Borough of Bronx, NY, United States

Lehman College, CUNY
Borough of Bronx, NY, United States

Lehman College is a senior college of the City University of New York in New York, NY, USA. Founded in 1931 as the Bronx campus of Hunter College, the school became an independent college within CUNY in September 1967. The college is named after Herbert H. Lehman, a former New York governor, United States senator, and philanthropist. It is a public, comprehensive, coeducational liberal arts college with more than 90 undergraduate and graduate degree programs and specializations. Wikipedia.

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Schoenfeld B.J.,Lehman College, CUNY
Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

It is well established that regimented resistance training can promote increases in muscle hypertrophy. The prevailing body of research indicates that mechanical stress is the primary impetus for this adaptive response and studies show that mechanical stress alone can initiate anabolic signalling. Given the dominant role of mechanical stress in muscle growth, the question arises as to whether other factors may enhance the post-exercise hypertrophic response. Several researchers have proposed that exercise-induced metabolic stress may in fact confer such an anabolic effect and some have even suggested that metabolite accumulation may be more important than high force development in optimizing muscle growth. Metabolic stress pursuant to traditional resistance training manifests as a result of exercise that relies on anaerobic glycolysis for adenosine triphosphate production. This, in turn, causes the subsequent accumulation of metabolites, particularly lactate and H+. Acute muscle hypoxia associated with such training methods may further heighten metabolic buildup. Therefore, the purpose of this paper will be to review the emerging body of research suggesting a role for exercise-induced metabolic stress in maximizing muscle development and present insights as to the potential mechanisms by which these hypertrophic adaptations may occur. These mechanisms include increased fibre recruitment, elevated systemic hormonal production, alterations in local myokines, heightened production of reactive oxygen species and cell swelling. Recommendations are provided for potential areas of future research on the subject. © 2013 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is a common condition resulting from a bout of vigorous exercise, particularly if the individual is unaccustomed to performance of the given movement. Symptoms of EIMD include delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and a loss of physical function. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are routinely prescribed post-exercise to alleviate these symptoms and restore normal physical function. Of potential concern for those who use NSAIDs to treat EIMD is the possibility that they may impair the adaptive response to exercise. Specifically, there is emerging evidence that the action of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzymes, and COX-2 in particular, are important and even necessary to achieve maximal skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to functional overload. Given that NSAIDs exert their actions by blocking COX and thus suppressing prostaglandin production, a theoretical rationale exists whereby these drugs may have detrimental effects on muscle regeneration and supercompensation. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to extensively review the literature and evaluate the effects of NSAIDs on muscle growth and development. Based on current evidence, there is little reason to believe that the occasional use of NSAIDs will negatively affect muscle growth, although the efficacy for their use in alleviating inflammatory symptoms remains questionable. Evidence on the hypertrophic effects of the chronic use of NSAIDs is less clear. In those who are untrained, it does not appear that regular NSAID use will impede growth in the short term, and at least one study indicates that it may in fact have a positive impact. Given their reported impairment of satellite cell activity, however, longer-term NSAID use may well be detrimental, particularly in those who possess greater growth potential. © 2012 Springer International Publishing AG. All rights reserved.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: PREEVENTS - Prediction of and | Award Amount: 136.07K | Year: 2016

Motion along plate boundaries where two plates collide, such as subduction or continental collision zones, is typically head-on. In some cases, the collisions are more oblique, a situation that sets up a complex pattern of crustal deformation. Some deformation is accommodated by faults that allow crustal blocks to slide by each other and some deformation is accommodated by development of folds and faults with both a vertical and horizontal component of motion. The boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates is such a case. A research team of scientists from the University of Rhode Island, City University of New York, and University dEtat de Haiti is carrying out a seismic reflection and sediment coring study on Lake Azuei, Haiti, in order determine how the faults in this region are moving in response to oblique plate collision. This region is of particular interest because the study area lies just to the east of the rupture zone of the January 12, 2010 magnitude 7.0 Haiti earthquake, the catastrophic event that devastated the capital Port-au-Prince and surrounding regions. In addition to shedding light on how motion along this plate boundary is accommodated, this study will provide some critical information needed for a meaningful assessment of the seismic hazards facing this densely populated region. The project will advance other desired societal outcomes through: involvement of education major students in the project; development of a diverse, globally competitive STEM workforce through graduate and undergraduate student training; and close collaboration with Haitian scientists.

