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El Riachy M.,Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute | Priego-Capote F.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Rallo L.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Luque-de Castro M.D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Leon L.,IFAPA Centro Alameda del Obispo
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The evaluation and characterization of segregating populations is a critical step in olive breeding programs. In this work, phenolic profiles of virgin olive oils (VOOs) from segregating populations obtained by cross breeding in Cordoba (Spain) have been evaluated. Genotypes obtained from open pollination of the cultivar Manzanilla de Sevilla, and from crosses between the cultivars Arbequina×Arbosana, Picual×Koroneiki and Sikitita×Arbosana were tested. The phenolic composition was determined after liquid-liquid extraction with 60:40 v/v methanol-water and subsequent chromatographic analysis with ultraviolet (UV) detection of both absorption and fluorescence in a sequential configuration. Results for all studied compounds showed high degree of variability between genotypes, with a higher range of variation than the observed for the genitors. Most of the observed variability was attributable to differences in genotypes within crosses rather than among crosses. Some issues related to breeding strategies are discussed. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

El Riachy M.,Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute | Priego-Capote F.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Leon L.,IFAPA Centro Alameda del Obispo | Luque de Castro M.D.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Rallo L.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: The progressive transformation of olive growing and the increasing demands for high-quality monovarietal virgin olive oil (VOO) have triggered interest in olive breeding programs, in which the evaluation of the new genotypes is the basis for obtaining new olive cultivars. In this work, the phenolic composition of VOOs from two progenies from crosses between 'Arbequina', 'Arbosana' and 'Sikitita' has been evaluated along two years. RESULTS: A higher degree of variation was observed in segregating population as compared to genitors. The results also showed that the variability within crosses constitutes the major contribution to total variance for all considered parameters (>92% of total sum of squares). All compounds under study were present in oils obtained in both years; however, clear differences in their concentrations were observed between years. CONCLUSION: Olive breeding can indeed provide genotypes that produce oils with improved phenolic profiles as compared to traditional cultivars. In addition, the data showed that selection as a function of tyrosol content could be achieved in only one crop year. Finally, p-coumaric acid was the unique component able to discriminate between both crop years under study. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

El Riachy M.,Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute | Priego-Capote F.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Rallo L.,University of Cordoba, Spain | de Castro M.D.L.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Leon L.,IFAPA Centro Alameda del Obispo
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2012

The evaluation of the phenolic composition in advanced selections in breeding programs constitutes the first approach for selecting genotypes with improved olive oil quality. In this work, the influence of genotype and ripening index on the phenolic profile of olive oils from advanced selections in comparison to their genitors was studied. Fruit samples were collected in genotypes from crosses between 'Arbequina' × 'Picual', 'Picual' × 'Arbequina' and 'Frantoio' × 'Picual' at five dates from 1 th October to 26 th November 2009. Characterization of the phenolic profile was performed by liquid-liquid extraction with 60:40 (v/v) methanol-water and subsequent chromatographic analysis with absorption and fluorescence detection in a sequential configuration. A dual effect of genotype and fruit ripening on the phenolic profile has been observed with more pronounced genetic influence in both total (34.73% and 20.45%, respectively) and individual phenols (16.99% to 49.25% and 1.58% to 23.77%, respectively). A higher degree of variability between genotypes at early ripening stages was also observed (p < 0.05). The obtained results allow also the identification of selections with high content of total and individual phenols. These results suggest a strategy based on early harvesting of fruits (at the first three ripening indexes) for better comparison and selection of genotypes in further crosses in olive breeding programs aiming at improving the quality of virgin olive oil. Source

Abi Saab M.T.,Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute | Todorovic M.,CIHEAM Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari IAMB | Albrizio R.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Forest Systems In the Mediterranean
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2015

This work investigated the performance of AquaCrop and CropSyst in simulating barley growth under three water treatments (full irrigation, 50% irrigation and rainfed) and two nitrogen levels (high and low) with a particular attention to the influence of calibration year on the modelling results. Three years (2006-2008) of data from the experimental work carried out in Southern Italy were used. The models were calibrated for each of three years and then validated for two other years. The overall results pointed out that both models could be calibrated with data of one of any the three years and validated with all other data. Nevertheless, errors of estimate slightly changed in respect to the year of calibration and were sensitive, from one year to another, to weather conditions and different water and nitrogen regimes. The results indicated AquaCrop superior than CropSyst when the calibration was done on the basis of 2006 and 2008 data, whereas the models performed in a similar way when the calibration was done for 2007. In the case of final biomass, the relative RMSE was lower for AquaCrop (from 0.09 to 0.15) than for CropSyst (from 0.15 to 0.17). Similarly, in the case of final yield, the relative RMSE of AquaCrop was lower (from 0.11 to 0.17) than that of CropSyst (from 0.16 to 0.23). AquaCrop overestimated final biomass by 0.18 and 0.27tha-1 for 2006 and 2008 calibration year, respectively, and underestimated biomass by 1.02tha-1 when calibration was done on 2007 data. CropSyst underestimated biomass independently on the calibration year, from 0.83 to 1.26tha-1. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Dominguez A.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Tarjuelo J.M.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | de Juan J.A.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Lopez-Mata E.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2011

In both arid and semi-arid areas the use of saline water for irrigation is a common practice, even though it may cause a drop in crop yield and progressive soil salinization. In order to determine the most suitable irrigation strategy for higher yield, profitability, and soil salinity management of certain crops, the MOPECO-Salt Model has been developed. This model was first validated in the Eastern Mancha Agricultural System in Albacete (Spain) through a test carried out on onion crop in April-September 2009, where the simulated yield was 2% lower than the observed one. The model was then tested at Tal Amara Research Station in the Central Bekaa Valley Agricultural System (Lebanon) using data from a 5-year experiment on the effects of deficit irrigation on two cultivars of potato (Spunta: July-October 2001, and June-September 2002; and Agria: March-August 2004, 2005, and 2007). Furthermore, these results were compared with those obtained through AquaCrop, which does not currently assess crop response to salinity. Differences between observed and simulated yields were lower than 3% for MOPECO-Salt and up to 12% for AquaCrop. According to findings from simulations, the irrigation strategies without leaching fraction employed in both areas are remediable since the off-season rainfall is sufficient to wash out soluble salts supplied with irrigation water. Results showed that as much as 14.4% water could be saved when this strategy was adopted for onion crops. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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