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Leeds, United Kingdom

Carroll S.,Leeds Beckett University
Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism | Year: 2010

Our objective was to assess the effects of differing modes of impact exercise on bone density at the hip and spine in premenopausal women through systematic review and meta-analysis. Electronic databases, key journals and reference lists were searched for controlled trials investigating the effects of impact exercise interventions on lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women. Exercise protocols were categorised according to impact loading characteristics. Weighted mean difference (WMD) meta-analyses were undertaken. Heterogeneity amongst trials was assessed. Fixed and random effects models were applied. Inspection of funnel plot symmetry was performed. Trial quality assessment was also undertaken. Combined protocols integrating odd- or high-impact exercise with high-magnitude loading (resistance exercises), were effective in increasing BMD at both LS and FN [WMD (fixed effect) 0.009 g cm -2 95% CI (0.002-0.015) and 0.007 g cm -2 95% CI (0.001-0.013); P = 0.011 and 0.017, respectively]. High-impact only protocols were effective on femoral neck BMD [WMD (fixed effect) 0.024 g cm -2 95% CI (0.002-0.027); P<0.00001]. Funnel plots showed some asymmetry for positive BMD outcomes. Insufficient numbers of protocols assessing TH BMD were available for assessment. Exercise programmes that combine odd- or high-impact activity with highmagnitude resistance training appear effective in augmenting BMD in premenopausal women at the hip and spine. High-impact-alone protocols are effective only on hip BMD in this group. However, diverse methodological and reporting discrepancies are evident in published trials. © The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer 2009. Source


Flintoff A.,Leeds Beckett University
Sport, Education and Society | Year: 2015

This paper reports on a study that explored black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) in England. Widening the ethnic diversity of those choosing to enter the teaching profession has been a key policy objective of the Training and Development Agency—the government agency responsible for teacher education—for some years. However PETE programmes, designed to produce specialist physical education (PE) teachers to work with secondary age (11–18 years) pupils, reveal significant and enduring levels of under-representation of BME candidates, compared to other subject specialisms. The study reported here used semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with 25 BME participants from five universities involved in PETE in England. The findings show that BME PETE students share many of the characteristics with their White counterparts, being young, sporty and with a desire to improve PE experiences for future generations. However, in other ways, their experiences reveal the significance of ‘race’ ethnicity, and religion and how these are interwoven with gender to position them as ‘other’ in PETE spaces and within schools. Skin colour and religious dress were significant to stereotyping and everyday interactions that served to position them as ‘out of place’, particularly evident in practical activity sessions and on teaching placements. ‘Race’ and ethnicity as part of their professional education was at best a marginalised discourse, at worse, reproduced a deficit perspective of BME pupils’ and their schooling. The paper concludes by arguing for a critical analysis of the construction of Whiteness through PETE. ©2012,Taylor & Francis. Source


Hanley B.,Leeds Beckett University
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2015

Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe the pacing profiles and packing behaviour of athletes competing in the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships. Finishing and split times were collated for 491 men and 347 women across six championships. The mean speeds for each intermediate 5 km and end 1.1 km segments were calculated, and athletes grouped according to finishing time. The best men and women largely maintained their split speeds between 5 km and 15 km, whereas slower athletes had decreased speeds from 5 km onwards. Athletes were also classified by the type of packing behaviour in which they engaged. Those who ran in packs throughout the race had smaller decreases in pace than those who did not, or who managed to do so only to 5 km. While some athletes’ reduced speeds from 15 to 20 km might have been caused by fatigue, it was also possibly a tactic to aid a fast finish that was particularly beneficial to medallists. Those athletes who ran with the same competitors throughout sped up most during the finish. Athletes are advised to identify rivals likely to have similar abilities and ambitions and run with them as part of their pre-race strategy. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source


Sharp D.,Leeds Beckett University
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2013

New technologies are essential for intelligent wound management and to provide tools that facilitate a greater understanding of wounds and healing physiology. pH is an important marker for many processes in the wound environment; it cannot be fully utilised due to the inherent lack of suitable technologies currently available.The development and proof-of-concept testing for an electrochemical system that exploits pad-printed carbon-uric acid composite electrodes is detailed. Uric acid is incorporated to act as a biologically-safe pH probe within in the sensor assembly that can be manipulated to offer a simple voltammetric response.The development of the composite sensors, the activation of the basal carbon, and the surface deposition of 1,2-diaminobenzene to prevent biofouling are detailed. The prototype sensing assembly is shown to enable the interference-free measurement of pH (and linear quantification of endogenous uric acid) even in the presence of high ascorbic acid concentrations. The experimental developments culminate in a standard deviation of 0.164 for 20 replicates performed in simulated wound fluid, and sensitive monitoring of pH across a wide analytical range (pH 4-10) in simulated wound fluid.These findings suggest that printed carbon-uric acid composites may offer a novel, cheap and reliable mechanism for simple pH measurements at wound surfaces, a potentially powerful tool with clinical utility for wound management and one that may enable a greater understanding of pH implications on wound physiology, and the effects of dressings and treatments. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Hanley B.,Leeds Beckett University
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance | Year: 2013

Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the pacing profiles used by racewalkers competing in IAAF World Championships. Methods: The times for each 5-km segment were obtained for 225 men competing over 20 km, 214 women competing over 20 km, and 232 men competing over 50 km, of whom 49 did not finish. Athletes were grouped based on finishing position (for medalists) or finishing time. Results: Different pacing profiles were used by athletes grouped by finishing time, with 20-km medalists using negative pacing and those finishing within 5% of the winning time matching the medalists' early pace but failing to maintain it. Lower-placed 20-km athletes tended to start more quickly relative to personal-best pace and experienced significant decreases in pace later. Across all competitions, the fastest finishers started the slowest relative to previous best performance. All 50-km athletes slowed toward the finish, but lower-placed finishers tended to decrease pace earlier (with up to 60% of the race remaining). After halfway in the 50-km, 8 of the 15 athletes who had a 5-km split more than 15% slower than the previous split dropped out. Conclusions: The negative pacing profile used by 20-km medalists required the ability to start fast and maintain this pace, and similarly paced training may be beneficial in race preparation. Over 50 km, the tactic of starting slower than personal-best pace was generally less risky; nonetheless, any chosen pacing strategy should be based on individual strengths. © 2013 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source

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