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Vedhanayagam M.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Teddy T.K.,Leather Industry Development Institute | Sreeram K.J.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Rao J.R.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Nair B.U.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association | Year: 2015

The present work involves the preparation of a retanning agent from the organics present in the black liquor generated by paper and pulp industry. Black liquor organics was extracted by using solvent extraction method and subsequently separated as acidic, non-acidic and organic compounds that were not degraded. Acidic and non-acidic organics were sulfonated and further condensed with formaldehyde to obtain a product ideal for application. Sulfonation - condensation reactions were modulated to achieve particle size on par with that of commercial syntans. Condensed products from both acidic and non-acidic components were used in lieu of synthetic tanning agents in retanning. The final leathers exhibit off-white color with good mechanical strength as compared to leathers from commercial phenolic syntan. This work reveals that the black liquor, which is a by-product of paper and pulp industry could through an innovative process, be turned into a retanning agent for leather processing. The product has the advantage of being able to replace phenol - a product with high market fluctuation.


Negasa D.,Leather Industry Development Institute | Velmurugan P.,University of Madras | Janardhanan S.K.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Jonnalagadda R.R.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Nair B.U.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association | Year: 2015

Skins and hides undergo changes in biochemical and biophysical properties during the leather processing. Biochemical composition varies with respect to different portions of the skin like butt, belly, shank, and neck. Belly part looseness is the main problem in leather making from sheepskin. To address this issue, the present work focuses on analysis of histology and biochemical properties of butt and belly portion of sheepskin from the southern part of India. Globular proteins are relatively higher in the butt portion than the belly, whereas it is reverse in the case of fibrous proteins except collagen. Interestingly, the presence of proteoglycans content in butt regions is significantly high compared to belly and in case of fat content it is reverse. Acid soluble collagen contribution is higher in butt region than belly and vice-versa in the case of pepsin soluble collagen. In general, collagen content is significantly higher in butt than belly, which may be the major cause for the higher strength characteristics of butt regions. Cr2O3 content is higher in butt region than belly, which corroborates with protein content and its interaction with tanning agents. Distribution of pore size influences the breathability property of leather, which has been altered in all the unit operations. Scanning electron microscopy study reveals the morphology of the grain and cross-section of the skin changes during leather processing. Thus, this study aids in better understanding of the butt and belly regions of Indian sheepskin.


Mohammed H.,Leather Industry Development Institute | Aysanew G.,Leather Industry Development Institute | Aravindhan R.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Raghava Rao J.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Chandra Babu N.K.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association | Year: 2014

Ethiopian tanners face a shortage of raw material input for the production of leather. The government strategically planned for importing raw skins from neighboring countries and also for effective utilization of available raw material resources in the country. The meat of Wanke sheep is in high demand in international markets, but the skin commands low price not only due to low availability but also less demand by tanners due to natural problems associated with the skin. Hence, tanners treat the skin as a reject. The problems of Wanke skin include high natural fat deposition, thin substance and low strength. Usually, leathers made out of Wanke skins have low selections compared to Ethiopian sheep skins and are mainly utilized for making lining leather. In this work, efforts have been made to develop a process technology for making high value leathers with improved properties from Wanke sheepskin.


Mohammed H.,Leather Industry Development Institute | Aysanew G.,Leather Industry Development Institute | Aravindhan R.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | Gnanamani A.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association | Year: 2014

The leather industry is one of the priority sectors in Ethiopia, which has been identified as potentially competitive in the global market. Ethiopian tanners face a shortage of raw material input for production of leather. The government strategically planned for importing raw skins from neighboring countries and also for effective utilization of available raw material resources in the country. About fourteen sheep breeds are recognized in Ethiopia. Among the available resources, Wanke sheepskins, indigenous to lowland of Ogaden area of Somali Region take prime position based on their availability. Meat of Wanke sheep is in high demand in international market, but the skin commands low price not only due to availability but also less demanded by tanners due to natural problems associated with the skin. In this paper the histological, chemical and physical characteristics of Wanke sheepskins have been analyzed using various tools and techniques. This characteristic understanding of the Wanke sheepskins will enable the development of process strategy to produce Wanke leathers with improved properties.

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