Leibniz Institute for Analytical Sciences

Dortmund, Germany
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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: NMP.2011.1.3-1 | Award Amount: 3.85M | Year: 2012

Controlled or uncontrollabel disposing of nanoparticles in various components of man made or biological matter, may have wanted or undesired consequences. Developing the diagnostic tools to detect and characterize the grey goo is one of the challeneges of nanotech-era. A development of general technology for detection and analysis of single nanoparticles in complex environment and a development of a laboratory prototype of the device based on this technology and its application are the goal of this project. The proposal is based on the new experimental phenomenon discovered recently by a project partner: single subwavelength objects give rise to giant optical signals in surface plasmon resonance microscopy. This provides a unique possibility for ultrasensitive on-line detection of engineered nanoparticles. Within the project a development of the device for detection of nanoparticles and its application for a number of practically important tasks will be performed. The work includes a development of theoretical description of the new effect, optimization of main components of the detection system, development of sophisticated software for effective image analyses and isolation of nanoparticle signals from background optical signals and noise. Preliminary experiments demonstrated a possibility to use surface modification to distinguish different types of nanoparticles. Within the project this approach will be used for identification of nanoparticles. Measurements will be performed in aqueous media as well as in air. Inorganic, plastic and protein nanoparticles will be examined. At the final step of the project monitoring of nanoparticles in simple (drinking water, mineral water, air) and complicated (wine, juice and other transparent non-colloidal drinks) will be performed. The end users will test the developed experimental system for monitoring of workplaces and waste during production of inorganic and protein nanoparticles.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2011.3.4-2 | Award Amount: 4.94M | Year: 2012

Border security is one of the key security challenges to be taken up by Europe in the following years. In particular, the deployment of practical efficient means to detect hidden persons and illegal substances at border crossing points is instrumental in avoiding terrorism, human trafficking or smuggling. The DOGGIES project aims at demonstrating (1) an operational movable stand alone sensor for an efficient detection of hidden persons, drugs & explosives, (2) the potential adaptation of this solution for the detection of a much wider range of illegal substances. The project addresses trace detection: it relies on the combination of two technologies based on completely different physical principles, therefore qualified as orthogonal: - Mid-Infrared spectroscopy technology, based on photoacoustic detection, which appears as the most powerful and promising to detect a very wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); developments within DOGGIES will mainly target the demonstration of a widely tuneable integrated MIR source coupled with a miniature photo-acoustic cell; - Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) technology, more mature, as mentioned above; developments within DOGGIES will mainly target the use of non radio-active ionisation source. One of the main operational challenges is to provide reliable detection in real environments, in particular with the presence of interferents. It is expected that the use of specific pre-concentrators on one hand, and the combination of the signal emerging from these orthogonal technologies by advanced software on the other hand will improve the detection reliability. The Consortium is composed of 14 partners from 5 EU countries, including 2 End-Users; the project activities will cover basic studies in physics and chemistry, as well as sensor engineering and field tests.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2008-2.2-2 | Award Amount: 4.52M | Year: 2009

Three-dimensional large area metamaterials, especially Negative Index Materials (NIMs) promise to enable numerous novel and breakthrough applications like perfect lenses and cloaking devices, not only but especially if they exhibit the desired properties in the visible frequency range. For the European Photonics industry it is of paramount importance enabling fabricating such materials as soon as possible, to maintain its important position in the areas of optical components and systems as well as production technologies. Till now such materials have not been produced, yet - neither in 3D nor on large areas, let alone both combined. The aim of NIM_NIL is the development of a production process for 3D NIMs in the visible regime combining UV-based Nanoimprint Lithography (UV-NIL) on wafer scale using the new material graphene and innovative geometrical designs. This project will go beyond state-of-the-art in three important topics regarding NIMs: the design, the fabrication using Nanoimprintlithography (NIL) and the optical characterization by ellipsometry. New designs and the new material Graphene will be investigated to extend the existing frequency limit of 900 nm into the visible regime. The fabrication method of choice is UV-NIL since it allows cost efficient large area nanostructuring, which is indispensible if materials like NIMs should be produced on large scale. The negative refraction will be measured using ellipsometry which is a fast and non-destructive method to control the fabrication process. At the end of the project a micro-optical prism made from NIM will be fabricated to directly verify and demonstrate the negative refractive index. Each aspect of innovation within NIM_NIL design, fabrication and characterisation of NIMs is represented by experts in this field resulting in a multidisciplinary highly motivated consortium containing participants from basic research as well as industrial endusers from whole Europe.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.4.2-9-3 | Award Amount: 8.67M | Year: 2011

