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Brodde M.F.,University Hospital Muenster | Korporaal S.J.A.,Leiden University | Herminghaus G.,University Hospital Muenster | Fobker M.,University Hospital Muenster | And 7 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2011

Objectives: HIGH-density lipoproteins (HDL) are a negative predictor of platelet-dependent thrombus formation and reduced platelet activation has been observed in vitro in the presence of HDL3, a major HDL fraction. However, mechanisms underlying the anti-thrombotic effects of HDL3 are poorly understood. Scavenger receptors class B represent possible HDL3 binding partners on platelets. We here investigated the role of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and CD36 in mediating inhibitory effects of native HDL3 on thrombin-induced platelet activation. Methods and results: Rhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled HDL3 bound specifically to platelets and HDL3 binding was inhibited by scavenger receptor class B ligands such as phosphatidylserine (PS)- or phosphatidylinositol (PI)-containing liposomes or maleylated albumin (mBSA). By contrast, scavenger receptor class A ligands failed to displace HDL3 from platelets. HDL3, PS- and PI-liposomes, and mBSA inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, fibrinogen binding, P-selectin expression and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. In addition, PS- and PI-liposomes emulated HDL3-induced intracellular signaling cascades including diacylglycerol production and protein kinase C activation. The reduction of platelet activation by liposomes was related to their PS or PI content. Moreover, inhibitory effects of native HDL3 were enhanced after enriching lipoproteins with PS, while PS- and PI-poor HDL2 failed to inhibit platelet aggregation and Ca2+ mobilization. Both, HDL3 and PS-containing liposomes failed to inhibit thrombin-induced activation of platelets obtained from SR-BI-deficient mice but not CD36-deficient mice. Conclusion: We suggest that SR-BI is a functional receptor for native HDL3 on platelets that generates an inhibitory signal for platelet activation. The content of negatively charged phospholipids (PS, PI) in HDL may be an important determinant of their anti-thrombotic potential. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

De Maria R.,CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology | Landolina M.,Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo | Gasparini M.,Istituto Clinico Humanitas | Schmitz B.,University of Munster | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Cardiac Failure | Year: 2012

Background: Reverse remodeling (RR) after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is associated with favorable clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF). The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is involved in the remodeling process. Methods and Results: We assessed the association between RR and 8 common RAAS gene variants, which were determined by TaqMan assays, in 156 outpatients with chronic HF. RR was defined as a >15% decrease in left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV) at 9 (interquartile range 7-12) months after CRT. We matched 76 patients who did not show RR (RR-) to 80 RR+ control subjects by age, sex, HF etiology, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The frequency of the minor allele of the NR3C2 gene (rs5522 C/T), encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor, was higher in RR- than in RR (24/126 vs 10/150; P value after false discovery rate correction: <.0193). Conversely, LVESV decreased significantly less after CRT in carriers of the NR3C2 minor C allele (P =.02). After adjustment for age, sex, NYHA functional class, previous myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, and LVEF, RR- remained independently associated with NR3C2 C allele carriage (odds ratio 3.093, 95% confidence interval 1.253-7.632). Conclusions: The association of RR- after CRT with a common polymorphism in the mineralocorticoid receptor gene involved in aldosterone signaling suggests a possible role for variants in RAAS genes in progressive LV function decline, despite apparently effective CRT. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Feulner P.G.D.,Westfaelische Wilhelms University | Chain F.J.J.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology | Panchal M.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology | Eizaguirre C.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology | And 10 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2013

Since the end of the Pleistocene, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has repeatedly colonized and adapted to various freshwater habitats probably originating from ancestral marine populations. Standing genetic variation and the underlying genomic architecture both have been speculated to contribute to recent adaptive radiations of sticklebacks. Here, we expand on the current genomic resources of this fish by providing extensive genome-wide variation data from six individuals from a marine (North Sea) stickleback population. Using next-generation sequencing and a combination of paired-end and mate-pair libraries, we detected a wide size range of genetic variation. Among the six individuals, we found more than 7% of the genome is polymorphic, consisting of 2 599 111 SNPs, 233 464 indels and structural variation (SV) (>50 bp) such as 1054 copy-number variable regions (deletions and duplications) and 48 inversions. Many of these polymorphisms affect gene and coding sequences. Based on SNP diversity, we determined outlier regions concordant with signatures expected under adaptive evolution. As some of these outliers overlap with pronounced regions of copy-number variation, we propose the consideration of such SV when analysing SNP data from re-sequencing approaches. We further discuss the value of this resource on genome-wide variation for further investigation upon the relative contribution of standing variation on the parallel evolution of sticklebacks and the importance of the genomic architecture in adaptive radiation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Baitsch D.,University of Munster | Bock H.H.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Bock H.H.,University Hospital Freiburg | Engel T.,Leibniz Institute for Arteriosclerosis Research | And 11 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2011

