Leatherhead, United Kingdom
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Evans T.J.,University of Cambridge | Trauner A.,University of Cambridge | Trauner A.,University of Tirana | Komitopoulou E.,Leatherhead Food International Ltd | Salmond G.P.C.,University of Cambridge
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010

Aims: To isolate and characterize novel bacteriophages for the phytopathogen, Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica (Eca), and to isolate phage-resistant mutants attenuated in virulence. Methods and Results: A novel flagellatropic phage was isolated on the potato-rotting bacterial species, Eca, and characterized using electron microscopy and restriction analysis. The phage, named PAT1, has an icosahedral head and a long, contractile tail; it belongs to the Myoviridae family. Partial sequencing revealed the presence of genes with homology to those of coliphages T4, T7 and Mu. Phage-resistant transposon mutants of Eca were isolated and studied in vitro for a number of virulence-related phenotypes; only motility was found to be affected. In vivo tuber rotting assays showed that these mutants were attenuated in virulence, presumably because the infection is unable to spread from the initial site of inoculation. Conclusions: The Eca flagellum can act as a receptor for PAT1 infection, and resistant mutants are enriched for motility and virulence defects. Significance and Impact of the Study: PAT1 is the first reported flagellatropic phage found to infect Eca and has enabled further study of the virulence of this economically important phytopathogen. © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.


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Leatherhead Food International Ltd | Date: 2012-01-09

Data processing equipment and computers; computer programs featuring food science, food research, and information on food; downloadable computer software featuring food science, food research, and information on food; computer programs containing surveys; downloadable electronic publications, namely, brochures, newsletters, magazines, journals, books and manuals in the fields of food science, food research, and information on food; and downloadable electronic publications, namely, brochures, newsletters, magazines, journals, books and manuals in the fields of food science, food research, and information on food. Advertising; business management; public opinion polling; provision of business information; commercial and market research in the fields of food science, food research, and information on food; market research by means of a computer database and on-line computer database; interpretation and analysis of market research data; conducting market and consumer surveys in the fields of food science and food research; market research data collection services; data processing; computerized data processing; on-line data processing services; business data analysis; compilation of information into computer databases in the fields of food science, food research, and information on food; professional business advisory and consultancy services in the fields of food science, food research, and information on food; collection of data and information for business and marketing purposes in the fields of food science, food research, and information on food; computerized analysis of business data; provision of market and statistical business information in the fields of food science, food research, and information on food; provision of consumer information .in the fields of food science, food research, and information on food; provision of business information, namely, information on legislative developments regarding food science, food research, and information on food. electronic transmissions of data and information. Educational services and training, namely, providing seminars, workshops, lectures, and on-line seminars and lectures in the fields of food science, food research, and food information; and providing non-downloadable electronic publications, namely, brochures, newsletters, magazines, journals, books and manuals in the fields of food science, food research, and information on food. Technical research in the fields of food and food science; provision of scientific and technical information in the fields of food, food science, and food research; industrial food analysis and research services in the field of food science.

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