Assessment of repeated dose toxicity is a standard requirement in human safety evaluation and relies on animal testing as no alternatives are currently accepted for regulatory purposes. An integrated research strategy for the replacement of animal tests needs to comprise the development of biomarkers of long-term toxicity in human target cells. To this aim, the DETECTIVE project will set up a screening pipeline of high content, high throughput as well as classical functional and -omics technologies to identify and investigate human biomarkers in cellular models for repeated dose in vitro testing. In view of industrial use in automated high throughput systems, essential questions of repeated dose toxicity such as stability and robustness of readouts will be investigated in a first phase. This will be the foundation for innovative biomarker development based on integration of multiple data streams derived from -omics readouts with traditional toxicological and histopathological endpoint evaluation. Toxicity pathways identified in -omics readouts can thus be further investigated by the functional readouts. DETECTIVE will initially use human hepatic, cardiac and renal models as common target organs of repeated dose toxicity. Ultimately, the strategy for establishing biomarkers will also be applicable to other organs or organ systems affected by systemic toxicants. It is also expected that DETECTIVE will be able to define human toxicity pathways relevant for all organs. Based on integrative statistical analysis, systematic verification and correlation with in vivo data, the most relevant, highly specific, sensitive and predictive biomarkers will be selected. Within DETECTIVE, partners from academia, industry and research will hence generate pathway- and evidence-based understanding of toxic effects, moving toxicology beyond descriptive science towards mechanism-based prediction.

Forschungsgesellschaft Fuer Arbeitsphysiologie Und Arbeitsschutz E. V. and Leibniz Institute for Analytical Sciences | Date: 2011-11-17

A method for the analysis of neurite growth is described, in which a substrate having an array pattern is provided, which has first regions on which neurons and cells similar to neurons can adhere, whereby the first regions are surrounded by second regions, in each instance, on which neurons and cells similar to neurons cannot adhere, whereby neurons or cells similar to neurons adhere only on the first regions of the array, and subsequently, the neurons or cells similar to neurons are exposed to one or multiple or no treatment(s), and during this/these treatment(s) and/or afterwards, the neurite outgrowths from the neurons or cells similar to neurons are analyzed by recognizing and quantifying the connections that are formed between the first regions by means of the neurite outgrowths.

Blixt O.,Copenhagen University | Westerlind U.,Leibniz Institute for Analytical Sciences
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology | Year: 2014

Glycosylation is chemically the most complex post-translational modification of proteins and therefore understanding the structural and biological implications of post-translational glycosylation is a major challenge. The need for rapid and reliable investigations of protein-glycan interaction events and the substantial efforts required to synthesize glycans and glycopeptides with a variety of structures has called for the development of miniaturized analytical techniques. In the last decade, glycan and glycopeptide microarrays have enabled high-throughput analysis of diverse protein-glycan interactions. Evaluations of enzyme activities and substrate specificities, characterization of glycan binding proteins, mapping of antibody epitopes, detection of autoantibodies and serodiagnosis are typically conducted on microarrays. The most significant developments in synthesis, immobilization and applications of glycopeptide microarrays are covered in this review. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Gaidzik N.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Westerlind U.,Leibniz Institute for Analytical Sciences | Kunz H.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

