Albuquerque, NM, United States
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Andrade S.E.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Scott P.E.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Davis R.L.,Kaiser Permanente | Li D.-K.,Kaiser Permanente | And 12 more authors.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety | Year: 2013

Purpose: To evaluate the validity of health plan and birth certificate data for pregnancy research. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using administrative and claims data from 11 U.S. health plans and corresponding birth certificate data from state health departments. Diagnoses, drug dispensings, and procedure codes were used to identify infant outcomes (cardiac defects, anencephaly, preterm birth, and neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] admission) and maternal diagnoses (asthma and systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE]) recorded in the health plan data for live born deliveries between January 2001 and December 2007. A random sample of medical charts (n=802) was abstracted for infants and mothers identified with the specified outcomes. Information on newborn, maternal, and paternal characteristics (gestational age at birth, birth weight, previous pregnancies and live births, race/ethnicity) was also abstracted and compared to birth certificate data. Positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated with documentation in the medical chart serving as the gold standard. Results: PPVs were 71% for cardiac defects, 37% for anencephaly, 87% for preterm birth, and 92% for NICU admission. PPVs for algorithms to identify maternal diagnoses of asthma and SLE were ≥93%. Our findings indicated considerable agreement (PPVs>90%) between birth certificate and medical record data for measures related to birth weight, gestational age, prior obstetrical history, and race/ethnicity. Conclusions: Health plan and birth certificate data can be useful to accurately identify some infant outcomes, maternal diagnoses, and newborn, maternal, and paternal characteristics. Other outcomes and variables may require medical record review for validation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


PubMed | Group Health Research Institute, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Kaiser Permanente, LCF Research and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety | Year: 2016

Sulfonamide antibacterials are widely used in pregnancy, but evidence about their safety is mixed. The objective of this study was to assess the association between first-trimester sulfonamide exposure and risk of specific congenital malformations.Mother-infant pairs were selected from a cohort of 1.2 million live-born deliveries (2001-2008) at 11 US health plans comprising the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program. Mothers with first-trimester trimethoprim-sulfonamide (TMP-SUL) exposures were randomly matched 1:1 to (i) a primary comparison group (mothers exposed to penicillins and/or cephalosporins) and (ii) a secondary comparison group (mothers with no dispensing of an antibacterial, antiprotozoal, or antimalarial medication during the same time period). The outcomes were cardiovascular abnormalities, cleft palate/lip, clubfoot, and urinary tract abnormalities.We first identified 7615 infants in the TMP-SUL exposure group, of which 7595 (99%) were exposed to a combination of TMP-SUL and the remaining 1% to sulfonamides alone. After matching (1:1) to the comparator groups and only including those with complete data on covariates, there were 20064 (n=6688 per group) in the primary analyses. Overall, cardiovascular defects (1.52%) were the most common and cleft lip/palate (0.10%) the least common that were evaluated. Compared with penicillin/cephalosporin exposure, and no antibacterial exposure, TMP-SUL exposure was not associated with statistically significant elevated risks for cardiovascular, cleft lip/palate, clubfoot, or urinary system defects.First-trimester TMP-SUL exposure was not associated with a higher risk of the congenital anomalies studied, compared with exposure to penicillins and/or cephalosporins, or no exposure to antibacterials.


Shires D.A.,Ford Motor Company | Divine G.,Ford Motor Company | Schum M.,LCF Research | Gunter M.J.,LCF Research | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Managed Care | Year: 2011

Objective: To compare colorectal cancer (CRC) screening use, including changes over time and demographic characteristics associated with screening receipt, between 2 insured primary care populations. Study Design: Clinical and administrative records from 2 large health systems, one in New Mexico and the other in Michigan, were used to determine use of CRC screening tests between 2004 and 2008 among patients aged 51 to 74 years. Methods: Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate trends in CRC screening use over time and the association of demographic and other factors with screening receipt. Results: Rates of CRC screening use ranged from 48.1% at the New Mexico site to 68.7% at the Michigan site, with colonoscopy being the most frequently used modality. Fecal occult blood test was used inconsistently by substantial proportions of patients who did not meet the definition of screening users. Screening use was positively and significantly associated with older age, male sex, and more periodic health examinations and other types of primary care visits; at the Michigan site, it was also associated with African American race, married status, and higher annual estimated household income. Conclusions: Among insured primary care patients, CRC screening use falls short. Further research is needed to determine what factors are barriers to routine fecal occult blood test or colonoscopy use among insured patients who have access to and regularly use primary care and how those barriers can be eliminated.


