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Lee Y.S.,Seoul National University | Markov N.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Voloshina I.,Lazovsky State Nature Reserve | Argunov A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 7 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2015

Background: The roe deer, Capreolus sp., is one of the most widespread meso-mammals of Palearctic distribution, and includes two species, the European roe deer, C. capreolus inhabiting mainly Europe, and the Siberian roe deer, C. pygargus, distributed throughout continental Asia. Although there are a number of genetic studies concerning European roe deer, the Siberian roe deer has been studied less, and none of these studies use microsatellite markers. Natural processes have led to genetic structuring in wild populations. To understand how these factors have affected genetic structure and connectivity of Siberian roe deer, we investigated variability at 12 microsatellite loci for Siberian roe deer from ten localities in Asia. Results: Moderate levels of genetic diversity (H E = 0.522 to 0.628) were found in all populations except in Jeju Island, South Korea, where the diversity was lowest(H E= 0.386). Western populations showed relatively low genetic diversity and higher degrees of genetic differentiation compared with eastern populations (mean Ar = 3.54 (east), 2.81 (west), mean F ST = 0.122). Bayesian-based clustering analysis revealed the existence of three genetically distinct groups (clusters) for Siberian roe deer, which comprise of the Southeastern group (Mainland Korea, Russian Far East, Trans-Baikal region and Northern part of Mongolia), Northwestern group (Western Siberia and Ural in Russia) and Jeju Island population. Genetic analyses including AMOVA (F RT = 0.200), Barrier and PCA also supported genetic differentiation among regions separated primarily by major mountain ridges, suggesting that mountains played a role in the genetic differentiation of Siberian roe deer. On the other hand, genetic evidence also suggests an ongoing migration that may facilitate genetic admixture at the border areas between two groups. Conclusions: Our results reveal an apparent pattern of genetic differentiation among populations inhabiting Asia, showing moderate levels of genetic diversity with an east-west gradient. The results suggest at least three distinct management units of roe deer in continental Asia, although genetic admixture is evident in some border areas. The insights obtained from this study shed light on management of Siberian roe deer in Asia and may be applied in conservation of local populations of Siberian roe deer. © 2015 Lee et al. Source

An J.,Seoul National University | Kim M.-J.,Seoul National University | Park D.,Kangwon National University | Lee J.,Kangwon National University | And 4 more authors.
Genes and Genomics | Year: 2010

We have developed 10 microsatellite loci from the Korean ratsnake Elaphe schrenckii. Polymorphism of each locus was assessed in 25 unrelated individuals for E. schrenckii from South Korea, 10 E. anomala and 10 E. schrenckii from China, and 10 E. schrenckii from Russia. E. anomala, a closely related species to E. schrenckii in China. The number of alleles per locus varied from 1-9 (mean 4.4) for Korean populations, 2-7 (mean 3.9) for Chinese E. anomala, 1-7 (mean 4.0) for Chinese E. schrenckii, and 1-4 (mean 2.5) for Russian E. schrenckii. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.500, 0.534, 0.487, and 0.338 for E. schrenckii from South Korea, E. anomala from China, E. schrenckii from China, and E. schrenckii from Russia, respectively. The microsatellite markers used in this study may be applied to other Elaphe species for population analysis, eliminating the time-consuming task of finding new loci. These selected markers are useful for assessing population structure, intraspecific variation, and conservation and management of E. schrenckii. © The Genetics Society of Korea and Springer 2010. Source

Lorenzini R.,Centro Of Referenza Nazionale Per La Medicina Forense Veterinaria | Garofalo L.,Centro Of Referenza Nazionale Per La Medicina Forense Veterinaria | Qin X.,Tianjin Natural History Museum | Voloshina I.,Lazovsky State Nature Reserve | Lovari S.,University of Siena
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2014

Areas of sympatry and hybridization of closely related species can be difficult to assess through morphological differences alone. Species which coexist and are similar morphologically may be distinguished only with molecular techniques. The roe deer (Capreolus spp.) is a meso-mammal having a Palaearctic distribution, with two closely related species: the European C.capreolus and the Siberian C.pygargus. We analysed mtDNA sequences from 245 individuals, sampled through all the entire range of the genus, to investigate the distribution of genetic lineages and outline phylogeographical patterns. We found that: (1) a C.pygargus lineage occurs in Poland and Lithuania, much farther west than the area which so far was believed its westernmost limit; (2) no haplotype of this C.pygargus lineage matches any found in East Europe and Asia - this should rule out human introductions and may indicate Pleistocene-Holocene migrations from the east; (3) no geographical structuring of C.pygargus lineages occurs, questioning the existence of putative subspecies; (4) several genetic lineages of C.capreolus can be recognized, consistent with the existence of two subspecies, respectively in central-southern Italy and southern Spain. Coalescence times suggest that intraspecific variation in C.capreolus and C.pygargus developed approximately 100-10kya. The extant mitochondrial lineages pre-dated the Last Glacial Maximum. Capreolus pygargus must have moved westward to Central Europe, where at least one genetic lineage still survives, coexisting with C.capreolus. © 2013 The Linnean Society of London. Source

The pellets and nesting litter of six owl species from Southern Sikhote Alin were examined for bat remains. Bubo bubo, Asio otus, A. flammeus and Strix uralensis were found to prey occasionally on bats. Remains of four bat species - Vespertilio murinus, Murina hilgendorfi, M. ussuriensis and Myotis cf. petax were found. Owls preyed on bats more frequently in autumn and spring, during seasonal migrations of bats and when young animals are probably more abundant. Source

Choi S.K.,Seoul National University | Lee J.-E.,Seoul National University | Kim Y.-J.,National Institute of Ecology | Min M.-S.,Seoul National University | And 12 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2014

Background: Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia.Results: Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea.Conclusions: Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. © 2014 Choi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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