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Manning M.C.,Legacy BioDesign LLC | Chou D.K.,Genzyme | Murphy B.M.,Legacy BioDesign LLC | Payne R.W.,Legacy BioDesign LLC | Katayama D.S.,Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2010

In 1989, Manning, Patel, and Borchardt wrote a review of protein stability (Manning et al., Pharm. Res. 6:903-918, 1989), which has been widely referenced ever since. At the time, recombinant protein therapy was still in its infancy. This review summarizes the advances that have been made since then regarding protein stabilization and formulation. In addition to a discussion of the current understanding of chemical and physical instability, sections are included on stabilization in aqueous solution and the dried state, the use of chemical modification and mutagenesis to improve stability, and the interrelationship between chemical and physical instability. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Stockdale G.,Glaxosmithkline | Murphy B.M.,Legacy BioDesign LLC | Murphy B.M.,Colorado State University | D'Antonio J.,North Carolina State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2015

Comparing higher order structure (HOS) in therapeutic proteins is a significant challenge. Previously, we showed that changes in solution conditions produced detectable changes in the second-derivative amide I Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra for a variety of model proteins. Those comparisons utilized vector-based approaches, such as spectral overlap and spectral correlation coefficients to quantify differences between spectra. In this study, chemometric analyses of the same data were performed, to classify samples into different groups based on the solution conditions received. The solution conditions were composed of various combinations of temperature, pH, and salt types. At first, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to visually demonstrate that FTIR spectra respond to changes in solution conditions, which, presumably indicates variations in HOS. This observed when samples from the same solution condition form clusters within a PCA score plot. The second approach, called soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), was conducted to account for the within-class experimental error for the lysozyme spectra. The DModX values, indicative of the distance of each spectra to their respective class models, was found to be a more sensitive quantitative indicator of changes in HOS, when compared with the modified area of overlap algorithm. The SIMCA approach provides a metric to determine whether new observations do, or do not belong to a particular class or group. Thus, SIMCA is the recommended approach when multiple samples from each condition are available. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.


Murphy B.M.,Legacy BioDesign LLC | Murphy B.M.,Colorado State University | D'Antonio J.,North Carolina State University | Manning M.C.,Legacy BioDesign LLC | And 2 more authors.
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Demonstrating comparability of secondary structure composition as part of higher order structure (HOS) in therapeutic proteins is a significant challenge. Previously, we showed that the variability of second derivative amide I Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were small enough that significant differences in secondary structures could be seen for a variety of model proteins. Those comparisons used spectral overlap and spectral correlation coefficients to quantify spectral differences. However, many of the excipients used in downstream purification process, drug substance, and drug product formulation, such as free amino acids and sugars, can interfere with the absorbance in the amide I region. In this study, analysis of amide II FTIR spectra is shown as an alternative to using spectral data from the amide I region to analyze protein secondary structure to assess their HOS. This research provided spectral overlap and spectral correlation coefficient mathematical approaches for analysis of amide II FTIR spectra to demonstrate comparability of protein secondary structure. Spectral overlap and spectral correlation coefficients results show strong correlations between changes in the second derivative of amide II and amide I FTIR spectra for various model proteins under different conditions, which demonstrate the applicability of using amide II FTIR spectra for the comparability of protein secondary structure. These results indicate that the analysis of the second derivative of amide II FTIR spectra may be used to monitor and demonstrate comparability of protein secondary structure during downstream process and formulation development of protein therapeutics. © 2014, Bentham Science Publishers.


Nagarkar R.P.,Glaxosmithkline | Nagarkar R.P.,KBI Biopharma | Murphy B.M.,Legacy BioDesign LLC | Yu X.,Glaxosmithkline | And 2 more authors.
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Better understanding of protein higher order structures (HOS) is of major interest to researchers in the field of biotechnology and biopharmaceutics. Monitoring a protein's HOS is crucial towards understanding the impact of molecular conformation on the biotechnological application. In addition, maintaining the HOS is critical for achieving robust processes and developing stable formulations of therapeutic proteins. Loss of HOS contributes to increased aggregation, enhanced immunogenicity and loss of function. Selecting the proper biophysical methods to monitor the secondary and tertiary structures of therapeutic proteins remains the central question in this field. In this study, both Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy are employed to characterize the secondary structures of various proteins as a function of temperature and pH. Three proteins with different secondary structures were examined, human serum albumin (HSA), myoglobin, and the monoclonal antibody, ofatumumab. This work demonstrates that VCD is useful technique for monitoring subtle secondary structure changes of protein therapeutics that may occur during processing or handling. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.


Ohtake S.,Pfizer | Kita Y.,Keio University | Payne R.,Legacy BioDesign LLC | Manning M.,Legacy BioDesign LLC | Arakawa T.,Alliance Protein Laboratories
Protein and Peptide Letters | Year: 2013

Short peptides are important biopharmaceuticals as agonistic or antagonistic ligands, aggregation inhibitors, and vaccines, as well as in many other applications. They behave differently from globular proteins in solution. Many short peptides are unstructured and tend to aggregate and undergo structural transition in response to changes in solvent environment, including pH, temperature, ionic strength, presence of organic solvents or surfactants, and exposure to lipid membranes. Such structural transitions are often associated with fibril or β-amyloid formation. These structural characteristics of short peptides have drastic impact on their function, immunogenicity, and storage stability. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

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