To a first order, the Caribbean plate is moving east-northeastward at about 2 cm/yr relative to the North American plate, implying an oblique convergence between the two plates. This oblique convergence is partly accommodated across the island of Hispaniola by the partitioning of motion between two east-west left-lateral transform faults and a fold-and-thrust belt that strikes northwest-southeast. Surprisingly, the 2010 Mw7.0 Haiti earthquake did not rupture along the well-defined trace of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault, the southern transform fault. Instead, slip occurred on an unsuspected blind oblique thrust fault that abuts the strike-slip fault. Similar hazardous interactions between strike-slip and thrust faults are expected elsewhere along Hispaniola. In particular, Lake Azuei, located about 30 km east of Haitis capital city of Port-au-Prince, is bisected by the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault and is bounded to the north and east by the Haiti fold-and-thrust belt. This project employs a high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection survey and CHIRP sub-bottom profiling to image both strike-slip and thrust-fold structures where they meet beneath Lake Azuei and will determine the spatial and temporal relations between them. Lake Azuei, a shallow lake located about 60 km east of the 2010 epicenter, is crossed by the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault and is also bounded by the Haiti fold-and-thrust belt. A two-week survey will produce a dense grid of high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection profiles with an expected penetration of at least a few hundred meters below the lake bed. CHIRP subbottom profiles will be acquired concurrently; these will provide an even higher stratigraphic resolution (sub-meter) but with a lower penetration (up to 20 m). In addition, the seismic stratigraphy will be ground-truthed with a series of short sediment cores. These cores will be sited where seismic data indicate that deeper (older) seismic horizons intersect the lake bed. Sediment samples will be dated using a combination of paleomagnetic measurements and radioisotopic methods in order to establish a Holocene chronostratigraphy for Lake Azuei. The careful stratigraphic analysis of the seismic reflection and CHIRP profiles will result in a digital representation of faults, folds, and sequence boundaries in three-dimensions. Together with the stratigraphic analysis of the sediment cores, this project will thus characterize the spatial and temporal relations between the two sets of oblique structures.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: Elem. Particle Physics/Theory | Award Amount: 60.00K | Year: 2016

This award funds the research of Professor Luis Anchordoqui at CUNY Lehman College.

After nearly twenty years of planning and construction, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now the worlds largest and most powerful particle collider. By colliding elementary particles against each other at high energies, physicists expect to learn about the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions at higher energies and smaller distances than have ever been previously explored. Currently the most successful theory for explaining how these elementary particles interact at the highest possible energies is string theory. String theory has the advantage of not only explaining the existence of all of the elementary particles as different excitations of a fundamental string, but also explaining how gravity might be unified with the other, non-gravitational forces. In his research, Professor Anchordoqui aims to develop methods to search for and test some of the ideas coming from string theory at the LHC. As a consequence, research in this area advances the national interest by promoting the progress of science in one of its most fundamental directions: the discovery and understanding of new physical laws. This project is also envisioned to have significant broader impacts. Professor Anchordoqui will involve graduate students and postdocs in his research, and thereby provide critical training for junior physicists beginning research in this field. He also intends to give public lectures on his research results, and develop new course curricula based on results from the LHC.

More technically, Professor Anchordoqui will consider extensions of the Standard Model based on open strings ending on D-branes, with gauge bosons emerging as strings attached to stacks of D-branes and with chiral matter emerging as strings stretching between intersecting D-branes. Assuming that the fundamental string mass scale is in the TeV range and the theory is weakly coupled, Professor Anchordoqui will develop a number of search strategies that would signal string physics at the LHC. These include a re-examination of the so-called Green-Schwarz mechanism, a modification of an action functional of a quantum field theory involving higher gauge fields that makes a quantum anomaly of the original action functional disappear, as well as the study of the minimal left-right symmetric intersecting D-brane model. He also plans to investigate whether the (possible) discrepancy between observation and theoretical calculation of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be explained in the context of low-mass-scale string resonances. Professor Anchordoqui will also undertake a phenomenological analysis of inflationary potentials exhibiting S-duality. Professor Anchordoqui is also involved with the Pierre Auger Collaboration, searching for the origin and nature of the highest-energy cosmic rays and studying particle interactions at center-of-mass energies well beyond those attained at the LHC.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: LINGUISTICS | Award Amount: 180.53K | Year: 2016

