Goodrich-Hunsaker N.J.,Brigham Young University |
Livingstone S.A.,University of Victoria |
Skelton R.W.,University of Victoria |
Hopkins R.O.,Brigham Young University |
And 2 more authors.
Hippocampus | Year: 2010
The Morris water maze is a standard paradigm for the testing of hippocampal function in laboratory animals. Virtual versions of the Morris water maze are now available and can be used to assess spatial learning and memory ability in both healthy and brain injured participants. To evaluate the importance of the hippocampus in spatial learning and memory, we tested five amnesic participants with selective hippocampal damage using a virtual water maze called the Arena Maze. The amnesic participants with hippocampal damage were impaired on the invisible platform (place) task that required them to use distal cues, but were able to navigate almost as well as comparison participants when the invisible platform was marked by a single proximal cue. These results not only confirm that the hippocampus plays a necessary role in human navigation in large-scale environments but also provides a new link between the mnemonic and navigational roles of the hippocampus. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Evans R.S.,LDS Hospital
Yearbook of medical informatics | Year: 2016
OBJECTIVES: Describe the state of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) in 1992 and their evolution by 2015 and where EHRs are expected to be in 25 years. Further to discuss the expectations for EHRs in 1992 and explore which of them were realized and what events accelerated or disrupted/derailed how EHRs evolved.METHODS: Literature search based on "Electronic Health Record", "Medical Record", and "Medical Chart" using Medline, Google, Wikipedia Medical, and Cochrane Libraries resulted in an initial review of 2,356 abstracts and other information in papers and books. Additional papers and books were identified through the review of references cited in the initial review.RESULTS: By 1992, hardware had become more affordable, powerful, and compact and the use of personal computers, local area networks, and the Internet provided faster and easier access to medical information. EHRs were initially developed and used at academic medical facilities but since most have been replaced by large vendor EHRs. While EHR use has increased and clinicians are being prepared to practice in an EHR-mediated world, technical issues have been overshadowed by procedural, professional, social, political, and especially ethical issues as well as the need for compliance with standards and information security. There have been enormous advancements that have taken place, but many of the early expectations for EHRs have not been realized and current EHRs still do not meet the needs of today's rapidly changing healthcare environment.CONCLUSION: The current use of EHRs initiated by new technology would have been hard to foresee. Current and new EHR technology will help to provide international standards for interoperable applications that use health, social, economic, behavioral, and environmental data to communicate, interpret, and act intelligently upon complex healthcare information to foster precision medicine and a learning health system.
MacHtay M.,Case Western Reserve University |
Bae K.,Radiation Therapy Oncology Group RTOG |
Movsas B.,Ford Motor Company |
Paulus R.,Radiation Therapy Oncology Group RTOG |
And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2012
Purpose: Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (LA-NSCLC) were analyzed for local-regional failure (LRF) and overall survival (OS) with respect to radiotherapy dose intensity. Methods and Materials: This study combined data from seven Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials in which chemoradiotherapy was used for LA-NSCLC: RTOG 88-08 (chemoradiation arm only), 90-15, 91-06, 92-04, 93-09 (nonoperative arm only), 94-10, and 98-01. The radiotherapeutic biologically effective dose (BED) received by each individual patient was calculated, as was the overall treatment time-adjusted BED (tBED) using standard formulae. Heterogeneity testing was done with chi-squared statistics, and weighted pooled hazard ratio estimates were used. Cox and Fine and Gray's proportional hazard models were used for OS and LRF, respectively, to test the associations between BED and tBED adjusted for other covariates. Results: A total of 1,356 patients were analyzed for BED (1,348 for tBED). The 2-year and 5-year OS rates were 38% and 15%, respectively. The 2-year and 5-year LRF rates were 46% and 52%, respectively. The BED (and tBED) were highly significantly associated with both OS and LRF, with or without adjustment for other covariates on multivariate analysis (p < 0.0001). A 1-Gy BED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 4% relative improvement in survival; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio for survival as a function of BED was 0.96. Similarly, a 1-Gy tBED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 3% relative improvement in local-regional control; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio as a function of tBED was 0.97. Conclusions: Higher radiotherapy dose intensity is associated with improved local-regional control and survival in the setting of chemoradiotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Hallows R.K.,LDS Hospital |
