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Wijeyaratne C.N.,University of Colombo | Dilini Udayangani S.A.,University of Colombo | Balen A.H.,Leeds Center for Reproductive Medicine
Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Being the most common endocrinopathy of young women, polycystic ovary syndrome has much variation in its clinical expression based on ancestry. Ethnic differences of the phenotype are closely linked to its complex pathophysiology. This paper reviews data of the past three decades ensuring a precise diagnosis and taking into account underlying factors, effects of migration including heterogeneity, and diversity within each identified ethnic group. Differing expressions of hyperandrogenism, obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome occur among women from distinct geographic locations and ancestry. These ethnic phenotypes correlate with their inherent metabolic risks, skin sensitivity to androgens and social outlook that particularly affects their quality of life and health-seeking behavior. It is recommended that such ethnic variations are recognized in routine clinical practice and longitudinal data be maintained to study the true impact of such differences on disease outcomes. © 2013 2013 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source

Balen A.H.,Leeds Center for Reproductive Medicine
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2013

The aim of this brief review is to describe the management of anovulatory infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This has traditionally involved the use of clomiphene citrate (CC), and then gonadotropin therapy or laparoscopic ovarian surgery, in those who are clomiphene resistant (The Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, 2008). Recently developed therapeutic approaches include aromatase inhibitors and the potential use of in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes collected from unstimulated (or minimally stimulated) polycystic ovaries. Unfortunately the early promise of the insulin sensitizing drugs has not been translated into significant improvement in outcomes and therefore are not prescribed unless the patient has an impairment of glucose tolerance (The Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, 2008). There has been an unfortunate shift away from Mono-follicular ovulation induction remains the first line approach for the management of anovulatory PCOS, and in vitro fertilization treatment (IVF) should be reserved for those who fail to respond or who have additional infertility factors (The Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, 2008). Superovulation for IVF presents significant risks for women with polycystic ovaries, namely the potentially life-threatening complication of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Carefully conducted and monitored ovulation induction can achieve good cumulative conception rates and furthermore, multiple pregnancy rates can be minimized with strict adherence to criteria that limit the number of follicles that are permitted to ovulate. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Wijeyaratne C.N.,University of Colombo | Seneviratne R.D.A.,University of Colombo | Dahanayake S.,University of Colombo | Kumarapeli V.,Non Communicable Disease Unit | And 4 more authors.
Human Reproduction | Year: 2011

Background Compared with other populations, South Asians have a greater propensity to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). This is the first study to determine the distribution of phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and their relationship to the MetS among indigenous South Asians. Methoda n evaluation of the phenotype and metabolic characteristics of PCOS was conducted by recruiting consecutive women diagnosed by Rotterdam consensus criteria from an Endocrine clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Prevalence of MetS was determined, in relation to the phenotypic subgroup of PCOS and compared with ethnically matched, BMI- and age-adjusted controls (n 231). Results Acanthosis nigricans (AN) occurred in 64.6 of women with PCOS (n 469). MetS occurred in 30.6 of the PCOS group compared with 6.34 of controls (P 0.0001). Those with PCOS and MetS had significantly higher median BMI, blood pressure (BP), fasting plasma glucose, insulin and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), but similar testosterone concentrations compared with those with PCOS alone. Prevalence of MetS was similar in the four PCOS phenotypes, although oligomenorrhoeic women were more obese compared with the normal cycling hyperandrogenic group. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed age <35 years, BMI <25 kg/m 2 and AN as significant predictors of MetS in PCOS. Casecontrol comparisons showed that the presence of PCOS results in higher odds of having the MetS, a high waist circumference, elevated diastolic BP, abnormal fasting lipids and high fasting insulin and plasma testosterone concentrations. Conclusions Young indigenous South Asians with PCOS have greater odds of being centrally obese, with a third having the MetS that bears no relationship to the androgenic phenotype. Significant predictors for MetS within the PCOS cohort are advancing age, obesity determined by the Asian cut off (BMI >25 kg/m 2) and AN, while family history of diabetes, hyperandrogenism and elevated SHBG have no predictive value. © 2010 The Author. Source

Sharma V.,Leeds Center for Reproductive Medicine
Human Reproduction | Year: 2011

An increasing number of cancer patients can now hope to have a full and normal life due to significant improvements in treatment outcomes and survival rates. The application of cryobiology to store fertile gametes before sterilizing treatments has been a natural progression. Greater awareness has markedly increased the worldwide demand for long-term storage of sperm, and has prompted the UK Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority to extend the period of storage permitted by their regulations to 55 years. Other patients undergoing sterilizing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy such as haemoglobinopathies requiring bone marrow transplantation and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis may further increase the indications for sperm storage. Most adult and adolescent patients and their relatives/spouses/ parents/guardians value this service even though very few eventually use the sperm. There is an urgent need to develop national and international guidelines for the provision, organization, maintenance and management of the cryopreservation services. © 2011 The Author. Source

Tomlinson M.,University of Nottingham | Lewis S.,University Institute of Health Sciences | Morroll D.,Leeds Center for Reproductive Medicine
Human Fertility | Year: 2013

Reports on the influence of semen parameters on natural or assisted pregnancy are contradictory, suggesting that the many confounding variables which contribute to outcome have not been taken into account. However, it is possible to derive some consensus for both natural and assisted conception by focussing on studies which use WHO-recommended semen analysis on relatively large populations, applying appropriate statistics and accounting for 'female factors'. The concentration of progressively motile sperm has consistently been shown to be the most predictive factor with regard to outcome. Around 64% of studies suggest that a reasonable chance of success with artificial insemination requires at least 5 × 106 motile sperm and this is supported by the WHO's revised reference range for natural conception. Sperm morphology remains controversial, with a lack of standardisation across centres, the adoption of ever-stricter scoring criteria and changing reference values. Antisperm antibodies do not appear to influence outcome independently of sperm motility and agglutination. Sperm DNA damage appears to be related to sperm quality, embryo development and pregnancy loss, yet there remains no consensus on the best testing procedures, clinical reference values and how patients with an adverse result should be managed. In conclusion, laboratories should continue to focus on reducing the uncertainty and improving the quality of their basic semen analysis. © 2013 The British Fertility Society. Source

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