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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Mailler R.,University Paris Est Creteil | Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | Coquet Y.,SAUR | Bulete A.,CNRS Institute of Analytical Sciences | And 11 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment

Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000m3/d - Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n=11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n=62) and other emerging pollutants (n=57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns.A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90-100. days.The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38-45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21-48%), DOC (13-44%) and UV-254 (22-48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO2 -.For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (>. 60%) or very high (>. 80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n = 22/32), i.e. atenolol (92-97%), carbamazepine (80-94%), ciprofloxacin (75-95%), diclofenac (71-97%), oxazepam (74-91%) or sulfamethoxazole (56-83%). In addition, alkylphenols, artificial sweeteners, benzotriazole, bisphenol A, personal care products (triclocarban and parabens) and pesticides have removals lying in the 50 ->. 90% range.Overall, the fluidized bed of μGAC allows obtaining performances comparable to PAC at the same activated carbon dose. Indeed, the average removal of the 13 PPHs found at a high occurrence (>75%) in WWTP discharges is similar at 20g/m3 of μGAC (78-89%) and PAC (85-93%). In addition, this recycled μGAC operation leads to several operational advantages (no FeCl3, reactivable, higher SRT, higher treated flow) and has a stronger impact on the overall wastewater quality compared to PAC. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mailler R.,University Paris Est Creteil | Gasperi J.,University Paris Est Creteil | Coquet Y.,SAUR | Deshayes S.,University Paris Est Creteil | And 10 more authors.
Water Research

The efficacy of a fluidized powdered activated carbon (PAC) pilot (CarboPlus®) was studied in both nominal (total nitrification+post denitrification) and degraded (partial nitrification+no denitrification) configuration of the Seine Centre WWTP (Colombes, France). In addition to conventional wastewater parameters 54 pharmaceuticals and hormones (PhPHs) and 59 other emerging pollutants were monitored in influents and effluents of the pilot. Thus, the impacts of the WWTP configuration, the process operation and the physico-chemical properties of the studied compounds were assessed in this article. Among the 26 PhPHs quantified in nominal WWTP configuration influents, 8 have high dissolved concentrations (>100ng/L), 11 have an intermediary concentration (10-100ng/L) and 7 are quantified below 10ng/L. Sulfamethoxazole is predominant (about 30% of the sum of the PhPHs). Overall, 6 PhPHs are poorly to moderately removed (<60%), such as ibuprofen, paracetamol or estrone, while 9 are very well removed (>80%), i.e. beta blockers, carbamazepine or trimethoprim, and 11 are well eliminated (60-80%), i.e. diclofenac, naproxen or sulfamethoxazole. In degraded WWTP configuration, higher levels of organic matter and higher concentrations of most pollutants are observed. Consequently, most PhPHs are substantially less removed in percentages but the removed flux is higher. Thus, the PAC dose required to achieve a given removal percentage is higher in degraded WWTP configuration. For the other micropollutants (34 quantified), artificial sweeteners and phthalates are found at particularly high concentrations in degraded WWTP configuration influents, up to μg/L range. Only pesticides, bisphenol A and parabens are largely eliminated (50-95%), while perfluorinated acids, PAHs, triclosan and sweeteners are not or weakly removed (<50%). The remaining compounds exhibit a very variable fate from campaign to campaign. The fresh PAC dose was identified as the most influencing operation parameter and is strongly correlated to performances. Charge and hydrophobicity of compounds have been recognized as crucial for the micropollutant adsorption on PAC, as well as the molecular weight. Finally, a PAC dose of 10mg/L allows an average removal of 72-80% of the sum of the PhPHs in nominal WWTP configuration. The comparaison of the results with those from the scarce other studies tends to indicate that an extrapolation of them to different PAC processes and to other WWTPs could be possible and relevant, taking into account the differences of water quality from WWTP to WWTP. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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