Objective- Apolipoprotein E (apoE) exerts potent antiinflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effect of apoE on the functional phenotype of macrophages. Methods and Results- Human apoE receptors very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-R) and apoE receptor-2 (apoER2) were stably expressed in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. In these cells, apoE downregulated markers of the proinflammatory M1 phenotype (inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin [IL]-12, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α) but upregulated markers of the antiinflammatory M2 phenotype (arginase I, SOCS3, IL-1 receptor antagonist [IL-1RA]). In addition, M1 macrophage responses (migration, generation of reactive oxygen species, antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity, phagocytosis), as well as poly(I:C)- or interferon-γ-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines; cyclooxygenase-2 expression; and activation of nuclear factor-κB, IκB, and STAT1, were suppressed in VLDL-R- or apoER2-expressing cells. Conversely, the suppression of the M2 phenotype and the enhanced response to poly(I:C) were observed in apoE-producing bone marrow macrophages derived from VLDL-R-deficient mice but not wild-type or low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. The modulatory effects of apoE on macrophage polarization were inhibited in apoE receptor-expressing RAW264.7 cells exposed to SB220025, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, and PP1, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Accordingly, apoE induced tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in VLDL-R- or apoER2-expressing macrophages. Under in vivo conditions, apoE mice transplanted with apoE-producing wild-type bone marrow showed increased plasma IL-1RA levels, and peritoneal macrophages of transplanted animals were shifted to the M2 phenotype (increased IL-1RA production and CD206 expression). Conclusion- apoE signaling via VLDL-R or apoER2 promotes macrophage conversion from the proinflammatory M1 to the antiinflammatory M2 phenotype. This effect may represent a novel antiinflammatory activity of apoE. Copyright © 2011 American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Source

Hirt M.N.,University of Hamburg | Sorensen N.A.,University of Hamburg | Bartholdt L.M.,University of Hamburg | Boeddinghaus J.,University of Hamburg | And 9 more authors.
Basic Research in Cardiology | Year: 2012

Increased afterload results in 'pathological' cardiac hypertrophy, the most important risk factor for the development of heart failure. Current in vitro models fall short in deciphering the mechanisms of hypertrophy induced by afterload enhancement. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model that allows investigating the impact of afterload enhancement (AE) on work-performing heart muscles in vitro. Fibrin-based engineered heart tissue (EHT) was cast between two hollow elastic silicone posts in a 24-well cell culture format. After 2 weeks, the posts were reinforced with metal braces, which markedly increased afterload of the spontaneously beating EHTs. Serum-free, triiodothyronine-, and hydrocortisone-supplemented medium conditions were established to prevent undefined serum effects. Control EHTs were handled identically without reinforcement. Endothelin-1 (ET-1)- or phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated EHTs served as positive control for hypertrophy. Cardiomyocytes in EHTs enlarged by 28.4 % under AE and to a similar extent by ET-1- or PE-stimulation (40.6 or 23.6 %), as determined by dystrophin staining. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was accompanied by activation of the fetal gene program, increased glucose consumption, and increased mRNA levels and extracellular deposition of collagen-1. Importantly, afterload-enhanced EHTs exhibited reduced contractile force and impaired diastolic relaxation directly after release of the metal braces. These deleterious effects of afterload enhancement were preventable by endothelin-A, but not endothelin-B receptor blockade. Sustained afterload enhancement of EHTs alone is sufficient to induce pathological cardiac remodeling with reduced contractile function and increased glucose consumption. The model will be useful to investigate novel therapeutic approaches in a simple and fast manner. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

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