Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine

Leeds, United Kingdom

Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine

Leeds, United Kingdom
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Harrington K.J.,The Institute of Cancer Research | Vile R.G.,Mayo Medical School | Melcher A.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine | Chester J.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine | Pandha H.S.,University of Surrey
Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews | Year: 2010

It is time for those working on oncolytic viruses to take stock of the status of the field. We now have at our disposal an array of potential therapeutic agents, and are beginning to conduct early-phase clinical trials in patients with relapsed/metastatic cancers. By drawing on lessons learned during the development of other biological therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies and targeted small molecule inhibitors, we are now in a position to chart the course of the next wave of trials that will go beyond the phase I studies of safety and feasibility. In this article we review our approach to the development of oncolytic viruses as cancer therapeutics. In doing so, we emphasise the fact that this process is modular and involves multiple iterative steps between the laboratory and the clinic. Ultimately, at least in the medium term, the future of oncolytic virotherapy lies in combination regimens with standard anti-cancer agents such as radiation and chemotherapy. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ruark E.,Institute of Cancer Research | Seal S.,Institute of Cancer Research | McDonald H.,Institute of Cancer Research | Zhang F.,Institute of Cancer Research | And 17 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013

Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is the most common cancer in young men and is notable for its high familial risks. So far, six loci associated with TGCT have been reported. From genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of 307,291 SNPs in 986 TGCT cases and 4,946 controls, we selected for follow-up 694 SNPs, which we genotyped in a further 1,064 TGCT cases and 10,082 controls from the UK. We identified SNPs at nine new loci (1q22, 1q24.1, 3p24.3, 4q24, 5q31.1, 8q13.3, 16q12.1, 17q22 and 21q22.3) showing association with TGCT (P < 5 × 10-8), which together account for an additional 4-6% of the familial risk of TGCT. The loci include genes plausibly related to TGCT development. PRDM14, at 8q13.3, is essential for early germ cell specification, and DAZL, at 3p24.3, is required for the regulation of germ cell development. Furthermore, PITX1, at 5q31.1, regulates TERT expression and is the third TGCT-associated locus implicated in telomerase regulation. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Turnbull C.,Institute of Cancer Research | Rapley E.A.,Institute of Cancer Research | Seal S.,Institute of Cancer Research | Pernet D.,Institute of Cancer Research | And 12 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2010

We conducted a genome-wide association study for testicular germ cell tumor, genotyping 298,782 SNPs in 979 affected individuals and 4,947 controls from the UK and replicating associations in a further 664 cases and 3,456 controls. We identified three new susceptibility loci, two of which include genes that are involved in telomere regulation. We identified two independent signals within the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5, which has previously been associated with multiple other cancers (rs4635969, OR = 1.54, P = 1.14 × 10-23; rs2736100, OR = 1.33, P = 7.55 × 10-15). We also identified a locus on chromosome 12 (rs2900333, OR = 1.27, P = 6.16 × 10-10) that contains ATF7IP, a regulator of TERT expression. Finally, we identified a locus on chromosome 9 (rs755383, OR = 1.37, P = 1.12 × 10-23), containing the sex determination gene DMRT1, which has been linked to teratoma susceptibility in mice. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Viprey V.F.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine | Corrias M.V.,Gaslini Institute | Burchill S.A.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine
Analytical Biochemistry | Year: 2012

In many cancers, including neuroblastoma, microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling of peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) may increase understanding of the metastatic process and lead to the identification of clinically informative biomarkers. The quality of miRNAs in PB and BM samples archived in PAXgene™ blood RNA tubes from large-scale clinical studies and the identity of reference miRNAs for standard reporting of data are to date unknown. In this study, we evaluated the reliability of expression profiling of 377 miRNAs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in PB and BM samples (n = 90) stored at -80°C for up to 5 years in PAXgene™ blood RNA tubes. There was no correlation with storage time and variation of expression for any single miRNA (r < 0.50). The profile of miRNAs isolated as small RNAs or co-isolated with small/large RNAs was highly correlated (r = 0.96). The mean expression of all miRNAs and the geNorm program identified miR-26a, miR-28-5p, and miR-24 as the most stable reference miRNAs. This study describes detailed methodologies for reliable miRNA isolation and profiling of PB and BM, including reference miRNAs for qPCR normalization, and demonstrates the suitability of clinical samples archived at -80°C into PAXgene™ blood RNA tubes for miRNA expression studies. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Qiao B.,Sections of Experimental Oncology | Kerr M.,University of Oxford | Groselj B.,University of Oxford | Teo M.T.W.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Radiotherapy is a major treatment modality used to treat muscle-invasive bladder cancer, with patient outcomes similar to surgery. However, radioresistance is a significant factor in treatment failure. Cell-free extracts of muscle-invasive bladder tumors are defective in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), and this phenotype may be used clinically by combining radiotherapy with a radiosensitizing drug that targets homologous recombination, thereby sparing normal tissues with intact NHEJ. The response of the homologous recombination protein RAD51 to radiation is inhibited by the small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. Stable RT112 bladder cancer Ku knockdown (Ku80KD) cells were generated using short hairpin RNA technology to mimic the invasive tumor phenotype and also RAD51 knockdown (RAD51KD) cells to show imatinib's pathway selectivity. Ku80KD, RAD51KD, nonsilencing vector control, and parental RT112 cells were treated with radiation in combination with either imatinib or lapatinib, which inhibits NHEJ and cell survival assessed by clonogenic assay. Drug doses were chosen at approximately IC40 and IC10 (nontoxic) levels. Imatinib radiosensitized Ku80KD cells to a greater extent than RAD51KD or RT112 cells. In contrast, lapatinib radiosensitized RAD51KD and RT112 cells but not Ku80KD cells. Taken together, our findings suggest a new application for imatinib in concurrent use with radiotherapy to treat muscle-invasive bladder cancer. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.

