Lazovsky State Nature Reserve

Lazo, Russia

Lazovsky State Nature Reserve

Lazo, Russia
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Chetverikova R.,Saint Petersburg State University | Babushkina O.,Saint Petersburg State University | Galkina S.,Saint Petersburg State University | Shokhrin V.,Lazovsky State Nature Reserve | Bojarinova J.,Saint Petersburg State University
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2017

Abstract: Preserving family bonds in birds during seasonal migration is uncommon. Among passerine birds, migration of family groups has not yet been genetically confirmed. Here, we tested whether long-tailed tits migrate in family groups in autumn. We studied two partially migrating populations of the nominate subspecies Aegithalos caudatus caudatus (in Northern Europe and Northeastern Asia). We used microsatellite analysis to check if the individuals within each flock were genetically related. We revealed that in both populations, all flocks contained a large number of relatives. The average proportion of pairs of related individuals within a migrating flock was 73% (from 41 to 100%) in the Northern European population and 61% (from 38 to 100%) in the Northeastern Asian population. In the Northern European population, the percentage of pairs of related individuals in migrating flocks was significantly higher compared to Northeastern Asian population. We did not find any evidence that the proportion of the related birds within a flock changed with the progress of the season. We assume that inherent sociality of the long-tailed tit determines the preservation of family bonds during migration. Significance statement: Birds generally migrate singly or in flocks consisting of non-related individuals, as young disperse shortly after fledging. Among Passeriformes, migration of family groups has not yet been genetically confirmed. In this study, we used molecular methods to demonstrate that long-tailed tits A. caudatus caudatus keep family bonds during autumn migration—the first verified case among passerine birds. We studied two partially migrating populations in Northern Europe and Northeastern Asia using genetic relatedness analyses and showed that in both populations all flocks contained a large number of relatives. Sedentary subspecies of long-tailed tit are well-known to preserve family bonds, thus, we suggest that family bonds have been conserved in migratory subspecies. These findings may give an insight into the evolution of social behaviour in animals and into the ecology of migration in birds. © 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Bojarinova J.,Saint Petersburg State University | Babushkina O.,Saint Petersburg State University | Shokhrin V.,Lazovsky State Nature Reserve | Valchuk O.,Russian Academy of Sciences
Ornis Fennica | Year: 2016

We compared autumn migration in two distant populations of the nominate subspecies of the Long-tailed Tit (Aegithalos c. caudatus) with assumed different migratory habits in order to reveal the difference in characteristics of their movements. We studied the Northern European (Lake Ladoga region, NW Russia) population considered to be irruptive, and the Northeastern Asian (Primorye, Russian Far East) population which is believed to migrate regularly. We analyzed year-to-year fluctuation in numbers, timing of movements, body mass, fat reserves and plumage condition in migrating birds. We found that the two studied populations shared similar characteristics of autumn migration. Apart from significant fluctuations in numbers recorded in Northern Europe and Northeastern Asia, other features were similar to what have been observed for regular migrant species. Autumn movements of Long-tailed Tits in NW Russia and in the Russian Far East were registered every year and occurred in the dates specific to each population; the median date in different years spanned a two week period. In both populations, individuals that migrated later in the season gained larger fat reserves. Birds were involved in autumn movements either at the final stage of moult or just after the end of feather replacement. Our results indicate that Northern European and Northeastern Asian populations of Aegithalos c. caudatus show similar patterns of migratory behaviour.

Kim Y.-K.,Seoul National University | Hong Y.-J.,Seoul National University | Min M.-S.,Seoul National University | Kim K.S.,Seoul National University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Heredity | Year: 2011

The Asiatic black bear is one of the most endangered mammals in South Korea owing to population declines resulting from human exploitation and habitat fragmentation. To restore the black bear population in South Korea, 27 bear cubs from North Korea and Russian Far East (Primorsky Krai) were imported and released into Jirisan National Park, a reservoir of the largest wild population in South Korea, in 2004. To monitor the success of this reintroduction, the genetic diversity and population structure of the reintroduced black bears were measured using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. Mitochondrial D-loop region DNA sequences (615 bp) of 43 Japanese black bears from previous study and 14 Southeast Asian black bears in this study were employed to obtain phylogenetic inference of the reintroduced black bears. The mitochondrial phylogeny indicated Asiatic black bear populations from Russian Far East and North Korea form a single evolutionary unit distinct from populations from Japan and Southeast Asia. Mean expected heterozygosity (HE) across 16 microsatellite loci was 0.648 for Russian and 0.676 for North Korean populations. There was a moderate but significant level of microsatellite differentiation (FST = 0.063) between black bears from the 2 source areas. In addition, genetic evidences revealed that 2 populations are represented as diverging groups, with lingering genetic admixture among individuals of 2 source populations. Relatedness analysis based on genetic markers indicated several discrepancies with the pedigree records. Implication of the phylogenetic and genetic evidences on long-term management of Asiatic black bears in South Korea is discussed. © 2011 The American Genetic Association. 2011. All rights reserved.

