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Friedman S.R.,National Development and Research Institutes Inc | West B.S.,National Development and Research Institutes Inc | Pouget E.R.,National Development and Research Institutes Inc | Hall H.I.,Centers for Disease Control | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Among the largest US metropolitan areas, trends in mortality rates for injection drug users (IDUs) with AIDS vary substantially. Ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories suggest many metropolitan areas characteristics that might drive this variation. We assess metropolitan area characteristics associated with decline in mortality rates among IDUs living with AIDS (per 10,000 adult MSA residents) after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was developed. Methods: This is an ecological cohort study of 86 large US metropolitan areas from 1993-2006. The proportional rate of decline in mortality among IDUs diagnosed with AIDS (as a proportion of adult residents) from 1993-1995 to 2004-2006 was the outcome of interest. This rate of decline was modeled as a function of MSA-level variables suggested by ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories. In multiple regression analyses, we used 1993-1995 mortality rates to (partially) control for pre-HAART epidemic history and study how other independent variables affected the outcomes. Results: In multivariable models, pre-HAART to HAART era increases in 'hard drug' arrest rates and higher pre-HAART income inequality were associated with lower relative declines in mortality rates. Pre-HAART per capita health expenditure and drug abuse treatment rates, and pre- to HAART-era increases in HIV counseling and testing rates, were weakly associated with greater decline in AIDS mortality. Conclusions: Mortality among IDUs living with AIDS might be decreased by reducing metropolitan income inequality, increasing public health expenditures, and perhaps increasing drug abuse treatment and HIV testing services. Given prior evidence that drug-related arrest rates are associated with higher HIV prevalence rates among IDUs and do not seem to decrease IDU population prevalence, changes in laws and policing practices to reduce such arrests while still protecting public order should be considered.

Lariscy J.T.,University of Texas at Austin | Hummer R.A.,University of Texas at Austin | Rath J.M.,Legacy Foundation | Rath J.M.,Johns Hopkins University | And 5 more authors.
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2013

Introduction: A growing body of research documents racial/ethnic disparities in U.S. cigarette smoking. To date, however, few studies have examined the influence of nativity, in addition to race/ethnicity, on current and ever use of cigarettes as well as other tobacco products among young adults. Here, racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in tobacco use and self-identified smoking status are documented for U.S. women and men aged 18-34, both unadjusted and adjusted for socioeconomic status. Methods: The Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study (N = 3,696) was used to examine gender-specific tobacco use and smoking status differences among foreign-born Hispanics, U.S.-born Hispanics, U.S.-born non-Hispanic Blacks, and U.S.-born non-Hispanic Whites. Prevalence estimates and multivariable models of ever tobacco use, current tobacco use, and self-identified smoking status were calculated. results: U.S.-born Hispanics, Blacks, and Whites exhibit the highest levels of ever and current use across a range of tobacco products, whereas foreign-born Hispanics, particularly women, exhibit the lowest ever and current use of most products and are least likely to describe themselves as smokers. Controlling for socioeconomic covariates, current tobacco use is generally lower for most minority groups relative to Whites. Social or occasional smoking, however, is higher among U.S.-born Hispanics and Blacks. conclusions: The high level of tobacco use among U.S.-born young adults foreshadows substantial tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in the coming decades. Foreign-born Hispanic young adults, particularly women, exhibit the lowest levels of tobacco use. Future studies of tobacco use must differentiate racial/ethnic groups by nativity to better understand patterns of tobacco use. © Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

Cantrell J.,Legacy Foundation | Pearson J.L.,Behavior and Society | Pearson J.L.,Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies at Legacy | Anesetti-Rothermel A.,Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies at Legacy | And 5 more authors.
Nicotine and Tobacco Research | Year: 2016