Linares-Perdomo O.,Intermountain Medical Center | East T.D.,LCF Research | Brower R.,Johns Hopkins University | Morris A.H.,Intermountain Medical Center | Morris A.H.,University of Utah
Chest | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Recent recommendations for lung protective mechanical ventilation include a tidal volume target of 6 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW). Different PBW equations might introduce important differences in tidal volumes delivered to research subjects and patients. METHODS: PBW equations use height, age, and sex as input variables. We compared National Institutes of Health (NIH) ARDS Network (ARDSNet), actuarial table (ACTUARIAL), and Stewart (STEWART) PBW equations used in clinical trials, across physiologic ranges for age and height. We used three-dimensional and two-dimensional surface analysis to compare these PBW equations. We then used age and height from actual clinical trial subjects to quantify PBW equation differences. RESULTS: Significant potential differences existed between these PBW predictions. The ACTUARIAL and ARDSNet surfaces for women were the only surfaces that intersected and produced both positive and negative differences. Mathematical differences between PBW equations at limits of height and age exceeded 30% in women and 24% in men for ACTUARIAL vs ARDSNet and about 25% for women and 15% for men for STEWART vs ARDSNet. The largest mathematical differences were present in older, shorter subjects, especially women. Actual differences for clinical trial subjects were as high as 15% for men and 24% for women. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences between PBW equations for both men and women could be important sources of interstudy variation. Studies should adopt a standard PBW equation. We recommend using the NIH National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Network PBW equation because it is associated with the clinical trial that identified 6 mL/kg PBW as an appropriate target. © 2015 AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CHEST PHYSICIANS.


Kharat A.A.,University of New Mexico | Borrego M.E.,University of New Mexico | Raisch D.W.,University of New Mexico | Roberts M.H.,LCF Research | And 2 more authors.
Annals of the American Thoracic Society | Year: 2015

Rationale: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are widely used in the management of asthma. Prior research suggests that access to ICS among patients with asthma may vary by ethnicity. Objectives: Study objectives were to determine if there is a difference in the proportion of Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients with asthma in the receipt of an ICS prescription and to determine independent predictors for the receipt of an ICS prescription for asthma. Methods: The 2009 U.S. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data were used to compare the receipt of ICS prescription among patients with asthma with the following inclusion criteria: Hispanic and non-Hispanic white ethnicity, age over 4 years, and diagnostic codes for asthma. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the influence of race/ethnicity and other significant factors on the receipt of an ICS prescription. Measurements and Main Results: There were 1,469 patients with asthma, corresponding to a weighted sample of 14,401,069 U.S. patients with asthma who met the inclusion criteria, represented by 16.1% Hispanic, 59.5% female, and mean age of 39.9 years. Among non-Hispanic white patients with asthma, 39.7% (35% children and 41% adults) had a receipt of an ICS prescription compared with 22.2% of Hispanic patients (23.9% children and 21.2% adults); P<0.001. In the multiple regression model, Hispanic patients aged 18 years or older had 43% lower odds (odds ratio, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.9) of having a receipt of an ICS prescription compared with non-Hispanic white patients, independent of other factors. There was no significant difference in receipt of an ICS prescription between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children with asthma (aged 4-17 yr). Conclusions: The disparity in the receipt of ICS prescription between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adult patients with asthma could result in suboptimal asthma management, a higher rate of exacerbations, and higher health care costs in this growing minority population. The differences and potential disparities in the receipt of an ICS prescription between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients with asthma warrant further investigation to better understand the reasons for such disparities, along with their impact on the U.S. health care burden and interventions that can be undertaken to reduce these disparities. Copyright © 2015 by the American Thoracic Society.