Pelt C.E.,University of Utah |
Erickson J.A.,University of Utah |
Peters C.L.,University of Utah
Journal of Arthroplasty | Year: 2011
The purpose of this study was to compare serum metal ion concentrations (chromium and cobalt) in 3 groups, 2 with metal-on-metal articulations and a control metal-on-polyethylene group. Forty-six patients with good to well-functioning hips were recruited for the study. Serum ion levels of all patients were drawn, and Harris Hip Score, University of California, Los Angeles activity score, and radiographs were performed. Serum chromium concentrations were significantly lower in the large head group compared with the small head group (P = .013). There was no difference in the cobalt concentrations between the 2 groups (P = .087). There was a significant difference between both metal-on-metal groups when compared with controls for both chromium and cobalt levels (P = .0005 and P = .0004, control vs small; P = .001 and P = .0001, control vs large, respectively). © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Weaver L.K.,LDS Hospital |
Weaver L.K.,Intermountain Medical Center |
Weaver L.K.,University of Utah
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2011
Objective: To review aspects of hyperbaric medicine pertinent to treating critically ill patients with hyperbaric oxygen in both monoplace and multiplace chambers. Data Sources: Literature review of online databases, research repositories, and clinical trial registries. Results: The search of these resources produced information regarding technical considerations, feasibility, risk, and patient management. Hyperbaric oxygen is used in treating a number of disorders that occur in critically ill patients, including acute carbon monoxide poisoning, arterial gas embolism, severe decompression sickness, clostridial gas gangrene, necrotizing fasciitis, and acute crush injury. Most chambers in the United States treat outpatients with problem nonhealing wounds, and many chambers are not hospital-based. Only a few hyperbaric medicine centers have intensive care unit-level staffing, specialized equipment, a 24/7 schedule, and experience in treating critically ill patients. Not all intensive care unit-related equipment can be subjected to hyperbaric pressurization, and some equipment may increase the risk for fire inside the chamber. Conclusions: Treating critically ill patients with hyperbaric oxygen requires specialized equipment and personnel with intensive care unit skills and knowledge of the physiology and risks unique to hyperbaric oxygen exposure. Like with all medical interventions, it is important to consider the risk vs. the benefit of hyperbaric oxygen for any given critical care disorder, but hyperbaric oxygen can be delivered safely to critically ill patients. Many critical care environments without present hyperbaric oxygen capability may wish to consider offering hyperbaric oxygen to patients with hyperbaric oxygen-approved indications. Copyright © 2011 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Farney R.J.,LDS Hospital |
Walker B.S.,LDS Hospital |
Farney R.M.,LDS Hospital |
Snow G.L.,LDS Hospital |
Walker J.M.,LDS Hospital
Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine | Year: 2011
Background: Various models and questionnaires have been developed for screening specific populations for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as defined by the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI); however, almost every method is based upon dichotomizing a population, and none function ideally. We evaluated the possibility of using the STOP-Bang model (SBM) to classify severity of OSA into 4 categories ranging from none to severe. Methods: Anthropomorphic data and the presence of snoring, tiredness/sleepiness, observed apneas, and hypertension were collected from 1426 patients who underwent diagnostic polysomnography. Questionnaire data for each patient was converted to the STOP-Bang equivalent with an ordinal rating of 0 to 8. Proportional odds logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict severity of sleep apnea based upon the AHI: none (AHI < 5/h), mild (AHI ≥ 5 to < 15/h), moderate (≥ 15 to < 30/h), and severe (AHI ≥ 30/h). Results: Linear, curvilinear, and weighted models (R 2 = 0.245, 0.251, and 0.269, respectively) were developed that predicted AHI severity. The linear model showed a progressive increase in the probability of severe (4.4% to 81.9%) and progressive decrease in the probability of none (52.5% to 1.1%). The probability of mild or moderate OSA initially increased from 32.9% and 10.3% respectively (SBM score 0) to 39.3% (SBM score 2) and 31.8% (SBM score 4), after which there was a progressive decrease in probabilities as more patients fell into the severe category. Conclusions: The STOP-Bang model may be useful to categorize OSA severity, triage patients for diagnostic evaluation or exclude from harm.
