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Duchardt-Ferner E.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Gottstein-Schmidtke S.R.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Weigand J.E.,TU Darmstadt | Ohlenschlager O.,Leibniz Institute For Altersforschung Fritz Lipmann Institute | And 4 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2016

To ensure appropriate metabolic regulation, riboswitches must discriminate efficiently between their target ligands and chemically similar molecules that are also present in the cell. A remarkable example of efficient ligand discrimination is a synthetic neomycin-sensing riboswitch. Paromomycin, which differs from neomycin only by the substitution of a single amino group with a hydroxy group, also binds but does not flip the riboswitch. Interestingly, the solution structures of the two riboswitch-ligand complexes are virtually identical. In this work, we demonstrate that the local loss of key intermolecular interactions at the substitution site is translated through a defined network of intramolecular interactions into global changes in RNA conformational dynamics. The remarkable specificity of this riboswitch is thus based on structural dynamics rather than static structural differences. In this respect, the neomycin riboswitch is a model for many of its natural counterparts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Carella M.,Leibniz Institute For Altersforschung Fritz Lipmann Institute | Becher J.,Leibniz Institute For Altersforschung Fritz Lipmann Institute | Ohlenschlager O.,Leibniz Institute For Altersforschung Fritz Lipmann Institute | Ramachandran R.,Leibniz Institute For Altersforschung Fritz Lipmann Institute | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2011

Oxidation of methionine to methionine sulphoxide (MetSO) may lead to loss of molecular integrity and function. This oxidation can be 'repaired' by methionine sulphoxide reductases (MSRs), which reduce MetSO back to methionine. Two structurally unrelated classes of MSRs, MSRA and MSRB, show stereoselectivity towards the S and the R enantiomer of the sulphoxide respectively. Interestingly, these enzymes were even maintained throughout evolution in anaerobic organisms. Here, the activity and the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of MTH711, a zinc containing MSRB from the thermophilic, methanogenic archaebacterium Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus, are described. The structure appears more rigid as compared with similar MSRBs from aerobic and mesophilic organisms. No significant structural differences between the oxidized and the reduced MTH711 state can be deduced from our NMR data. A stable sulphenic acid is formed at the catalytic Cys residue upon oxidation of the enzyme with MetSO. The two non-zinc-binding cysteines outside the catalytic centre are not necessary for activity of MTH711 and are not situated close enough to the active-site cysteine to serve in regenerating the active centre via the formation of an intramolecular disulphide bond. These findings imply a reaction cycle that differs from that observed for other MSRBs. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Hamidi T.,Aix - Marseille University | Algul H.,TU Munich | Cano C.E.,Aix - Marseille University | Sandi M.J.,Aix - Marseille University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2012

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has the lowest survival rate of all cancers and shows remarkable resistance to cell stress. Nuclear protein 1 (Nupr1), which mediates stress response in the pancreas, is frequently upregulated in pancreatic cancer. Here, we report that Nupr1 plays an essential role in pancreatic tumorigenesis. In a mouse model of pancreatic cancer with constitutively expressed oncogenic KrasG12D, we found that loss of Nupr1 protected from the development of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs). Further, in cultured pancreatic cells, nutrient deprivation activated Nupr1 expression, which we found to be required for cell survival. We found that Nupr1 protected cells from stress-induced death by inhibiting apoptosis through a pathway dependent on transcription factor RelB and immediate early response 3 (IER3). NUPR1, RELB, and IER3 proteins were coexpressed in mouse PanINs from KrasG12D-expressing pancreas. Moreover, pancreasspecific deletion of Relb in a KrasG12D background resulted in delayed in PanIN development associated with a lack of IER3 expression. Thus, efficient PanIN formation was dependent on the expression of Nupr1 and Relb, with likely involvement of IER3. Finally, in patients with PDAC, expression of NUPR1, RELB, and IER3 was significantly correlated with a poor prognosis. Cumulatively, these results reveal a NUPR1/RELB/IER3 stress-related pathway that is required for oncogenic KrasG12D-dependent transformation of the pancreas.

Kramer A.,Leibniz Institute For Altersforschung Fritz Lipmann Institute | Mentrup T.,Leibniz Institute For Altersforschung Fritz Lipmann Institute | Kleizen B.,University Utrecht | Rivera-Milla E.,Leibniz Institute For Altersforschung Fritz Lipmann Institute | And 11 more authors.
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2013

Notch signaling has a pivotal role in numerous cell-fate decisions, and its aberrant activity leads to developmental disorders and cancer. To identify molecules that influence Notch signaling, we screened nearly 17,000 compounds using automated microscopy to monitor the trafficking and processing of a ligand-independent Notch-enhanced GFP (eGFP) reporter. Characterization of hits in vitro by biochemical and cellular assays and in vivo using zebrafish led to five validated compounds, four of which induced accumulation of the reporter at the plasma membrane by inhibiting γ-secretase. One compound, the dihydropyridine FLI-06, disrupted the Golgi apparatus in a manner distinct from that of brefeldin A and golgicide A. FLI-06 inhibited general secretion at a step before exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which was accompanied by a tubule-to-sheet morphological transition of the ER, rendering FLI-06 the first small molecule acting at such an early stage in secretory traffic. These data highlight the power of phenotypic screening to enable investigations of central cellular signaling pathways. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Krumbholz A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Lange J.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Sauerbrei A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Groth M.,Leibniz Institute For Altersforschung Fritz Lipmann Institute | And 7 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2014

The avian-like swine influenza viruses emerged in 1979 in Belgium and Germany. Thereafter, they spread through many European swine-producing countries, replaced the circulating classical swine H1N1 influenza viruses, and became endemic. Serological and subsequent molecular data indicated an avian source, but details remained obscure due to a lack of relevant avian influenza virus sequence data. Here, the origin of the European avian-like swine influenza viruses was analysed using a collection of 16 European swine H1N1 influenza viruses sampled in 1979–1981 in Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy and France, as well as several contemporaneous avian influenza viruses of various serotypes. The phylogenetic trees suggested a triple reassortant with a unique genotype constellation. Time-resolved maximum clade credibility trees indicated times to the most recent common ancestors of 34–46 years (before 2008) depending on the RNA segment and the method of tree inference. © 2014 The Authors.

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