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Cleveland, TN, United States

Lee University is a private, faith-based liberal arts college in Cleveland, Tennessee, United States. Historically, the school was affiliated with the Church of God, a Christian denomination. Lee was the denomination's Bible Training School from 1918 until 1947, when the name was changed to Lee College. Lee became a university in 1997. The university comprises five colleges: the College of Arts & science, the Helen DeVos College of Education, the School of Music, the School of Religion, and the Center for Adult & Professional Studies. Lee University is named for F.J. Lee, the institution's second president.Lee was ranked by US News and World Report as 46th among Southern regional universities in 2012. Lee University now maintains the fifth largest undergraduate enrollment among the 103 faith-based colleges who are member institutions of the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities. Wikipedia.

California's Hospital Fair Pricing Act, passed in 2006, aims to protect uninsured patients from paying hospital gross charges: the full, undiscounted prices based on each hospital's chargemaster. In this study I examined how the law affects the net price actually paid by uninsured patients-a question critical for evaluating the law's impact. I found that from 2004 to 2012 the net price actually paid by uninsured patients shrank from 6 percent higher than Medicare prices to 68 percent lower than Medicare prices; the adjusted collection ratio, essentially the amount the hospital actually collected for every dollar in gross price charged, for uninsured patients dropped from 32 percent to 11 percent; and although hospitals have been increasingly less able to generate revenues from uninsured patients, they have raised the proportion of services provided to them in relation to total services provided to all patients. The substantial protection provided to uninsured patients by the California Hospital Fair Pricing Act has important implications for federal and state policy makers seeking to achieve a similar goal. States or Congress could legislate criteria determining the eligibility for discounted charges, mandate a lower price ceiling, and regulate for-profit hospitals in regard to uninsured patients. © 2015 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

Sleiti A.K.,Lee University
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2010

The effect of decreasing the inlet temperature and the cathode porosity of tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) with one air channel and one fuel channel is investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The CFD model was developed using Fluent SOFC to simulate the electrochemical effects. The cathode and the anode of the cell were resolved in the model and the convection and conduction heat transfer modes were included. The results of the CFD model are presented at inlet temperatures of 700 °C, 600 °C and 500 °C and with cathode porosity of 30%, 20% and 10%. It was found that the Fluent-based SOFC model is an effective tool for analyzing the complex and highly interactive three-dimensional electrical, thermal, and fluid flow fields associated with the SOFCs. It is found that the SOFC can operate in the intermediate temperature range and with low porosity cathodes more efficient than at high temperatures given that the transport properties of the cathode, anode and the electrolyte can be kept the same. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Savine A.C.,Washington University in St. Louis | McDaniel M.A.,Washington University in St. Louis | Shelton J.,Washington University in St. Louis | Shelton J.,Lee University | Scullin M.K.,Washington University in St. Louis
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General | Year: 2012

Prospective memory-remembering to retrieve and execute future goals-is essential to daily life. Prospective remembering is often achieved through effortful monitoring; however, potential individual differences in monitoring patterns have not been characterized. We propose 3 candidate models to characterize the individual differences present in prospective memory monitoring: attentional focus, secondary memory retrieval, and information thresholding. Two experiments using a novel paradigm, the Complex Ongoing Serial Task (COST), investigated the resource allocation patterns underlying individual differences in monitoring. Individuals exhibited differential resource allocation patterns, and the differences remained relatively stable across experimental sessions. Resource allocation patterns associated with information thresholding (high prospective memory, preserved ongoing task performance) and attentional focus (high prospective memory, inefficient ongoing task performance) were superior to secondary memory retrieval (low prospective memory, very inefficient ongoing task performance). Importantly, personality (openness, prevention focus) and cognitive (primary, working, and secondary memory) individual differences influenced monitoring patterns. This research represents the first explicit attempt to elucidate individual differences in prospective memory monitoring patterns. © 2011 American Psychological Association.

Gable P.A.,University of Alabama | Poole B.D.,Lee University | Harmon-Jones E.,University of New South Wales
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology | Year: 2015

For the last 50 years, research investigating the effect of emotions on scope of cognitive processing was based on models proposing that affective valence determined cognitive scope. More recently, our motivational intensity model suggests that this past work had confounded valence with motivational intensity. Research derived from this model supports the idea that motivational intensity, rather than affective valence, explains much of the variance emotions have on cognitive scope. However, the motivational intensity model is limited in that the empirical work has examined only positive affects high in approach and negative affects high in avoidance motivation. Thus, perhaps only approach-positive and avoidance-negative states narrow cognitive scope. The present research was designed to clarify these conceptual issues by examining the effect of anger, a negatively valenced approach-motivated state, on cognitive scope. Results revealed that anger narrowed attentional scope relative to a neutral state and that attentional narrowing to anger was similar to the attentional narrowing caused by high approachmotivated positive affects (Study 1). This narrowing of attention was related to trait approach motivation (Studies 2 and Study 3). Anger also narrowed conceptual cognitive categorization (Study 4). Narrowing of categorization related to participants' approach motivation toward anger stimuli. Together, these results suggest that anger, an approach-motivated negative affect, narrows perceptual and conceptual cognitive scope. More broadly, these results support the conceptual model that motivational intensity per se, rather than approach-positive and avoidance-negative states, causes a narrowing of cognitive scope. © 2015 American Psychological Association.

Bai G.,Lee University | Krishnan R.,Michigan State University
American Journal of Medical Quality | Year: 2015

This study examines whether hospitals without physician participation on their boards of directors deliver lower quality of care. Using data from California nonprofit hospitals from 2004 to 2008, the authors document that the absence of physicians on the board is associated with a decrease of 3 to 5 percentage points in 3 of 4 measures of care quality. This result was obtained using regression analysis, which controls for various hospital characteristics. The authors also identify factors that influence quality of care in hospitals. Specifically, hospital size, church affiliation, urban location, and system affiliation are positively associated with quality of care; proportion of Medicaid patient revenue and poverty level of the county in which the hospital is located are negatively associated with quality of care. These results highlight the importance of physician participation in hospital governance and indicate areas for hospitals and policy makers to focus on to enhance medical quality management. © 2014 by the American College of Medical Quality.

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