Time filter

Source Type

Grunewald, Germany

Celiac disease patients rely on safe gluten-free products, and the use of purified wheat starch (WSt) as part of the diet is usually well tolerated. However, uncertainties about residual gluten amounts in WSt remain, because ELISAs target the alcohol-soluble prolamin (gliadin) fraction of gluten, but hardly detect the alcohol-insoluble glutelin (glutenin) fraction. Therefore, gliadin, glutenin and gluten contents of WSt prepared from doughs on a laboratory scale were monitored by RP-HPLC. WSt washed with water from optimally or overmixed doughs had the lowest gluten contents. Gliadins were removed more extensively than glutenins during consecutive washing steps, so that gluten contents analyzed by ELISA were lower than those by RP-HPLC in 17 out of 24 WSt samples. The inability to detect glutelins by ELISA may thus lead to an underestimation of gluten contents in WSt. These findings highlight the need for improved analytical methods capable of detecting both prolamins and glutelins in processed food samples. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

News Article | April 22, 2016
Site: http://phys.org/space-news/

An international team of astronomers led by Dr. Andrea Kunder of the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP) in Germany has discovered that the central 2000 light years within the Milky Way Galaxy hosts an ancient population of stars. These stars are more than 10 billion years old and their orbits in space preserve the early history of the formation of the Milky Way.

News Article
Site: http://phys.org/biology-news/

Using molecular genetic tools, scientists have demonstrated the existence of a grandchildren's generation of capercaillies in the south of Brandenburg in East Germany. A pilot conservation project reintroduced these endangered birds to the German nature reserves "Niederlausitzer Heidelandschaft" and "Niederlausitzer Landrücken" as recently as 2012. The founder population was wild caught in Sweden and then transferred to Brandenburg. "I am really happy about this success which exceeds the highest expectations even of the project initiators. This success is based on a longstanding collaboration between the Forest Administration of our state, the two nature reserves, the Federal Forest Management Lausitz, the Leibniz Institute of Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) and local private forest owners. The aim of this collaboration over the long-term is to significantly improve the habitat in the large forests of the Western Niederlausitz", says Jörg Vogelsänger, Brandenburg's Minister of Rural Development, Environment and Agriculture. Experts discovered the unexpected existence of a grandchildren's generation when examining feathers collected from sand baths of the capercaillies. Geneticists from the IZW in Berlin not only documented the 60 Swedish capercaillies introduced into Brandenburg during the original release in 2012 and 2013. They could also show that the population already contained descendants of the first and second generations. Therefore these young animals are the very first real "Brandenburg" carpercaillies. The original, native Brandenburg population had died out in 1990. Increased sightings of carpercaillies beyond the boundaries of the pilot conservation project area confirm that these impressive birds are established well and start spreading within Brandenburg. The carpercaillie pilot project ran from 2012 to 2014. It evaluated the chances of success for reintroducing carpercaillies in its former habitat in the Niederlausitz and was scientifically monitored. The high survival rates of the Swedish wild caught birds is substantially above those from other comparable projects which used animals bred and kept in aviaries or cages. Despite this first evidence of successful reproduction of carpercaillies in Germany, the question is whether the current number of animals is sufficient to establish a viable population in the long run. The current population of 30 to 40 animals and their descendants does send out an optimistic message to all involved experts and the local communities which assisted in the reintroduction. This founder population represents a first big step towards a successful reintroduction of a highly endangered bird species in Germany. For the experts, the establishment of a self-sustaining population of at least 100 animals is the medium-term goal. For that reason, the Swedish Ministry of Environment will provide more carpercaillies to Germanys' state of Brandenburg in the next few years. Explore further: The evolution of personality

Shen P.,Leibniz Institute | Fillatreau S.,Leibniz Institute
Nature Reviews Immunology

Cytokine production by B cells is important for multiple aspects of immunity. B cell-derived cytokines, including lymphotoxin, are essential for the ontogenesis, homeostasis and activation of secondary lymphoid organs, as well as for the development of tertiary lymphoid tissues at ectopic sites. Other B cell-derived cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-β and tumour necrosis factor, influence the development of effector and memory CD4 + T cell responses. Finally, B cells can regulate inflammatory immune responses, primarily through their provision of IL-10 and IL-35. This Review summarizes these various roles of cytokine-producing B cells in immunity and discusses the rational for targeting these cells in the clinic. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Fillatreau S.,Leibniz Institute
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

B lymphocytes play a unique role in immunity through the production of antibodies. In addition, they can secrete various arrays of cytokines classically associated with innate or adaptive immune cells. During the last 10 years, it has become apparent that secretion of cytokines by B cells can play decisive roles in immunity. For instance, B cells can act both as regulators and drivers of autoimmune pathogenesis through production of cytokines, such as interleukin-10 or interleukin-6, respectively. Similarly, B cells can either inhibit or stimulate antimicrobial immunity through secretion of interleukin-10 or interleukin-2, respectively. Despite the fact that other cell types can produce the same factors, B cells are often a non-redundant source of these cytokines, a feature possibly attributable to the fact that B cells generally reside in microenvironments different from T cells in secondary lymphoid organs and inflamed tissues. This review discusses examples that illustrate the diversity of functions B cells can perform through the production of cytokines, highlighting the importance of this aspect of B cell biology in health and disease. Source

Discover hidden collaborations