Doubeni C.A.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Jambaulikar G.D.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Fouayzi H.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Robinson S.B.,Premier Inc | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Low-socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a higher colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. Screening with colonoscopy, the most commonly used test in the US, has been shown to reduce the risk of death from CRC. This study examined if, among insured persons receiving care in integrated healthcare delivery systems, differences exist in colonoscopy use according to neighborhood SES. Methods: We assembled a retrospective cohort of 100,566 men and women, 50-74 years old, who had been enrolled in one of three US health plans for ≥1 year on January 1, 2000. Subjects were followed until the date of first colonoscopy, date of disenrollment from the health plan, or December 31, 2007, whichever occurred first. We obtained data on colonoscopy use from administrative records. We defined screening colonoscopy as an examination that was not preceded by gastrointestinal conditions in the prior 6-month period. Neighborhood SES was measured using the percentage of households in each subject's census-tract with an income below 1999 federal poverty levels based on 2000 US census data. Analyses, adjusted for demographics and comorbidity index, were performed using Weibull regression models. Results: The average age of the cohort was 60 years and 52.7% were female. During 449,738 person-years of follow-up, fewer subjects in the lowest SES quartile (Q1) compared to the highest quartile (Q4) had any colonoscopy (26.7% vs. 37.1%) or a screening colonoscopy (7.6% vs. 13.3%). In regression analyses, compared to Q4, subjects in Q1 were 16% (adjusted HR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.80-0.88) less likely to undergo any colonoscopy and 30%(adjusted HR = 0.70, CI: 0.65-0.75) less likely to undergo a screening colonoscopy. Conclusion: People in lower-SES neighborhoods are less likely to undergo a colonoscopy, even among insured subjects receiving care in integrated healthcare systems. Removing health insurance barriers alone is unlikely to eliminate disparities in colonoscopy use. © 2012 Doubeni et al.


Sperl-Hillen J.,HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research | Beaton S.,LCF Research | Fernandes O.,HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research | Von Worley A.,LCF Research | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Managed Care | Year: 2013

Objectives: To evaluate whether outcomes from diabetes self-management education for patients with suboptimal control were sustained. Study Design: A randomized controlled trial of 623 adults with type 2 diabetes and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) >7% assigned to receive conventional individual education (IE), group education (GE) using US Diabetes Conversation Maps, or usual care (UC) with no education. Methods: A1C tests, Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID), Diabetes Self-Efficacy (DES), Recommended Food Score (RFS), physical activity, and medication use were quantified at baseline and 1 year of follow-up through electronic health records and quarterly mailed surveys. Short-term (mean 6.8 months) and long-term (12.8 months) outcomes were evaluated using linear mixed models. In addition, follow-up trajectories were plotted in a random effects generalized additive model with smooth splines. Results: Compared with UC, IE resulted in longterm improved DES and PAID scores (DES, +.11, P =.03 and PAID, -2.94, P =.04), but not significantly improved long-term RFS or physical activity change. The A1C trajectory declined more steeply in IE than GE and UC for the first 150 days post randomization. However, by 250 days, there was no treatment group A1C difference. The model fit likelihood ratio test for A1C intervention trends was significant for 3 distinct non-linear trajectories (P =.02). Conclusions: Conventional IE (but not GE) resulted in significant and sustained improvements in self-efficacy and reduced diabetes distress compared with UC, but short-term improvements in A1C, nutrition, and physical activity were not sustained. Patients may need ongoing reinforcement to achieve lasting behavioral change and glucose control.