Choi S.K.,Seoul National University | Lee J.-E.,Seoul National University | Kim Y.-J.,National Institute of Ecology | Min M.-S.,Seoul National University | And 12 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2014

Background: Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia.Results: Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea.Conclusions: Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. © 2014 Choi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | Research Institute for Hallasan, Seoul National University, Lazovsky State Nature Reserve, Russian Academy of Sciences and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC genetics | Year: 2015

The roe deer, Capreolus sp., is one of the most widespread meso-mammals of Palearctic distribution, and includes two species, the European roe deer, C. capreolus inhabiting mainly Europe, and the Siberian roe deer, C. pygargus, distributed throughout continental Asia. Although there are a number of genetic studies concerning European roe deer, the Siberian roe deer has been studied less, and none of these studies use microsatellite markers. Natural processes have led to genetic structuring in wild populations. To understand how these factors have affected genetic structure and connectivity of Siberian roe deer, we investigated variability at 12 microsatellite loci for Siberian roe deer from ten localities in Asia.Moderate levels of genetic diversity (H(E) = 0.522 to 0.628) were found in all populations except in Jeju Island, South Korea, where the diversity was lowest (H(E)= 0.386). Western populations showed relatively low genetic diversity and higher degrees of genetic differentiation compared with eastern populations (mean Ar = 3.54 (east), 2.81 (west), mean F(ST) = 0.122). Bayesian-based clustering analysis revealed the existence of three genetically distinct groups (clusters) for Siberian roe deer, which comprise of the Southeastern group (Mainland Korea, Russian Far East, Trans-Baikal region and Northern part of Mongolia), Northwestern group (Western Siberia and Ural in Russia) and Jeju Island population. Genetic analyses including AMOVA (F(RT) = 0.200), Barrier and PCA also supported genetic differentiation among regions separated primarily by major mountain ridges, suggesting that mountains played a role in the genetic differentiation of Siberian roe deer. On the other hand, genetic evidence also suggests an ongoing migration that may facilitate genetic admixture at the border areas between two groups.Our results reveal an apparent pattern of genetic differentiation among populations inhabiting Asia, showing moderate levels of genetic diversity with an east-west gradient. The results suggest at least three distinct management units of roe deer in continental Asia, although genetic admixture is evident in some border areas. The insights obtained from this study shed light on management of Siberian roe deer in Asia and may be applied in conservation of local populations of Siberian roe deer.

Krojerova-Prokesova J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Barancekova M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Voloshina I.,Lazovsky State Nature Reserve | Myslenkov A.,Lazovsky State Nature Reserve | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Heredity | Year: 2013

Dybowski's sika deer (Cervus nippon hortulorum) originally inhabited the majority of the Primorsky Krai in Far Eastern Russia, north-eastern China, and Korean Peninsula. At present, only the Russian population seems to be stable, even though this taxon is still classified as endangered by the Russian Federation. Almost 100 years ago, this subspecies, among others, was imported to several European countries including the Czech Republic. We used both mitochondrial (mtDNA; the cytochrome b gene and the control region) and nuclear DNA markers to examine the actual taxonomic status of modern Czech Dybowski's sika population and to compare the genetic diversity between the introduced and the native populations. Altogether, 124 Czech samples and 109 Primorian samples were used in the analyses. Within the samples obtained from individuals that were all morphologically classified as Dybowski's sika, we detected mtDNA haplotypes of Dybowski's sika (84 samples), as well as those belonging to other sika subspecies: northern Japanese sika (25 samples), southern Japanese sika (6 samples), and south-eastern Chinese sika (8 samples). Microsatellite analysis revealed a certain level of heterozygote deficiency and a high level of inbreeding in both populations. The high number of private alleles, factorial correspondence analysis, and Bayesian clustering analysis indicate a high level of divergence between both populations. The large degree of differentiation and the high number of population-specific alleles could be a result of a founder effect, could be a result of a previously suggested bottleneck within the Primorian population, and could also be affected by the crossbreeding of captive individuals with other sika subspecies. © 2013 The American Genetic Association.

