London, Canada

Lawson Health Research Institute is large hospital based research institutes located in London, Canada. Lawson is the research institute of London Health science Centre and St. Joseph's Health Care, London and works in partnership with The University of Western Ontario.In 2008, there were over 1,200 scientists, technicians and support staff working for the Lawson Health Research Institute. They received more than $60-million CDN in peer reviewed and industry sponsored contract research funding. Wikipedia.


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News Article | May 1, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

May 1, 2017 Stroke prevention among older Ontarians may also reduce risk of some dementias Ontario's stroke prevention strategy appears to have had an unexpected, beneficial side effect: a reduction also in the incidence of dementia among older seniors. A new paper by researchers at Western University, Lawson Health Research Institute and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) shows there's been a decade-long drop in new diagnoses of both stroke and dementia in the most at-risk group -- those who are 80 or older. "Some have said we're on the cusp of an epidemic of dementia as the population ages," said study author Joshua Cerasuolo, a PhD candidate in epidemiology and biostatistics at Western's Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry. "What this data suggests is that by successfully fighting off the risks of stroke - with a healthy diet, exercise, a tobacco-free life and high blood-pressure medication where needed - we can also curtail the incidence of some dementias. "The take-home message is that we can prevent some dementias by preventing stroke," Cerasuolo said. Published in the journal Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, this is the first study that has looked at the demographics of both stroke and dementia across Ontario since the province pioneered Canada's first stroke prevention strategy in 2000. That strategy includes more health centres able to manage stroke, more community and physician supports, better use of hypertensive mediation and well-promoted lifestyle changes to reduce risks. Five provinces have stroke strategies and five do not. "With lifestyle changes, we can reduce our risks of both stroke and some dementias. That's a pretty powerful one-two punch," said Dr. Vladimir Hachinski a clinical neuroscientist at Western's Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, a Lawson Health Research Institute scientist and neurologist at London Health Sciences Centre. He is a world pioneer in stroke research and a co-supervisor of the research paper. Hachinski said more research needs to take place to understand the specific relationships between stroke and dementia but this work suggests there are policy implications where stroke and dementia work can intersect. "We have systems in place for stroke prevention and our hypothesis is that any studies looking at stroke prevention should also investigate dementia prevention," Hachinski said. "It's a good-news story for Ontario and it could be a good-news story elsewhere." Most strokes are caused by the restriction or constriction of blood flow to the brain. Vascular dementia also develops as blood supply to the brain is reduced. Hachinski said someone who has had a stroke is twice as likely to develop dementia. Someone who has had a diagnosis of stroke has also likely had several prior "silent" strokes that may have affected a patient's cognitive abilities. The data mining took place using information from ICES, based in Toronto. Specifically, it shows that the incidence of new stroke diagnosis among highest-risk group, people aged 80-plus, dropped by 37.9 per cent in a span of a little more than a decade. During the same timeframe, the incidence of dementia diagnoses in that age group fell by 15.4 per cent. "As clinicians and researchers, we are still trying to get a handle on how to reduce a person's chances of dementia late in life. Some we can't influence - yet - but here is a pretty clear indication that we can take specific definitive steps to reduce our chances of dementia related to vascular disease," Hachinski said. Video explaining the research can be found here: https:/ A link to the study is here: http://dx. Debora Van Brenk, Media Relations Officer, Western University, 519-661-2111 x85165, on mobile at 519-318-0657 and deb.vanbrenk@uwo.ca OR ABOUT WESTERN: Western University delivers an academic experience second to none. Since 1878, The Western Experience has combined academic excellence with life-long opportunities for intellectual, social and cultural growth in order to better serve our communities. Our research excellence expands knowledge and drives discovery with real-world application. Western attracts individuals with a broad worldview, seeking to study, influence and lead in the international community. ABOUT LAWSON HEALTH RESEARCH INSTITUTE: As the research institute of London Health Sciences Centre and St. Joseph's Health Care London, and working in partnership with Western University, Lawson Health Research Institute is committed to furthering scientific knowledge to advance health care around the world.


