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Bernardino J.,Lda. Rua D. Francisco Xavier de Noronha | Bispo R.,Lda. Rua D. Francisco Xavier de Noronha | Bispo R.,Institute Universitario | Bispo R.,University of Lisbon | And 2 more authors.
New Zealand Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

Over the last few years, great efforts have been made to improve the methodologies used to assess bird and bat fatalities at wind farms. For that purpose, several mortality estimators have been proposed. In general, these estimators account for: 1) partial coverage; 2) carcass removal (e.g. by scavengers or decay); and 3) imperfect detection. Perhaps surprisingly, a universal estimator that ensures good quality estimates under general circumstances is still lacking. Further, the existing estimators include different adjustment approaches and a variety of often implicit and misunderstood assumptions that may not be valid, making it difficult for practitioners to choose between them. Focusing on bird and bat fatality at onshore wind farms, we summarise and discuss implementation aspects and the assumptions involved in seven commonly used estimators. This should provide researchers requiring these methods with a basis to choose the most appropriate estimator under a given set of conditions, and contribute to increased standards in wind farm wildlife fatality estimation. © 2013 Bio3 - Estudos e Projectos em Biologia e Valorização de Recursos Naturais, Lda.

Marques A.T.,Lda. Rua D. Francisco Xavier de Noronha | Batalha H.,Lda. Rua D. Francisco Xavier de Noronha | Rodrigues S.,Lda. Rua D. Francisco Xavier de Noronha | Costa H.,Lda. Rua D. Francisco Xavier de Noronha | And 4 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2014

Bird mortality due to collisions with wind turbines is one of the major ecological concerns associated with wind farms. Data on the factors influencing collision risk and bird fatality are sparse and lack integration. This baseline information is critical to the development and implementation of effective mitigation measures and, therefore, is considered a priority research topic. Through an extensive literature review (we compiled 217 documents and include 111 in this paper), we identify and summarize the wide range of factors influencing bird collisions with wind turbines and the available mitigation strategies. Factors contributing to collision risk are grouped according to species characteristics (morphology, sensorial perception, phenology, behavior or abundance), site (landscape, flight paths, food availability and weather) and wind farm features (turbine type and configuration, and lighting). Bird collision risk results from complex interactions between these factors. Due to this complexity, no simple formula can be broadly applied in terms of mitigation strategies. The best mitigation option may involve a combination of more than one measure, adapted to the specificities of each site, wind farm and target species. Assessments during project development and turbine curtailment during operation have been presented as promising strategies in the literature, but need further investigation. Priority areas for future research are: (1) further development of the methodologies used to predict impacts when planning a new facility; (2) assessment of the effectiveness of existing minimization techniques; and (3) identification of new mitigation approaches. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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