Roberts M.H.,LCF Research | Mapel D.W.,LCF Research | Hartry A.,Health Economics and Outcomes Research | Von Worley A.,LCF Research | Thomson H.,Health Economics and Outcomes Research
Annals of the American Thoracic Society | Year: 2013

Rationale: Pain is a common problem for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, pain is minimally discussed in COPD management guidelines.Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe chronic pain prevalence among patients with COPD compared with similar patients with other chronic diseases in a managed care population in the southwestern United States (age ≥ 40 yr). Methods:Using data for the period January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2010, patients with COPD were matched to two control subjects without COPD but with another chronic illness based on age, sex, insurance, and healthcare encounter type. Odds ratios (OR) for evidence of chronic pain were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Pulmonary function data for 200 randomly selected patients with COPD were abstracted. Measurements and Main Results: Retrospectively analyzed recurrent pain-related utilization (diagnoses and treatment) was considered evidence of chronic pain. The study sample comprised 7,952 patients with COPD (mean age, 69 yr; 42% male) and 15,904 patients with other chronic diseases (non-COPD). Patients with COPD compared with non-COPD patients had a higher percentage of chronic pain (59.8 vs. 51.7%; P> 0.001), chronic use of painrelated medications (41.2 vs. 31.5%; P >0.001), and chronic use of short-acting (24.2 vs. 15.1%;P >0.001) and long-acting opioids (4.4 vs. 1.9%; P >0.001) compared with non-COPD patients. In conditional logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, Hispanic ethnicity, and comorbidities, patients with COPD had higher odds of chronic pain (OR, 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-1.71), chronic use of pain-related medications (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.46-1.74), and chronic use of short-acting or long-acting opioids (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.57-1.92). Conclusions: Chronic pain and opioid use are prevalent among adults withCOPD.This findingwas not explained by the burden of comorbidity. © 2013 by the American Thoracic Society.


The authors examined whether peak expiratory flow (PEF) is a valid measure of health status in older adults. Survey and test data from the 2006 and 2008 cycles of the Health and Retirement Study, a longitudinal study of US adults over age 50 years (with biennial surveys initiated in 1992), were used to develop predicted PEF regression models and to examine relations between low PEF values and other clinical factors. Low PEF (<80% of predicted value) was prevalent among persons with chronic conditions, including frequent pain, obstructive lung disease, heart disease, diabetes, and psychological distress. Persons with higher physical disability scores had substantially higher adjusted odds of having low PEF, on par with those for conditions known to be associated with poor health (cancer, heart disease, and stroke). In a multivariate regression model for difficulty with mobility, PEF remained an independent factor (odds ratio (OR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53, 1.86). Persons with low PEF in 2006 were more likely to be hospitalized (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.43) within the subsequent 2 years and to estimate their chances of surviving for 10 or more years at less than 50% (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.30). PEF is a valid measure of health status in older persons, and low PEF is an independent predictor of hospitalization and poor subjective mortality assessment.


Davis H.T.,LCF Research | Beaton S.J.,LCF Research | Worley A.V.,LCF Research | Parsons W.,LCF Research | Gunter M.J.,LCF Research
Population Health Management | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to use retrospective data, including citations for driving while intoxicated (DWI), to assess the long-term effectiveness of a program consisting of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) for at-risk alcohol users and its impact on traffic safety. A second objective was to study ethnic differences in response to SBI. During the time period of 1998-1999, LCF Research, together with the Lovelace Health System, participated in the Cutting Back SBI study for at-risk drinkers. A total of 426 subjects exhibiting at-risk drinking behaviors from the New Mexico cohort were examined for the study, including 211 subjects who received a brief counseling intervention and 215 in the no intervention control group. This study examined DWI citations for all 426 subjects during the 5 years following the Cutting Back study. The brief interventions were shown to have had a significant impact on reducing DWI citations for at-risk drinkers, with the added benefit lasting for the 5-year duration of the study. The SBI was found to be most effective at reducing DWI citations for Hispanic at-risk drinkers. Evidence is presented to show that screening to identify at-risk drinkers followed by a brief intervention has a statistically significant lasting impact on improving traffic safety. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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