News Article | April 20, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

LONDON, ON - In a collaborative study from Lawson Health Research Institute (Lawson), Western University (Western), Bridge to Health Medical and Dental, and Kigezi Healthcare Foundation (KIHEFO), a team of researchers found that radio advertising for free ultrasounds in rural Uganda increased the number of pregnant women who attended modern medical care by 490 per cent. The study was conducted to address the low number of women in rural Uganda who attend free antenatal care - modern health care for expecting mothers. In Uganda, approximately 6,000 women die annually from pregnancy-related complications and up to one third of women deliver their babies at home. "Our hypothesis was that if we could offer free ultrasounds, so that women could see their unborn baby, more women would come forward and attend the antenatal clinic," explains Dr. Michael Silverman, a scientist at Lawson and Western and senior author on the study. "Who doesn't want to see their unborn baby? It's like magic." Dr. Silverman conducted this study alongside Dr. William Cherniak, Executive Director at Bridge to Health, and Dr. Geoffrey Anguyo, Executive Director at KIHEFO. In the developing world, women do not present for antenatal care for a variety of reasons. "It may be against their cultural beliefs or they may view modern medicine as irrelevant," says Dr. Cherniak. "As a result, many of these women are unaware of pregnancy complications and deliver at home without a trained health care professional." Common pregnancy complications include the baby being turned the wrong way, the placenta being in the wrong place or even expecting twins. Another complication is the transmission of infectious diseases from the mother to child. In Africa, the biggest risk is the transmission of HIV, hepatitis B or syphilis which can be transmitted from the mother to the baby and cause chronic infection of the baby, birth defects or death. Undiagnosed maternal malaria can also lead to severe complications. The use of portable ultrasound machines is extremely beneficial. "Portable ultrasounds allow you to screen for serious anatomical problems, like the baby being positioned the wrong way. When women present to the clinic for an ultrasound, we can also screen them for the infections which can lead to severe complications, and offer treatments," says Dr. Silverman, also Chair/Chief of Infectious Diseases at London Health Sciences Centre, St. Joseph's Health Care London and Western. "Portable ultrasound machines are fairly inexpensive to maintain and it's easy to train people to perform a simple obstetric ultrasound." The study found that the method of advertising was important. When advertising free ultrasounds by word-of-mouth, there was no significant increase in the number of women who attended antenatal care. "It appears that the message about free ultrasounds was not spreading. Many people did not believe it was true that they could see their unborn baby," says Dr. Cherniak. The researchers therefore decided to advertise free ultrasounds by radio with the hope that the message would be taken more seriously and spread farther. Radios are common in Ugandan households. As a result, almost six times the number of women attended the antenatal care clinics. This increase was particularly great in women who had previously seen a traditional healer. Amongst these women, attendance increased almost ninefold when ultrasound was advertised on the radio. With an increase in the number of women who present for antenatal care, the research team hopes that health providers can show expecting mothers that modern care is safe, friendly and trustworthy. "We want to demonstrate to expecting mothers that antenatal care is safe and beneficial, and see if this encourages them to continue attending, particularly when they are in labour," says Dr. Cherniak. The study, "Effectiveness of advertising availability of prenatal ultrasound on uptake of antenatal care in rural Uganda: A cluster randomized trial", is published in PLoS ONE. The study was funded by Bridge to Health Medical and Dental, and also supported by Cole Engineering, Lebovic Enterprises, Rotary International and Rotary Club of Scarborough North. A video about this research can be viewed on the Western University YouTube channel: https:/ . As the research institute of London Health Sciences Centre and St. Joseph's Health Care London, and working in partnership with Western University, Lawson Health Research Institute is committed to furthering scientific knowledge to advance health care around the world. Western University delivers an academic experience second to none. Since 1878, The Western Experience has combined academic excellence with life-long opportunities for intellectual, social and cultural growth in order to better serve our communities. Our research excellence expands knowledge and drives discovery with real-world application. Western attracts individuals with a broad worldview, seeking to study, influence and lead in the international community. The Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry at Western University is one of Canada's preeminent medical and dental schools. Established in 1881, it was one of the founding schools of Western University and is known for being the birthplace of family medicine in Canada. For more than 130 years, the School has demonstrated a commitment to academic excellence and a passion for scientific discovery. Founded in Toronto, Bridge to Health Medical and Dental is comprised of a passionate group of medical and dental professionals brought together by a common desire to help provide healthcare to those in tremendous need. Our aim is to provide sustainable healthcare in a cost effective manner and have a lasting impact on the communities we serve. We currently operate in underserved rural communities of Uganda. In collaboration with KIHEFO, a reputable local non-governmental organization, we provide medical and dental care, improve healthcare delivery systems, train local healthcare workers and educate the residents of these communities. http://www. A local not-for-profit, non-governmental organization (NGO) dedicated to community development in the Kabale District, located in the Kigezi Region, in southwest Uganda. KIHEFO operates a unique community approach. The KIHEFO team travels to villages bringing community development services to village groups that would otherwise be hard to reach. KIHEFO cares for and supports orphans and vulnerable children; operates general, dental and HIV/AIDS clinics; and operates a child nutrition and rehabilitation centre. KIHEFO's services address a diverse array of community needs including medical care, education, economic development and counseling. http://kihefoblog.


