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Celiac disease patients rely on safe gluten-free products, and the use of purified wheat starch (WSt) as part of the diet is usually well tolerated. However, uncertainties about residual gluten amounts in WSt remain, because ELISAs target the alcohol-soluble prolamin (gliadin) fraction of gluten, but hardly detect the alcohol-insoluble glutelin (glutenin) fraction. Therefore, gliadin, glutenin and gluten contents of WSt prepared from doughs on a laboratory scale were monitored by RP-HPLC. WSt washed with water from optimally or overmixed doughs had the lowest gluten contents. Gliadins were removed more extensively than glutenins during consecutive washing steps, so that gluten contents analyzed by ELISA were lower than those by RP-HPLC in 17 out of 24 WSt samples. The inability to detect glutelins by ELISA may thus lead to an underestimation of gluten contents in WSt. These findings highlight the need for improved analytical methods capable of detecting both prolamins and glutelins in processed food samples. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

News Article | April 22, 2016
Site: phys.org

An international team of astronomers led by Dr. Andrea Kunder of the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP) in Germany has discovered that the central 2000 light years within the Milky Way Galaxy hosts an ancient population of stars. These stars are more than 10 billion years old and their orbits in space preserve the early history of the formation of the Milky Way.

Using molecular genetic tools, scientists have demonstrated the existence of a grandchildren's generation of capercaillies in the south of Brandenburg in East Germany. A pilot conservation project reintroduced these endangered birds to the German nature reserves "Niederlausitzer Heidelandschaft" and "Niederlausitzer Landrücken" as recently as 2012. The founder population was wild caught in Sweden and then transferred to Brandenburg. "I am really happy about this success which exceeds the highest expectations even of the project initiators. This success is based on a longstanding collaboration between the Forest Administration of our state, the two nature reserves, the Federal Forest Management Lausitz, the Leibniz Institute of Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) and local private forest owners. The aim of this collaboration over the long-term is to significantly improve the habitat in the large forests of the Western Niederlausitz", says Jörg Vogelsänger, Brandenburg's Minister of Rural Development, Environment and Agriculture. Experts discovered the unexpected existence of a grandchildren's generation when examining feathers collected from sand baths of the capercaillies. Geneticists from the IZW in Berlin not only documented the 60 Swedish capercaillies introduced into Brandenburg during the original release in 2012 and 2013. They could also show that the population already contained descendants of the first and second generations. Therefore these young animals are the very first real "Brandenburg" carpercaillies. The original, native Brandenburg population had died out in 1990. Increased sightings of carpercaillies beyond the boundaries of the pilot conservation project area confirm that these impressive birds are established well and start spreading within Brandenburg. The carpercaillie pilot project ran from 2012 to 2014. It evaluated the chances of success for reintroducing carpercaillies in its former habitat in the Niederlausitz and was scientifically monitored. The high survival rates of the Swedish wild caught birds is substantially above those from other comparable projects which used animals bred and kept in aviaries or cages. Despite this first evidence of successful reproduction of carpercaillies in Germany, the question is whether the current number of animals is sufficient to establish a viable population in the long run. The current population of 30 to 40 animals and their descendants does send out an optimistic message to all involved experts and the local communities which assisted in the reintroduction. This founder population represents a first big step towards a successful reintroduction of a highly endangered bird species in Germany. For the experts, the establishment of a self-sustaining population of at least 100 animals is the medium-term goal. For that reason, the Swedish Ministry of Environment will provide more carpercaillies to Germanys' state of Brandenburg in the next few years. Explore further: The evolution of personality

News Article
Site: www.materialstoday.com

Textechno, a German manufacturer of testing equipment for textiles, and the Leibniz Institute for Polymer Research Dresden, have won the JEC World Innovation Award 2016 for a new testing system which can access the properties of a fiber to matrix interface. The quality of a composite laminate, especially the stiffness, can be dependent on a good adhesion strength between the reinforcing fiber and the polymer matrix. To accurately and reliably measure the bonding between fibers and resins, Textechno developed Fimatest, the first system that is commercially available consisting of two devices Fimabond, a partially automated embedding station suitable for all fibers and resins systems,  and the pullout tester Favimat+, which can also be used for single filament linear density and tensile testing. ‘The FIMATEST system is a new building block for testing the quality of composite laminates with glass or carbon fiber reinforcement,’ said Dr Ulrich Mörschel, CEO of Textechno. ‘This development was possible through an excellent collaboration with the well known expert Professor Edith Mäder from the Dresden Leibniz Institute for Polymer Research who contributed the knowledge of the micromechanical behaviour.’ ‘The composite market is continuously growing and requires world-class testing systems measuring the quality of the products,’ said Dr Michael Effing, CEO of AMAC GmbH and advisor for Composite Materials to Textechno. ‘The fiber matrix interface is a key feature for mechanical performance. I am very pleased that Textechno has developed this system in a very short time frame and can already present it at the JEC.’ The first system has been delivered to the new Fraunhofer ICT Institute in Augsburg, Germany and another unit has been sold to a glass fiber producer in the USA, the company says. This story uses material from Textechno, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

Shen P.,Leibniz Institute | Fillatreau S.,Leibniz Institute
Nature Reviews Immunology | Year: 2015

Cytokine production by B cells is important for multiple aspects of immunity. B cell-derived cytokines, including lymphotoxin, are essential for the ontogenesis, homeostasis and activation of secondary lymphoid organs, as well as for the development of tertiary lymphoid tissues at ectopic sites. Other B cell-derived cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-β and tumour necrosis factor, influence the development of effector and memory CD4 + T cell responses. Finally, B cells can regulate inflammatory immune responses, primarily through their provision of IL-10 and IL-35. This Review summarizes these various roles of cytokine-producing B cells in immunity and discusses the rational for targeting these cells in the clinic. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

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