This project aims to further the study of New York City English (NYCE) - the varieties of English particular to New York City and the surrounding region - through the development and use of an innovative audio-aligned and parsed corpus of New Yorkers speech. The project will combine recent advances in speech corpus development tools with the special talents and backgrounds of undergraduates at the City University of New York (CUNY), to create the first such corpus of New York City English (the CUNY-CoNYCE). The CUNY-CoNYCE will be based on interviews with New Yorkers across the five boroughs and Long Island, conducted by CUNY undergraduates from Queens College, Lehman College (The Bronx), and the College of Staten Island. Because our student populations draw predominantly from neighborhoods across the five boroughs of New York City and Long Island, they are uniquely able to collectively gather and produce large quantities of speech data from all over the region. The ultimate product will be an on-line, freely accessible, ~1,000,000-word audio-aligned and grammatically annotated corpus of NYCE speech, which will be accompanied by a full set of digital, text-searchable recordings of the speech signal from which the corpus is transcribed.

In addition to answering questions about language variation and change in NYCE, the corpus will further research in all areas of linguistics, especially in phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, sociolinguistics, and discourse analysis. The use of oral history and sociological measurements of ethnic affiliation components in data collection will also make the CUNY-CoNYCE a useful tool for sociologists and anthropologists examining lived experience in urban settings, inter-ethnic relations, and near-term history of New York life. The project will also provide transformative research experiences for dozens of CUNY undergraduates, giving them unique research opportunities. Additionally, users of the corpus will develop an understanding of and appreciation for the grammar of non-standard dialects, and functions of non-standard speech as necessary linguistic resources for social integration.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: MSP-TARGETED AWARDS | Award Amount: 6.93M | Year: 2015

The MSPinNYC2 project builds on a previous MSP-Targeted Partnership project (DUE-0412413, called the MSPinNYC), with new partners joining most of the original partners, to extend and deepen a promising program called the Peer Enabled Restructured Classroom (PERC), which was piloted during the earlier work. Core partners in the MSPinNYC2 partnership include Hunter College of the City University of New York (CUNY) as lead, the Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan and Bronx High School Districts of the New York City Department of Education, and three other colleges in the CUNY system: York College, New York City College of Technology, and The Graduate Center. Additional partners include the College Now program at CUNY, the CUNY School Support Organization, and New Visions for Public Schools. The PERC program restructures 9th grade STEM courses to have 7 or 8 Teaching Assistant Scholars facilitate group work on a daily basis. TA Scholars are average-achieving, i.e., not honors, 10th graders who passed the course and the associated required state exit examination during the previous year and are concurrently trained in a TA Scholar course led by the same teacher as the 9th grade class. Pilot studies with PERC during the MSPinNYC project suggested that the program reduces failure rates, closes achievement gaps, and improves graduation rates. Based on lessons learned in the pilot studies with 9th and 10th grades in high schools in Manhattan and the Bronx, the MSPinNYC2 partnership is implementing PERC in nine high schools in Brooklyn and Queens, while expanding the program within three schools in Manhattan and the Bronx to incorporate all of grades 9-12 mathematics and science. A TA Scholar-to-College Pipeline supports TA Scholars throughout high school and prepares them for success in college. Students from PERC schools in all four boroughs who enter CUNY colleges are being mentored during the college freshman year, while STEM faculty and graduate students at the participating CUNY colleges are being supported to incorporate more student-centered pedagogies into freshman year STEM courses. PERC experiences are also being integrated into teacher education programs at the CUNY colleges. The research plan includes studying how PERC serves as a catalyst for school renewal, how the depth and sustainability of PERC implementation support scaling the innovation, how participation by teachers in PERC effects deep change within their practice, and how and why PERC experiences, as well as other forms of student support, lead to improved academic outcomes for students. The evaluation examines the fidelity of implementation and quality of the projects major components to provide formative evaluation, while the summative evaluation focuses primarily on assessing student achievement outcomes, their long-term academic success, and the overall diffusion of PERC into the secondary and post-secondary settings involved in the partnership.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SPECIAL PROJECTS - CCF | Award Amount: 316.00K | Year: 2015