Stewart A.,LDS Hospital
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy | Year: 2010
Purpose. A case of warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN) treated with protein C concentrate (human) is reported. Summary. A 46-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to the hospital for a herpes viral infection complicated by neutropenic fevers of unknown origin. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were initiated, as well as enoxaparin for prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis. By hospital day 7, the patient's platelets decreased by 50%; by hospital day 8, they decreased another 50%. A test for heparin antibody was positive, and enoxaparin was stopped. Two days later, the patient developed a clot in her peripherally inserted central catheter, and warfarin and argatroban were initiated. Within 24 hours of warfarin initiation, the patient developed swelling in her feet and new lesions on her inner thigh, buttock, face, feet, fingers, and arms. She was treated with phytonadione and fresh frozen plasma, but these treatments failed to slow the progression of her lesions, which had turned to necrotic tissue. WISN was suspected, and warfarin therapy was discontinued after three doses. After a consultation with a hematologist, treatment with protein C concentrate (human) was initiated. Within 24 hours of treatment with this product, progression of necrosis stopped, and the patient's respiratory failure resolved. The patient underwent multiple skin grafts, and the lesions healed without extensive scarring. She experienced no adverse effects with the administration of protein C concentrate (human). Conclusion. A patient with WISN was treated with protein C concentrate (human) with overall good results and no adverse effects. Copyright © 2010, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Tanaka R.,LDS Hospital
Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology | Year: 2013
In this article lung protective strategy using low tidal volume and low plateau pressure is discussed based on the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network protocol. The ARDS Network study, which reported a lower mortality with a tidal volume target 6 ml·kg-1 of predicted body weight, remains the only study to show that mechanical ventilation strategy improves outcome in patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. To liberate patients from mechanical ventilation in timely manner, daily assessment with spontaneous breathing trial is essential. Using weaning predictors or gradual withdrawal with SIMV mode prolongs the duration of weaning, and is not recommended.
Weaver L.K.,LDS Hospital
Hospital practice (1995) | Year: 2012
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is the inhalation of 100% oxygen at pressures > 1.4 times atmospheric pressure. Hyperbaric oxygen can be delivered in monoplace (single person) or multiplace (multi-person) chambers. Most clinical HBO2 exposures are between 2 and 2.4 atm abs for approximately 2 hours. Hyperbaric oxygen causes the blood and tissue oxygen levels to increase, reduces the volume of intravascular and tissue bubbles (to treat decompression sickness [DCS] and arterial gas embolism [AGE]), and accelerates wash-out of other gases, such as nitrogen or carbon monoxide (CO), which is important for DCS, AGE, and CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen favorably modulates ischemia-reperfusion injury by transiently inhibiting neutrophil-endothelial interactions, which is important for patients with DCS, AGE, CO poisoning, and potentially other acute ischemic conditions. Because of enhanced oxygen delivery, HBO2 is used for acute crush injury, ischemic flaps and grafts, acute central retinal arterial occlusion, other acute arterial occlusions, and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Hyperbaric oxygen has antimicrobial effects and is offered for patients with limb- or life-threatening infections, such as clostridial gas gangrene and necrotizing fasciitis. The most common US indication for HBO2 is the treatment of ischemic wounds (eg, diabetic lower extremity wounds, late effects of radiation, and refractory osteomyelitis). In ischemic wounds, HBO2 can deliver sufficient oxygen to the nonhealing wound to stimulate angiogenesis and healing through multiple mechanisms, including increased collagen production, increased growth factor receptor numbers, upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor, increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells, and improvement in neutrophil-mediated host defense. Clinical trials support efficacy of HBO2 for acute CO poisoning, diabetic lower extremity wounds, crush injury, and radiation necrosis. Most hyperbaric chambers are associated with wound care centers and may be hospital based or nonhospital based. We review some of the disorders treated with HBO2 that hospital-based clinicians may be asked to evaluate.
News Article | November 14, 2016
ROCKVILLE, Md., Nov. 14, 2016 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- The Emmes Corporation today announced that a large team of scientists and health professionals including those from the company, LDS Hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah, Lovelace Biomedical Environmental Research Institute in...