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Sterr J.,Lehrstuhl fur Lebensmittelverpackungstechnik | Perlich J.,German Electron Synchrotron
Faraday Discussions | Year: 2012

Casein micelles undergo shape changes when subjected to frontal filtration forces. Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) allow a quantification of such structural changes on filtration cakes deposited on smooth silicon micro-sieves. A trans-membrane pressure of Δp = 400 mbar across the micro-sieve leads to an immediate film formation after deposition of casein solution. We observe significant changes in the GISAXS pattern depending on how many layers are stacked on top of each other. Compared to a deposit formed by one layer, GISAXS on a deposit formed by three layers of casein micelles leads to less scattering in the vertical and more scattering in the horizontal direction. Simulations show that the experimental results can be interpreted by a structural transformation from an originally spherical micelle shape to an ellipsoidal-deformed shape. The results are supported by AFM measurements showing a reduced lateral size of casein micelles deposited on top of a membrane pore. The observed shape changes could be due to filtration forces acting on densely packed deposits confining the micelles into ellipsoidal shapes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Sorgatz A.,Lehrstuhl fur Lebensmittelverpackungstechnik | Gabler F.,Lehrstuhl fur Lebensmittelverpackungstechnik | Voigt T.,Lehrstuhl fur Lebensmittelverpackungstechnik
BrewingScience | Year: 2010

Multi-lane bottle conveyors are in use at almost all bottling plants. They are not only needed for the transportation of bottles but also for decoupling the failure sensitive machines of the plant by storing and providing bottles. This increases the overall effi ciency of a plant by bridging short downtimes. These buffer conveying systems have to be controlled with regard to their fi lling level. State of the art is the stepwise detection of the fi lling level by mechanical switches, which are actuated by accumulating bottles. This leads to a stepwise control. In this paper a new control concept is presented which allows controlling multi-lane conveyors stepless by monitoring the infeed and the output of the conveyor. This enables a more precise control of the conveyor sections velocities and outputs of the up-and downstream machines. No mechanical jam switches are necessary. The developed control algorithm was successfully implemented and tested at an industrial scale pilot plant. Test runs showed an equal fl ow of bottles due to the continuous adaption of the machine outputs and conveyor sections velocities and the minimization of the conveyors dead time.


Sorgatz A.,Lehrstuhl fur Lebensmittelverpackungstechnik | Gabler F.,Lehrstuhl fur Lebensmittelverpackungstechnik | Voigt T.,Lehrstuhl fur Lebensmittelverpackungstechnik
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2010

Over the past few years new rules regarding noise exposure of workers have been enacted. In the brewing and beverage industry, this especially concerns the area of bottling. Bottling plants in most cases exceed the new levels. The transport of glass bottles has long been recognized one of the main sources of noise within a bottling hall. This paper examines a new continuous approach for controlling multi-lane bottle conveyors. In contrast to the nowadays used stepwise control, the filling level is detected continuously. Thus the conveyor speed can be adapted exactly to the situation occurring on the conveyor. This leads to noticeable lower noise emissions of the conveyor, without influencing the buffer and transporting tasks in a negative way. The new control concept may help the beverage industry avoid hearing disorders of workers, without decreasing the efficiency of the plants. © 2010 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.

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