Based on important cell-biological and biochemical results concerning the structural difference between membrane glycoproteins of normal epithelial cells and epithelial tumour cells, tumour-associated glycopeptide antigens have been chemically synthesised and structurally confirmed. Glycopeptide structures of the tandem repeat sequence of mucin MUC1 of epithelial tumour cells constitute the most promising tumour-associated antigens. In order to generate a sufficient immunogenicity of these endogenous structures, usually tolerated by the immune system, these synthetic glycopeptide antigens were conjugated to immune stimulating components: in fully synthetic two-component vaccines either with T-cell peptide epitopes or with Toll-like receptor2 lipopeptide ligands or in three-component vaccines with both these stimulants. Alternatively, the synthetic glycopeptide antigens were coupled to immune stimulating carrier proteins. In particular, MUC1 glycopeptide conjugates with Tetanus toxoid proved to be efficient vaccines inducing very strong immune responses in mice. The antibodies elicited with the fully synthetic vaccines showed selective recognition of the tumour-associated glycopeptides as was shown by neutralisation and micro-array binding experiments. After booster immunisations, most of the immune responses showed the installation of an immunological memory. Immunisation with fully synthetic three-component vaccines induced immune reactions with therapeutic effects in terms of reduction of the tumour burden in mice or in killing of tumour cells in culture, while MUC1 glycopeptide-Tetanus toxoid vaccines elicited antibodies in mice which recognised tumour cells in human tumour tissues. The results achieved so far are considered to be promising for the development of an active immunisation against tumours. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Westerlind U.,Leibniz Institute for Analytical Sciences
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2012

Over the past few years, synthetic methods for the preparation of complex glycopeptides have been drastically improved. The need for homogenous glycopeptides and glycoproteins with defined chemical structures to study diverse biological phenomena further enhances the development of methodologies. Selected recent advances in synthesis and applications, in which glycopeptides or glycoproteins serve as tools for biological studies, are reviewed. The importance of specific antibodies directed to the glycan part, as well as the peptide backbone has been realized during the development of synthetic glycopeptide-based anti-tumor vaccines. The fine-tuning of native chemical ligation (NCL), expressed protein ligation (EPL), and chemoenzymatic glycosylation techniques have all together enabled the synthesis of functional glycoproteins. The synthesis of structurally defined, complex glycopeptides or glyco-clusters presented on natural peptide backbones, or mimics thereof, offer further possibilities to study protein-binding events. © 2012 Westerlind; licensee Beilstein-Institut.

Leibniz Institute for Analytical Sciences | Date: 2015-08-26

With a method for measurement of thrombocyte function, a solution is created, by which the sensitivity of individual thrombocytes can be measured with the least possible apparatus effort, with high throughput, by passing a liquid thrombocyte solution, in which the thrombocytes are present in isolated form, into a microfluidic chamber and brought into contact with at least one stimulant, wherein an electrical field directed transverse to the entry direction of the thrombocyte solution is applied to the chamber, and the movement path of the thrombocytes in the electrical field is observed and evaluated, in such a manner that thrombocytes having a movement path directed in the direction toward the minus pole of the electrical field are classified as non-activated thrombocytes, and thrombocytes having a movement path directed in the direction toward the plus pole of the electrical field are classified as activated thrombocytes.

Leibniz Institute for Analytical Sciences | Date: 2015-07-23

An apparatus for taking a sample from at least one fluid system and for passing the sample to an analytical evaluation system connects the piston rod of the sample-taking piston with a controllable drive. A flushing gas feed opens into a feed line downstream from a three-way valve, via a shut-off valve. The three-way valve, the controllable drive, and the shut-off valve are coupled with one another so that for taking a sample, the three-way valve releases the path of the sampling line to the sample-taking cylinder, the shut-off valve is open, and the controllable drive withdraws the sample-taking piston from the sample-taking cylinder, and, for applying the sample to the evaluation system, the shut-off valve is closed, the three-way valve is switched to release the path from the sample-taking piston to the feed line, and the controllable drive pushes the sample-taking piston completely back into the sample-taking cylinder.

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