Background: A growing body of evidence indicates that the density of tobacco retail outlets around the home residence may influence tobacco use among youth and adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of neighborhood tobacco retail outlet density on young adult initiation of different tobacco product types. Methods: Cross-sectional data from a 2013 nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18-34 was examined in relation to a 2012 geocoded listing of all outlets likely to sell tobacco in the United States. Separate multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between neighborhood outlet density and past 6 months first use of cigarettes, non-cigarette combustible products, and noncombustible products among adults aged 18-24 and 25-34. Results: Outlet density was significantly associated with recent initiation of cigarettes and other combustibles, but this impact varied for younger and older groups. Increased density was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of initiating cigarette use among adults aged 25-34 (OR = 3.75, 95% CI = 1.18, 11.90), and of initiating non-cigarette combustible use among 18-24 year olds (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.03, 9.74). There was no impact of outlet density on recent noncombustible product initiation among either group. Conclusion: This study is the first to examine the impact of tobacco outlet density on young adult initiation of cigarettes and other tobacco products. Findings demonstrate that residential neighborhood outlet density is associated with recent initiation of combustible products and this effect varies by product type and age. The tobacco outlet environment may be a critical factor in promoting young adult tobacco use initiation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved.

Cantrell J.,Legacy Foundation | Vallone D.M.,Legacy Foundation | Thrasher J.F.,University of South Carolina | Nagler R.H.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 requires updating of the existing text-only health warning labels on tobacco packaging with nine new warning statements accompanied by pictorial images. Survey and experimental research in the U.S. and other countries supports the effectiveness of pictorial health warning labels compared with text-only warnings for informing smokers about the risks of smoking and encouraging cessation. Yet very little research has examined differences in reactions to warning labels by race/ethnicity, education or income despite evidence that population subgroups may differ in their ability to process health information. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential impact of pictorial warning labels compared with text-only labels among U.S. adult smokers from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups. Methods/Findings: Participants were adult smokers recruited from two online research panels (n = 3,371) into a web-based experimental study to view either the new pictorial warnings or text-only warnings. Participants viewed the labels and reported their reactions. Adjusted regression models demonstrated significantly stronger reactions for the pictorial condition for each outcome salience (b = 0.62, p<.001); perceived impact (b = 0.44, p<.001); credibility (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.22-1.62), and intention to quit (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.10-1.53). No significant results were found for interactions between condition and race/ethnicity, education, or income. The only exception concerned the intention to quit outcome, where the condition-by-education interaction was nearly significant (p = 0.057). Conclusions: Findings suggest that the greater impact of the pictorial warning label compared to the text-only warning is consistent across diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic populations. Given their great reach, pictorial health warning labels may be one of the few tobacco control policies that have the potential to reduce communication inequalities across groups. Policies that establish strong pictorial warning labels on tobacco packaging may be instrumental in reducing the toll of the tobacco epidemic, particularly within vulnerable communities. © 2013 Cantrell et al.

Cantrell J.,Legacy Foundation | Kreslake J.M.,Legacy Foundation | Ganz O.,Legacy Foundation | Pearson J.L.,Schroeder Institute for Tobacco Research and Policy Studies | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2013

Objectives. We have documented little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) availability, advertising, and price in the point-of-sale environment and examined associations with neighborhood demographics. Methods. We used a multimodal real-time surveillance system to survey LCCs in 750 licensed tobacco retail outlets that sold tobacco products in Washington, DC. Using multivariate models, we examined the odds of LCC availability, the number of storefront exterior advertisements, and the price per cigarillo for Black & Mild packs in relation to neighborhood demographics. Results. The odds of LCC availability and price per cigarillo decreased significantly in nearly a dose-response manner with each quartile increase in proportion of African Americans. Prices were also lower in some young adult neighborhoods. Having a higher proportion of African American and young adult residents was associated with more exterior LCC advertising. Conclusions. Higher availability of LCCs in African American communities and lower prices and greater outdoor advertising in minority and young adult neighborhoods may establish environmental triggers to smoke among groups susceptible to initiation, addiction, and long-term negative health consequences.

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