Barancekova M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Krojerova-Prokesova J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Voloshina I.V.,Lazovsky State Nature Reserve | Myslenkov A.I.,Lazovsky State Nature Reserve | And 5 more authors.
Ecological Research | Year: 2012

Sika deer (Cervus nippon), native to Asia, formed two well-established free-living populations in the Czech Republic over the last century and continue to spread. Sika are also maintained in a large number of enclosures; these continue to introduce new individuals from the places of its origin as well as from other European countries. Despite extensive research into the morphology and ethology of the Czech sika deer, conducted over the last three decades, no study using genetic methods has been done. This study aimed to determine the genetic variability and the geographic origin of the Czech sika deer population. Two mitochondrial markers, the cytochrome b and the control region were analyzed in this study. Analysis of the two markers confirmed that the founder individuals of the Czech population originated from both native island (Japanese Islands) and native mainland (Far East Russia) populations. Results showed that the genetic variability of the Czech sika deer population is lower than the variability of the native Japanese population, but higher than that of the sampled part of the native Russian population. Also, the genetic variability was found to be higher within the samples from enclosures. © 2012 The Ecological Society of Japan.

An J.,Seoul National University | Kim M.-J.,Seoul National University | Park D.,Kangwon National University | Lee J.,Kangwon National University | And 4 more authors.
Genes and Genomics | Year: 2010

We have developed 10 microsatellite loci from the Korean ratsnake Elaphe schrenckii. Polymorphism of each locus was assessed in 25 unrelated individuals for E. schrenckii from South Korea, 10 E. anomala and 10 E. schrenckii from China, and 10 E. schrenckii from Russia. E. anomala, a closely related species to E. schrenckii in China. The number of alleles per locus varied from 1-9 (mean 4.4) for Korean populations, 2-7 (mean 3.9) for Chinese E. anomala, 1-7 (mean 4.0) for Chinese E. schrenckii, and 1-4 (mean 2.5) for Russian E. schrenckii. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.500, 0.534, 0.487, and 0.338 for E. schrenckii from South Korea, E. anomala from China, E. schrenckii from China, and E. schrenckii from Russia, respectively. The microsatellite markers used in this study may be applied to other Elaphe species for population analysis, eliminating the time-consuming task of finding new loci. These selected markers are useful for assessing population structure, intraspecific variation, and conservation and management of E. schrenckii. © The Genetics Society of Korea and Springer 2010.

Lorenzini R.,Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana | Garofalo L.,Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana | Qin X.,Tianjin Natural History Museum | Voloshina I.,Lazovsky State Nature Reserve | Lovari S.,University of Siena
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2014

Areas of sympatry and hybridization of closely related species can be difficult to assess through morphological differences alone. Species which coexist and are similar morphologically may be distinguished only with molecular techniques. The roe deer (Capreolus spp.) is a meso-mammal having a Palaearctic distribution, with two closely related species: the European C.capreolus and the Siberian C.pygargus. We analysed mtDNA sequences from 245 individuals, sampled through all the entire range of the genus, to investigate the distribution of genetic lineages and outline phylogeographical patterns. We found that: (1) a C.pygargus lineage occurs in Poland and Lithuania, much farther west than the area which so far was believed its westernmost limit; (2) no haplotype of this C.pygargus lineage matches any found in East Europe and Asia - this should rule out human introductions and may indicate Pleistocene-Holocene migrations from the east; (3) no geographical structuring of C.pygargus lineages occurs, questioning the existence of putative subspecies; (4) several genetic lineages of C.capreolus can be recognized, consistent with the existence of two subspecies, respectively in central-southern Italy and southern Spain. Coalescence times suggest that intraspecific variation in C.capreolus and C.pygargus developed approximately 100-10kya. The extant mitochondrial lineages pre-dated the Last Glacial Maximum. Capreolus pygargus must have moved westward to Central Europe, where at least one genetic lineage still survives, coexisting with C.capreolus. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London.

The pellets and nesting litter of six owl species from Southern Sikhote Alin were examined for bat remains. Bubo bubo, Asio otus, A. flammeus and Strix uralensis were found to prey occasionally on bats. Remains of four bat species - Vespertilio murinus, Murina hilgendorfi, M. ussuriensis and Myotis cf. petax were found. Owls preyed on bats more frequently in autumn and spring, during seasonal migrations of bats and when young animals are probably more abundant.

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