Wu L.,Southwest Jiaotong University |
Yao X.,Southwest Jiaotong University |
Vandermarel J.,LB Foster Friction Management |
Lu X.,LB Foster Friction Management |
And 4 more authors.
CM 2015 - 10th International Conference on Contact Mechanics of Wheel / Rail Systems | Year: 2015
The effects of energy saving that can be achieved by application of top of rail (TOR) friction modifier (FM) in heavy haul are studied and the mechanism of some of the effects are discussed. A vehicle model for a C70 freight car running on the track of a heavy haul line of China was established. The coefficient of friction and Kalker coefficient were adjusted to simulate the creepage/force relationship when the TOR FM is applied to the wheel/rail interface. Friction wo rk is used to represent the energy dissipation due to wheel/rail creepage, based on which the method to calculate the energy saving that is achieved by the application of TOR FM was established. The energy saving was studied under different operation conditions such as track curve radius, running speed, and rail profile. It is found that curve radius of track and the operation speed have significant influence on the effect of TOR FM on the energy saving. The energy saving is also found to behave differently on new and worn rails and the mechanism of this phenomenon was briefly discussed.
Lu X.,L.B. Foster Friction Management |
Makowsky T.W.,L.B. Foster Friction Management |
Eadie D.T.,L.B. Foster Friction Management |
Oldknow K.,L.B. Foster Friction Management |
And 6 more authors.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit | Year: 2012
Shuohuang Railway (SHR) is one of the major coal carriers in China, with a total network length of 590 km running from Shenchi to Huanghua. Significant increases in annual operating tonnage have generated accelerated rail wear and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) growth problems for many sharper/lower radius curves. In order to address these rail problems, SHR is interested in the state-of-the-art total friction management (TFM) technology currently deployed by some North American heavy haul freight railroads and is evaluating the impact of TFM via a field trial at SHR's Yuanping subdivision. This paper presents an evaluation of the effect of TFM, which includes both wayside gauge face lubrication and wayside application of a thin film top of rail friction modifier on control of lateral forces, rail wear and RCF. © IMechE 2012.
Vander Marel J.,LB Foster Friction Management |
Eadie D.T.,LB Foster Friction Management |
Oldknow K.D.,LB Foster Friction Management |
Iwnicki S.,University of Huddersfield
9th International Conference on Contact Mechanics and Wear of Rail/Wheel Systems, CM 2012 | Year: 2012
In this paper the authors present a predictive model of train energy requirements due to the application of a top of rail friction modifier (TOR-FM) versus dry wheel / rail conditions. Using the VAMPIRE® Pro simulation package, train energy requirements are modeled for two sets of TOR-FM frictional conditions, one using full Kalker coefficients and the other by using a Kalker factor of 18%. Both scenarios use a top of rail saturated coefficient of friction of 0.35. Under both TOR-FM frictional conditions, train energy savings are shown for complete laps of the Transportation Technology Center Inc.'s (TTCI) Transit Test Track (TTT) loop, and also when isolating only the tangent section of the loop. However, the magnitude of energy savings varies greatly depending on the Kalker coefficient factor used, highlighting the need to model this relationship as accurately as possible. These simulation results are compared with data obtained from a field study, in which train energy savings of 5.3% (lap) and 7.8% (tangent) are shown due to the application of TOR-FM.
Hardwick C.,University of Sheffield |
Lewis R.,University of Sheffield |
Eadie D.T.,L.B. Foster Friction Management
Wear | Year: 2014
Prediction of the evolution of rail (and wheel) profiles using design tools that integrate multi-body dynamics (MBD) simulations of track and rail vehicles with tribological models of material removal are well established and well documented. The most adopted approach within the UK utilises the relationship between material loss and energy at the contact using the Tγ parameter. This relies on establishing wear coefficients using rolling/sliding wear experiments. Experimental data exists only for dry contact conditions, the use of which can introduce errors in forces and wear amounts when considering contacts with third-body materials such as water and grease present. The work outlined within this paper was aimed at producing new Tγ wear curves and creep curves for 260 grade rail and R8T wheel materials using a twin disc testing technique (at 1500. MPa, varying slip to achieve different Tγ values and 400. rpm), for dry, water and grease lubricated conditions for the first time. Surface and subsurface analysis of test samples was carried out to identify the wear processes taking place under these differing contact conditions. Data from the tests can be used to improve predictions from MBD simulations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Stock R.,Voestalpine AG |
Eadie D.,LB Foster Friction Management |
Oldknow K.,LB Foster Friction Management
Ironmaking and Steelmaking | Year: 2013
To investigate the mechanisms behind rolling contact fatigue (RCF) and wear, a collaborative test program was conducted by voestalpine Schienen GmbH (Leoben, Austria) and Kelsan Technologies Corp. (a part of LB Foster Friction Management) on the full scale test rig of voestalpine. A reference grade was compared to a series of pearlitic rail grades under dry and friction modifier (FM) contact conditions. Rail and wheel profiles were collected at predefined intervals, allowing the calculation of wear rates. The initiation and development of RCF cracks were monitored using optical means and magnetic particle inspection. Metallographic sectioning of the samples was conducted to characterise crack growth and crack orientation as well as the evolution of surface and subsurface material flow. Additionally, the test rig results were compared to the results obtained from the extensive track test network of voestalpine and Kelsan to outline similarities and differences between test rig conditions and the conditions in track. The combination of rail grade, FM application and an appropriate maintenance strategy is seen to have a significant effect on the development and propagation of wear and RCF. This offers a huge potential for reducing the track LCC costs for the infrastructure owners. © 2013 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.