Lebanese Health Society

Beirut, Lebanon

Lebanese Health Society

Beirut, Lebanon
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Jurjus A.,American University of Beirut | Jurjus A.,Lebanese Health Society | Eid A.,American University of Beirut | Al Kattar S.,American University of Beirut | And 13 more authors.
BBA Clinical | Year: 2016

The co-occurrence of the three disease entities, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC), type 2diabetes mellitus (T2DM) along with inflammation and dismicrobism has been frequently reported. Some authors have even suggested that dysbiosis could be the link through a molecular crosstalk of multiple inflammatory loops including TGFβ, NFKB, TNFα and ROS among others.This review focuses on the inflammatory process along with the role of microbiota in the pathophysiology of the three diseases.The etiology of IBD is multifactorial, and like CRC and T2DM, it is associated with a widespread and sustained GI inflammation and dismicrobism, whereby an array of pro-inflammatory mediators and other related biomolecules are up-regulated, both locally and systematically. Such a persistent or an inadequately resolved chronic inflammation may be a causative agent, in the presence other factors, leading to several pathologies such as IBD, CRC and T2DM.TGFβ plays a crucial role in pancreatic β cell malfunctioning as glucotoxicity stimulates its signaling cascade through smad 3, IL-6 and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Such a cascade could lead to macrophages and other cells recruitment, inflammation, then IBD and CRC.NFkB is also another key regulator in the crosstalk among the pathways leading to the three disease entities. It plays a major role in linking inflammation to cancer development through its ability to up regulate several inflammatory and tumor promoting cytokines like: IL-6, IL-1 α and TNF α, as well as genes like BCL2 and BCLXL. It activates JAK/STAT signaling network via STAT3 transcription factors and promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition. It also increases the risk for T2DM in obese people. In brief, NFKB is a matchmaker between inflammation, IBD, cancer and diabetes.In addition, TNFα plays a pivotal role in systemic inflammation. It is increased in the mucosa of IBD patients and has a central role in its pathogenesis. It also activates other signaling pathways like NFKB and MAPK leading to CRC. It is also overexpressed in the adipose tissues of obese patients thus linking it to T2DM, chronic inflammation and consequently CRC.On the other hand, increasing evidence suggests that dysbiosis plays a role in initiating, maintaining and determining the severity of IBD. Actually, among its functions, it modulates genotoxic metabolites which are able to induce CRC, a fact proven to be sustained by stool transfer from patients with CRC. Probiotics, however, may actively prevent CRC as well as IBD and results in a significant decrease in fasting glycemia in T2DM patients.In conclusion, IBD, CRC and T2DM are commonly occurring interrelated clinical problems. They share a common basis influenced by an inflammatory process, an imbalance in intestinal microbiota, and a crosstalk between various signaling pathways. Would probiotics interrupt the crosstalk or orient it in the physiological direction? © 2015 The Authors.


PubMed | University of Palermo, American University of Beirut, Lebanese Health Society and Oakland University
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in public health | Year: 2015

Multiple cornerstones have shaped the history of vaccines, which may contain live-attenuated viruses, inactivated organisms/viruses, inactivated toxins, or merely segments of the pathogen that could elicit an immune response. The story began with Hippocrates 400 B.C. with his description of mumps and diphtheria. No further discoveries were recorded until 1100 A.D. when the smallpox vaccine was described. During the eighteenth century, vaccines for cholera and yellow fever were reported and Edward Jenner, the father of vaccination and immunology, published his work on smallpox. The nineteenth century was a major landmark, with the Germ Theory of disease of Louis Pasteur, the discovery of the germ tubercle bacillus for tuberculosis by Robert Koch, and the isolation of pneumococcus organism by George Miller Sternberg. Another landmark was the discovery of diphtheria toxin by Emile Roux and its serological treatment by Emil Von Behring and Paul Ehrlih. In addition, Pasteur was able to generate the first live-attenuated viral vaccine against rabies. Typhoid vaccines were then developed, followed by the plague vaccine of Yersin. At the beginning of World War I, the tetanus toxoid was introduced, followed in 1915 by the pertussis vaccine. In 1974, The Expanded Program of Immunization was established within the WHO for bacille Calmette-Guerin, Polio, DTP, measles, yellow fever, and hepatitis B. The year 1996 witnessed the launching of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. In 1988, the WHO passed a resolution to eradicate polio by the year 2000 and in 2006; the first vaccine to prevent cervical cancer was developed. In 2010, The Decade of vaccines was launched, and on April 1st 2012, the United Nations launched the shot@Life campaign. In brief, the armamentarium of vaccines continues to grow with more emphasis on safety, availability, and accessibility. This mini review highlights the major historical events and pioneers in the course of development of vaccines, which have eradicated so many life-threatening diseases, despite the vaccination attitudes and waves appearing through history.


Ghieh F.,American University of Beirut | Jurjus R.,George Washington University | Ibrahim A.,American University of Beirut | Geagea A.G.,Lebanese Health Society | And 6 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

Burn wound healing involves a series of complex processes which are subject to intensive investigations to improve the outcomes, in particular, the healing time and the quality of the scar. Burn injuries, especially severe ones, are proving to have devastating effects on the affected patients. Stem cells have been recently applied in the field to promote superior healing of the wounds. Not only have stem cells been shown to promote better and faster healing of the burn wounds, but also they have decreased the inflammation levels with less scar progression and fibrosis. This review aims to highlight the beneficial therapeutic effect of stem cells in burn wound healing and to discuss the involved pathways and signaling molecules. The review covers various types of burn wound healing like skin and corneal burns, along with the alternative recent therapies being studied in the field of burn wound healing. The current reflection of the attitudes of people regarding the use of stem cells in burn wound healing is also stated. Copyright © 2015 Fadi Ghieh et al.


PubMed | George Washington University, American University of Beirut, Lebanese Health Society and U.S. National Institutes of Health
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2015

Burn wound healing involves a series of complex processes which are subject to intensive investigations to improve the outcomes, in particular, the healing time and the quality of the scar. Burn injuries, especially severe ones, are proving to have devastating effects on the affected patients. Stem cells have been recently applied in the field to promote superior healing of the wounds. Not only have stem cells been shown to promote better and faster healing of the burn wounds, but also they have decreased the inflammation levels with less scar progression and fibrosis. This review aims to highlight the beneficial therapeutic effect of stem cells in burn wound healing and to discuss the involved pathways and signaling molecules. The review covers various types of burn wound healing like skin and corneal burns, along with the alternative recent therapies being studied in the field of burn wound healing. The current reflection of the attitudes of people regarding the use of stem cells in burn wound healing is also stated.


PubMed | Lebanese Health Society
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de sante de la Mediterranee orientale = al-Majallah al-sihhiyah li-sharq al-mutawassit | Year: 2010

This cross-sectional study, aimed at evaluating the impact of HIV prevention interventions in Lebanon since 1996, was performed between January 2004 and July 2004 on 3200 Lebanese aged 15-49 years. Of the sexually active respondents, 13.0% of men and 2.6% of women had regular partners other than the spouse but only 25.0% used a condom in their last sexual intercourse. However, 16.8% had sex with casual partners and 71.7% of those used a condom. Knowledge about preventive practices against HIV/AIDS has regressed since 1996, 85.7% compared to 94.9%. Self reports of symptoms suggestive of sexually transmitted disease were 9.1% compared to 5.6% in 1996.

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