This INSPIRE project is jointly funded by the Algorithmic Foundations program in the Computing and Communications Foundations Division in the Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering, the Environmental Sustainability program in the Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems Division in the Directorate for Engineering, and the Office of Integrative Activities (OIA) INSPIRE program.

A thermoelectric power plants operations can affect its surrounding environment, for example by raising water temperatures, which can be harmful to aquatic life, and so must comply with government regulation such as the Clean Water Act (CWA). It has recently been observed that the effects of power plants operations can be much longer-reaching and subtler than this, however: the use of this warmer water by a second power plant located downstream can degrade that plants efficiency, causing it in turn to heat the river water more than it otherwise would have, or even forcing it to shut down in order to comply with the CWA. Such complex dynamics characterizing the joint effects of a regions power plants suggest possible gains from managing plants jointly rather than individually. This analytical perspective prompts consideration of a huge variety of potential benefits to seek and costs to avoid in optimizing regional plant operations, and the interference phenomenon prompts (re)consideration of a number of classical algorithmic problems in the field of combinatorial optimization. This research offers many potential societal benefits in terms of environmental protection, economic savings, energy security, protection from blackouts, public health, and so on. Insights provided by the algorithmic solutions this project develops will be conveyed to decision makers and, if successful, will ultimately lead to improvements in management practices in existing plants and in long-range strategic planning. The project will provide research training for graduate students and will expose undergraduates at Lehman College and CCNY (both Minority-Serving Institutions) to interdisciplinary scientific research.

This project will inaugurate the study of a novel class of combinatorial optimization problems. More specifically, it will investigate new variations on classical problems such as knapsack and job scheduling, modified to incorporate a distinctive feature of the motivating application setting, i.e. the *nonlinear interference* that can occur between active power plants. The PI and his team will design efficient (near-)optimal algorithms for these problems in the sense of guaranteed approximation, and, leveraging existing analytical models, they will perform algorithmic engineering studies assessing their algorithms real-world viability. Finally, using tools from algorithmic game theory, they will quantify and provide a rigorous foundation for the perceived benefits of solving the motivating plant management problems jointly rather than plant-by-plant.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SCIENCE, TECH & SOCIETY | Award Amount: 271.81K | Year: 2016

This proposed research will explore how genetic counselors are bridging the world of science and the clinic in their role of providing information to the public on genetic science. By asking what genetic counselors consider to be the nuances and goals of their professional responsibilities, this proposed study will identify the tensions of genetic counseling and ethical aspects of translating genetic science to users. Findings of this proposed study will be of interest to researchers, policymakers, genetic counselors, medical community, and the general public. It will further scientific and public understandings of what counts as legitimate expertise and knowledge. It will identify processes to improve the publics uptake of science. In addition, it will contribute to understanding how to ground abstract bioethical principles in everyday encounters and to prepare professionals to respond to the ethical dilemmas of translating genetic knowledge and technologies.

Utilizing a multi-sited qualitative research approach, this proposed research draws on data from in-depth interviews, observations, and textual documents. It will bridge and blend existing science studies scholarship on scientists research practices in the lab with analysis of practitioners everyday decision-making in the clinic. In so doing, the proposed study uses concepts of ethical work, boundary making, and knowledge production to exam medical care in the clinic. By focusing on genetic counselors whose specific role is to provide information in order to facilitate individual decisions and expectations, this proposed study will analyze genetic counselors assessment of their role in translating genetic knowledge and its consequences. It will develop a framework through which to analyze other meso-level professions engaged in translational medicine.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: GEOMETRIC ANALYSIS | Award Amount: 168.00K | Year: 2016

In General Relativity, spacetime and spacelike slices of spacetime are manifolds (objects that locally resembles Euclidean spaces) satisfying certain geometric conditions determined by the Einstein Equation and other physically natural constraints. The manifolds arising in General Relativity are curved by gravity and they can contain black holes or thin deep gravity wells, making it technically difficult to estimate how close the manifold is to a simplified model, like Euclidean space. New compactness theorems with new notions of convergence are developed in this project providing fundamental new geometric tools that can be applied to address these challenges. The principal investigator has already been invited to present preliminary work in this direction at various mathematics and physics institutions around the world. As she has in the past, the PI will include young mathematicians of diverse backgrounds in this research project.

