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Norwich, United Kingdom

A multi-objective regional calibration technique that incorporates a sequential regionalisation procedure was introduced and evaluated based on 12 catchments in Korea. This study was focused on investigating the impacts of the predictive capacity of a rainfall-runoff model for multiple objectives on the adequacy of regional relationships during the regional calibration. The effectiveness of the regional calibration using a multi-objective approach was evaluated by comparing the predictive performance of the regional calibration using a single-objective approach. The comparative assessment of the regional calibration approaches in the regionalisation suggests that the predictability of the regional models derived from the multi-objective regional calibration approach is generally good and reasonable with respect to the simultaneous catchment response to high and low flows and water balance. However, the multi-objective regional calibration approach displayed weaknesses associated with matching the water balance in the hydrograph, which was primarily caused by the reduced variation of the regional parameters. A more extensive study with a larger number of catchments is needed to develop more accurate regional relationships from the multi-objective regional calibration approach. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


The goals of this quantitative and qualitative study were to explore the four following questions: (1) what kinds of views do OSH inspectors have on the application and function of the Enforcement Act, (2) how do the OSH inspectors define the effectiveness of OSH enforcement, (3) how effective are the enforcement practices, and (4) how can the effectiveness of OSH enforcement be improved. In Finland the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health oversees the activities of the OSH divisions, which operate in the Regional State Administrative Agencies. A total of 229 inspectors responded to the questionnaire; the response rate was 71%. With respect to the evaluations of the present situation of OSH enforcement, three factors were identified. Factor 1 was designated as " Need of Guidance and Instructions Given by the Ministry" , Factor 2 as " Functions of Present Enforcement Practices" , Factor 3 as " Contradictions in Quality and Quantity Criteria of Inspections" Five factors were found in the evaluation of the improvements of the effectiveness of OSH enforcement. Factor 1 was designated as " How Advice, Quality, Quantity and Skills identified in inspections could be made more effective" , Factor 2 as " Improving Effectiveness by Inspections on Operations of Safety Management Systems based on Performance Agreement" , Factor 3 as " Improving Effectiveness by Harmonizing of Activities of the OSH Inspectors and OSH Inspectorates" , Factor 4 as " Effectiveness at a Distance carried out Inspections and Follow-up" and Factor 5 as " Effectiveness of Follow-up Enforcement". © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


The main objective of this study was to assess the predictive uncertainty from the rainfall-runoff model structure coupling a conceptual module (non-linear module) with a metric transfer function module (linear module). The methodology was primarily based on the comparison between the outputs of the rainfall-runoff model and those from an alternative model approach. An alternative model approach was used to minimise uncertainties arising from data and the model structure. A baseflow filter was adopted to better understand deficiencies in the forms of the rainfall-runoff model by avoiding the uncertainties related to data and the model structure. The predictive uncertainty from the model structure was investigated for representative groups of catchments having similar hydrological response characteristics in the upper Murrumbidgee Catchment. In the assessment of model structure suitability, the consistency (or variability) of catchment response over time and space in model performance and parameter values has been investigated to detect problems related to the temporal and spatial variability of the model accuracy. The predictive error caused by model uncertainty was evaluated through analysis of the variability of the model performance and parameters. A graphical comparison of model residuals, effective rainfall estimates and hydrographs was used to determine a model's ability related to systematic model deviation between simulated and observed behaviours and general behavioural differences in the timing and magnitude of peak flows. The model's predictability was very sensitive to catchment response characteristics. The linear module performs reasonably well in the wetter catchments but has considerable difficulties when applied to the drier catchments where a hydrologic response is dominated by quick flow. The non-linear module has a potential limitation in its capacity to capture non-linear processes for converting observed rainfall into effective rainfall in both the wetter and drier catchments. The comparative study based on a better quantification of the accuracy and precision of hydrological modelling predictions yields a better understanding for the potential improvement of model deficiencies. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Sheridan J.,Legislation
Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications | Year: 2014

Imagine designing laws using data-quickly and easily researching, interrogating and understanding the statute book as a whole system. For the first time, the technologies needed to do this have become widely available and reasonably affordable. Moving beyond searching for legal databases for strings of text, the 'big data for law' project aims to provide researchers with the data, tools and methods that have the potential to transform how the statute book is conceived and managed. In this poster presentation, John Sheridan, Head of Legislation Services at The National Archives in the UK, will present the work and findings of the big data for law project. © 2014 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved. Source


Chun J.,Legislation
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2014

Indigenous people have a vital role in environmental management and development because of their knowledge and traditional practices. The concept of sustainable development requires taking consideration into the legal system of traditional knowledge for the benefit of indigenous people who live in or near the forest. In modern administrative countries, the statutory legal system established by the government had almost prevailed over the common law system especially relating to management of natural resources. The statute regulating forest resources should prescribe the inherent interests to traditional knowledge of indigenous people in the forest. To endow indigenous people with inherent interests about forest resources and rights to traditional knowledge, the statute legal system and the common law system have to cooperate with each other according to the governance theory of cross-regulation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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