15.2471(6) Å, α = 88.453(2)°, β = 85.457(2)°, γ = 79.531(2)°, Z = 2, R 1(F)/wR 2(F 2) = 0.0248/0.0569; (BMIm)[CoBr 3quin]: triclinic, P1̄ (No. 2), a = 8.2915(4) Å, b = 10.2560(4) Å, c = 12.3943(5) Å, α = 91.877(2)°, β = 95.427(2)°, γ = 101.826(2)°, Z = 2, R 1(F)/wR 2(F 2) = 0.028057/0.0592; (HexMIm)[CoBr 3quin]: monoclinic, P2 1/c (No. 14), a = 8.0375(2) Å, b = 25.7514(5) Å, c = 11.3451(3) Å, β = 105.449(1)°, Z = 4, R 1(F)/wR 2(F 2) = 0.0263/0.0554; (NonMIm)[CoBr 3quin]: monoclinic, P2 1/c (No. 14), a = 13.1727(5) Å, b = 12.1438(5) Å, c = 17.2612(6) Å, β = 111.321(2)°, Z = 4, R 1(F)/wR 2(F 2) = 0.0288/0.0588. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Werkmeister S.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis | Junge K.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis | Beller M.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis
Organic Process Research and Development | Year: 2014

This review describes the catalytic reduction of amides, carboxylic acid esters and nitriles with homogeneous catalysts using molecular hydrogen as an environmental friendly reducing agent. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Marquet N.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis | Gartner F.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis | Losse S.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis | Pohl M.-M.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis | And 2 more authors.
ChemSusChem | Year: 2011

The complex made simple: Simple and commercially available iridium precursors are tested for their ability to promote water oxidation. The activity values of these precursors towards cerium(IV)-driven oxygen generation from water are comparable with values reported for more complicated iridium-based systems. A turnover frequency of 1700h -1 is achieved with IrCl 3. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Gartner F.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis | Losse S.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis | Boddien A.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis | Pohl M.-M.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis | And 3 more authors.
ChemSusChem | Year: 2012

Gold standard: Au/TiO 2 catalysts, easily prepared in situ from different Au precursors and TiO 2, generate hydrogen from water/alcohol mixtures. Different alcohols, and even glucose, can serve as sacrificial reductants. The best system produces hydrogen on a liter scale, and is stable for more than two days. Deuteration studies show that proton reduction is likely the rate-limiting step in this reaction. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Holena M.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis | Holena M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Linke D.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis | Rodemerck U.,Leibniz Institute for Catalysis
Catalysis Today | Year: 2011

This paper presents some unpublished aspects and ongoing developments of the recently elaborated generator approach to the evolutionary optimization of catalytic materials, the purpose of which is to obtain evolutionary algorithms precisely tailored to the problem being solved. It briefly recalls the principles of the approach, and then it describes how the employed evolutionary operations reflect the specificity of the involved mixed constrained optimization tasks, and how the approach tackles checking the feasibility of large polytope systems, frequently resulting from the optimization constraints. Finally, the paper discusses the integration of the approach with surrogate modeling, paying particular attention to surrogate models enhanced with boosting. The usefulness of surrogate modeling in general and of boosted surrogate models in particular is documented on a case study with data from a high-temperature synthesis of hydrocyanic acid. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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