The PI will seek intrinsic flat limits of noncollapsing sequences of Riemannian manifolds with uniform lower bounds on scalar curvature. For example, the PI will consider sequences of asymptotically flat Riemannian manifolds with nonnegative scalar curvature whose ADM mass is approaching zero, or regions in such spaces with a uniform upper bound on Hawking mass. Compactness theorems for such sequences would be useful to prove the Almost Rigidity of the Schoen-Yau Positive Mass Theorem or the Bartnik Conjecture. Similar methods will also be applied towards proving Gromovs Almost Rigidity of Flat Tori Conjecture. To avoid cancellation and bubbling, the PI proposes to forbid the existence of arbitrarily small closed minimal surfaces in these and other conjectures stated within the proposal. Various Compactness Theorems for Intrinsic Flat convergence have been proven in different settings by Prof. Wenger, Dr. Portegies, Prof. LeFloch, Dr. Perales, Dr. Matveev, and the PI. Prior applications of intrinsic flat convergence to General Relativity have been completed in various papers by Prof. Lee, Prof. Huang, Prof. LeFloch, Prof. Stavrov, Prof. Jauregui and the PI.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 265.73K | Year: 2015

There is substantial evidence that many science teaching methods that actively engage students are more effective than traditional, didactic teaching methods (i.e., lecturing), in which students are typically passive. However, there are gaps in our knowledge regarding the types of active learning environments that are most effective for particular contexts. This Improving Undergraduate STEM Education (IUSE) project at Lehman College and Hunter College of the City University of New York (CUNY) will investigate chemistry students learning in two different active-learning environments: a flipped classroom format and an interactive lecture format. In the flipped classroom format, students learn new content outside of the classroom by reviewing learning objectives and viewing video content developed by course instructors, and spend their time in the classroom refining and applying their knowledge to chemistry problems under the guidance of the instructor. In the interactive lecture format, students listen to short lectures of 15-20 minutes followed by peer instruction sessions in which students answer questions posed by the instructor (using personal response systems known as clickers) and discuss them with their peers. These two formats both aim to engage students more deeply in learning chemistry and developing skills such as monitoring their thinking as compared with traditional lecture formats. Chemistry faculty at Hunter College and Lehman College will leverage their experiences developing and implementing these general chemistry courses with diverse student populations over the last five years, and collaborate with CUNYs Director of the Center for Advanced Study in Education, to study and compare the effectiveness of these two active learning formats.

To contribute to a better understanding of the effectiveness of flipped classroom and interactive lecture formats for enhancing student learning and metacognition, the investigators will conduct two types of studies. First, investigators will analyze archival data from previous implementations in general chemistry at Hunter College, including student exam performance and course completion rates, and compare the results across the two active learning formats. Second, the project team will conduct new efficacy studies in which students taking general chemistry at both Hunter and Lehman Colleges will be randomly assigned to a flipped classroom or interactive lecture format. The project team will analyze student-level performance data on both formative and summative assessments and, investigate whether particular cohorts of students learn better using a flipped classroom or interactive lecture format. In addition, the investigators will explore the extent to which students metacognitive and self-regulatory behaviors change over time for each format. Finally, they will examine students use of online homework and video resources, and determine how these are related to student learning. The diversity of the student populations across many dimensions at Hunter and Lehman Colleges of CUNY, which are also Hispanic-serving institutions, makes them excellent contexts in which to study the effectiveness of different active-learning formats for a variety of students. The results of this research are expected to inform science faculty members about the effectiveness and best practices associated with two popular active-learning formats, and to contribute to the development of instructional design principles for undergraduate science courses.

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