Cook G.P.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine | Savic S.,NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit NIHR LMBRU | Wittmann M.,University of Leeds | McDermott M.F.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine
European Journal of Immunology | Year: 2010

A role for NLRP3 inflammasome in recurrent and chronic inflammation was initially described in a group of rare autoinflammatory conditions, termed cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome. Subsequently, inflammasomes have been implicated in the pathology of many common diseases, including cancer, gout and diabetes. Despite diverse pathologies, the central role of the inflammasome in innate defences and tumour elimination suggests common therapeutic approaches to reduce inflammation where appropriate. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Kouroupis D.,University of Leeds | Baboolal T.G.,University of Leeds | Jones E.,University of Leeds | Giannoudis P.V.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine
Journal of Orthopaedic Research | Year: 2013

Graft expanders are bone scaffolds used, in combination with autografts, to fill large bone defects in trauma surgery. This study investigates the graft expander potential of a natural bone substitute Orthoss® by studying its ability to support attachment, growth and osteogenic differentiation of neighboring multipotential stromal cells (MSCs). Material consisting of bone marrow (BM) aspirate and reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA)-harvested autograft bone was co-cultured with commercially available Orthoss® granules. Native MSCs attached to Orthoss® were expanded and phenotypically characterized. MSCs egress from neighboring cancelous bone was assessed in 3D Matrigel co-cultures. MSC differentiation was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity per cell. CD45 + hematopoietic lineage cells and highly proliferative CD90 +CD73+CD105+ MSCs preferentially colonized Orthoss® granules, over RIA bone chips. MSC colonization was followed by their intrinsic osteogenic differentiation, assessed as mineral deposition and gradual rise in ALP activity, even in the absence of osteogenic stimuli. When in contact with mixed cell populations and RIA chips, Orthoss® granules support the attachment, growth and osteogenic differentiation of neighboring MSCs. Therefore, natural bone substitutes similar to Orthoss® can be used as void fillers and graft expanders for repairing large bone defects in conjunction with autologous BM aspirates and autografts. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

Dimitriou R.,Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust | Mataliotakis G.I.,Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust | Calori G.M.,University of Milan | Giannoudis P.V.,Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust | Giannoudis P.V.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine
BMC Medicine | Year: 2012

Treatment of large bone defects represents a great challenge in orthopedic and craniomaxillofacial surgery. Although there are several methods for bone reconstruction, they all have specific indications and limitations. The concept of using barrier membranes for restoration of bone defects has been developed in an effort to simplify their treatment by offering a sinlge-staged procedure. Research on this field of bone regeneration is ongoing, with evidence being mainly attained from preclinical studies. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current experimental and clinical evidence on the use of barrier membranes for restoration of bone defects in maxillofacial and orthopedic surgery. Although there are a few promising preliminary human studies, before clinical applications can be recommended, future research should aim to establish the 'ideal' barrier membrane and delineate the need for additional bone grafting materials aiming to 'mimic' or even accelerate the normal process of bone formation. Reproducible results and long-term observations with barrier membranes in animal studies, and particularly in large animal models, are required as well as well-designed clinical studies to evaluate their safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness. © 2012 Dimitriou et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Drury R.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine | Verghese E.T.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine | Hughes T.A.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2012

MicroRNAs are a class of small regulatory RNAs that influence the stabilities and translational efficiencies of target mRNAs. They have been implicated in an increasing number of biological processes, including carcinogenesis. A huge body of literature exists documenting up- or down-regulation of specific microRNAs during carcinogenesis and identifying molecular pathways by which these microRNAs influence every aspect of cancer development, including proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. These studies have provided many insights into basic cancer biology as well as allowing identification of novel biomarkers and potential drug targets. However, the vast bulk of this literature concerns solid epithelial tumours, while sarcomas remain relatively under-studied. The purpose of this article is to review the roles of microRNAs in sarcomas and to highlight microRNAs or related molecular pathways that demonstrate consistent roles within individual or across sarcoma subtypes, with a view to identifying the key regulatory molecules. Further insights into sarcoma biology may be particularly valuable since sarcomas represent a tumour group with a particularly poor prognosis and rather limited treatment options. © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

Dimitriou R.,Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust | Dimitriou R.,Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine | Jones E.,University of Leeds | McGonagle D.,University of Leeds | And 2 more authors.
BMC Medicine | Year: 2011

Bone regeneration is a complex, well-orchestrated physiological process of bone formation, which can be seen during normal fracture healing, and is involved in continuous remodelling throughout adult life. However, there are complex clinical conditions in which bone regeneration is required in large quantity, such as for skeletal reconstruction of large bone defects created by trauma, infection, tumour resection and skeletal abnormalities, or cases in which the regenerative process is compromised, including avascular necrosis, atrophic non-unions and osteoporosis. Currently, there is a plethora of different strategies to augment the impaired or 'insufficient' bone-regeneration process, including the 'gold standard' autologous bone graft, free fibula vascularised graft, allograft implantation, and use of growth factors, osteoconductive scaffolds, osteoprogenitor cells and distraction osteogenesis. Improved 'local' strategies in terms of tissue engineering and gene therapy, or even 'systemic' enhancement of bone repair, are under intense investigation, in an effort to overcome the limitations of the current methods, to produce bone-graft substitutes with biomechanical properties that are as identical to normal bone as possible, to accelerate the overall regeneration process, or even to address systemic conditions, such as skeletal disorders and osteoporosis. © 2011 Dimitriou et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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