Leather Industry Development Institute

Leather, Ethiopia

Leather Industry Development Institute

Leather, Ethiopia
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Hussien M.,Leather Industry Development Institute | Ramadass S.K.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Madhan B.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Rao J.R.,Leather Industry Development Institute
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association | Year: 2017

Limed pelt trimmings are one of the solid wastes that are generated in leather processing. These wastes are valuable resources for producing collagen hydrolysate, which can be potentially used for retanning of leathers. This work establishes the preparation, characterization and application of collagen hydrolysate by enzymatic hydrolysis of limed trimmings. The collagen hydrolysate was prepared using various concentration of trypsin. The hydrolysate samples were characterized using Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (M ALDI-TOF) techniques. About 6 predominant fractions of collagen hydrolysate peptides were observed from the enzymatic hydrolysis. The molecular weight of collagen hydrolysates was observed to be in the range between 1750 and 5800 daltons. The collagen hydrolysates prepared using various concentration (0.8,1.0 and 1.2%) of trypsin were used for retanning process. The collagen hydrolysate product obtained from hydrolysis with (0.8% trypsin, 3 hours) exhibited better dye uptake when used as retanning agent. Furthermore, collagen hydrolysate retanned leathers exhibited very good strength properties in comparison to leathers processed using control protein syntan. The option of internalizing the waste on one side and using them as a substitute for a high value product on the other presents the utilization of limed trimming as a strong case for sustainable leather manufacture.


Negasa D.,Leather Industry Development Institute | Velmurugan P.,University of Madras | Janardhanan S.K.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Jonnalagadda R.R.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Nair B.U.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association | Year: 2015

Skins and hides undergo changes in biochemical and biophysical properties during the leather processing. Biochemical composition varies with respect to different portions of the skin like butt, belly, shank, and neck. Belly part looseness is the main problem in leather making from sheepskin. To address this issue, the present work focuses on analysis of histology and biochemical properties of butt and belly portion of sheepskin from the southern part of India. Globular proteins are relatively higher in the butt portion than the belly, whereas it is reverse in the case of fibrous proteins except collagen. Interestingly, the presence of proteoglycans content in butt regions is significantly high compared to belly and in case of fat content it is reverse. Acid soluble collagen contribution is higher in butt region than belly and vice-versa in the case of pepsin soluble collagen. In general, collagen content is significantly higher in butt than belly, which may be the major cause for the higher strength characteristics of butt regions. Cr2O3 content is higher in butt region than belly, which corroborates with protein content and its interaction with tanning agents. Distribution of pore size influences the breathability property of leather, which has been altered in all the unit operations. Scanning electron microscopy study reveals the morphology of the grain and cross-section of the skin changes during leather processing. Thus, this study aids in better understanding of the butt and belly regions of Indian sheepskin.


Vedhanayagam M.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Teddy T.K.,Leather Industry Development Institute | Sreeram K.J.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Rao J.R.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Nair B.U.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association | Year: 2015

The present work involves the preparation of a retanning agent from the organics present in the black liquor generated by paper and pulp industry. Black liquor organics was extracted by using solvent extraction method and subsequently separated as acidic, non-acidic and organic compounds that were not degraded. Acidic and non-acidic organics were sulfonated and further condensed with formaldehyde to obtain a product ideal for application. Sulfonation - condensation reactions were modulated to achieve particle size on par with that of commercial syntans. Condensed products from both acidic and non-acidic components were used in lieu of synthetic tanning agents in retanning. The final leathers exhibit off-white color with good mechanical strength as compared to leathers from commercial phenolic syntan. This work reveals that the black liquor, which is a by-product of paper and pulp industry could through an innovative process, be turned into a retanning agent for leather processing. The product has the advantage of being able to replace phenol - a product with high market fluctuation.


Gari B.N.R.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Fessehaye S.,Leather Industry Development Institute | Aravindhan R.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Sreeram K.J.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association | Year: 2016

An attempt to replace water (7-10 m3/ton) in leather processing with a ternary mixture of solvents that would have a lower boiling point than water (for easy recovery through evaporation) and also bring about maximum solubility of conventional dyes, syntans and fatliquors is reported. The ternary mixture (Water - ethanol - ethyl acetate) reported in this study provided for good solubility/dispersion of leather chemicals. Average particle size of the syntan/dye in solvent/water remaining the same, particle size distribution of dyes and syntans was advantageous in the solvent medium, leading to better diffusion. Amongst various trials, neutralization of the leathers after tanning in solvent medium followed by use of neutralization syntans was found to be more advantageous to obtain leather properties comparable to conventional controls. The adsorption studies of dye used in the present study followed Freundlich model in both solvent and water medium indicates multilayer adsorption. Physical properties of the leathers were similar to that of control, indicating clearly that the solvent had no adversary effect on collagen and also provided for good diffusion and fixation of chemicals. The method thus reported in this study could provide for a minimum change approach to leather processing with ample contribution to water saving.


Mohammed H.,Leather Industry Development Institute | Aysanew G.,Leather Industry Development Institute | Aravindhan R.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Raghava Rao J.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Chandra Babu N.K.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association | Year: 2014

Ethiopian tanners face a shortage of raw material input for the production of leather. The government strategically planned for importing raw skins from neighboring countries and also for effective utilization of available raw material resources in the country. The meat of Wanke sheep is in high demand in international markets, but the skin commands low price not only due to low availability but also less demand by tanners due to natural problems associated with the skin. Hence, tanners treat the skin as a reject. The problems of Wanke skin include high natural fat deposition, thin substance and low strength. Usually, leathers made out of Wanke skins have low selections compared to Ethiopian sheep skins and are mainly utilized for making lining leather. In this work, efforts have been made to develop a process technology for making high value leathers with improved properties from Wanke sheepskin.


Mohammed H.,Leather Industry Development Institute | Aysanew G.,Leather Industry Development Institute | Aravindhan R.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Gnanamani A.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association | Year: 2014

The leather industry is one of the priority sectors in Ethiopia, which has been identified as potentially competitive in the global market. Ethiopian tanners face a shortage of raw material input for production of leather. The government strategically planned for importing raw skins from neighboring countries and also for effective utilization of available raw material resources in the country. About fourteen sheep breeds are recognized in Ethiopia. Among the available resources, Wanke sheepskins, indigenous to lowland of Ogaden area of Somali Region take prime position based on their availability. Meat of Wanke sheep is in high demand in international market, but the skin commands low price not only due to availability but also less demanded by tanners due to natural problems associated with the skin. In this paper the histological, chemical and physical characteristics of Wanke sheepskins have been analyzed using various tools and techniques. This characteristic understanding of the Wanke sheepskins will enable the development of process strategy to produce Wanke leathers with improved properties.

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