Dagnino L.,Lawson Health Research Institute
Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling | Year: 2011

Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a scaffolding protein with central roles in tissue development and homeostasis. Much debate has focused on whether ILK is a bona fide or a pseudo- kinase. This aspect of ILK function has been complicated by the large volumes of conflicting observations obtained from a wide variety of experimental approaches, from in vitro models, to analyses in invertebrates and in mammals. Key findings in support or against the notion that ILK is catalytically active are summarized. The importance of ILK as an adaptor protein is well established, and defining its role as a signaling hub will be the next key step to understand its distinct biological roles across tissues and species. © 2011 The International CCN Society.


Reid G.,Lawson Health Research Institute
Gut microbes | Year: 2010

In demonstrating that it is feasible to create a community-run kitchen that produces probiotic yogurt, and that this can contribute to the health of people with HIV/AIDS, we embellished the 2001 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) report on probiotics that recommended efforts be made to take probiotics to developing countries. We proved that driven by humanitarian goals not profit, probiotic yogurt can be produced in the world's poor regions. This food can be safely consumed by HIV/AIDS subjects, and in many of them benefits can be accrued in gut health, nutritional and potentially immune status. Such outcomes have a scientific rationale, many social implications, and perhaps most importantly raise the question, why have developed countries not tried harder to bring nutrition-based probiotics to people in need? © 2010 Landes Bioscience


St Lawrence K.,Lawson Health Research Institute
Physics in medicine and biology | Year: 2013

Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) methods are widely used with magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography to assess the vascular characteristics of tumours since these properties can affect the response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In contrast, there have been far fewer studies using optical-based applications despite the advantages of low cost and safety. This study investigated an appropriate kinetic model for optical applications to characterize tumour haemodynamics (blood flow, F, blood volume, V(b), and vascular heterogeneity) and vascular leakage (permeability surface-area product, PS). DCE data were acquired with two dyes, indocyanine green (ICG) and 800 CW carboxylate (IRD(cbx)), from a human colon tumour xenograph model in rats. Due to the smaller molecular weight of IRD(cbx) (1166 Da) compared to albumin-bound ICG (67 kDa), PS of IRD(cbx) was significantly larger; however, no significant differences in F and V(b) were found between the dyes as expected. Error analysis demonstrated that all parameters could be estimated with an uncertainty less than 5% due to the high temporal resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of the optical measurements. The next step is to adapt this approach to optical imaging to generate haemodynamics and permeability maps, which should enhance the clinical interest in optics for treatment monitoring.


Reid G.,Lawson Health Research Institute
Gut Microbes | Year: 2010

In demonstrating that it is feasible to create a community-run kitchen that produces probiotic yogurt, and that this can contribute to the health of people with HIV/AIDS, we embellished the 2001 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) Report on Probiotics that recommended efforts be made to take probiotics to developing countries. We proved that driven by humanitarian goals not profit, probiotic yogurt can be produced in the world's poor regions. This food can be safely consumed by HIV/AIDS subjects, and in many of them benefits can be accrued in gut health, nutritional and potentially immune status. Such outcomes have a scientific rationale, many social implications, and perhaps most importantly raise the question, why have developed countries not tried harder to bring nutrition-based probiotics to people in need?. © 2010 Landes Bioscience.


Reid G.,Lawson Health Research Institute
Gut microbes | Year: 2010

As with many clinical studies, trials using probiotics have shown clearly that some patients benefit from the treatment while others do not. For example if treatment with probiotics leads to 36% cure rate of diarrhea, why did the other 64% not have the same result? The issue is important for human and indeed experimental animal studies for two main reasons: (i) Would changing the design of the study result in more subjects responding to treatment? (ii) If a subject does not respond what are the mechanistic reasons? In order to tackle the issue of responders and non-responders to therapy, a workshop was held by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP). The outcome was four recommendations. 1. Clearly define the end goal: this could be supporting a health claim or having the highest clinical effect and impact. 2. Design the study to maximize the chance of a positive response by identifying precise parameters and defining the level of response that will be tested. 3. Base the selection of the intervention on scientific investigations: which strain(s) and/or product formulation should be used and why. 4. Carefully select the study cohort: use biological or genetic markers when available to stratify the patient population before enrollment and decide at what point intervention will provide the best outcome (for example, in acute phase of disease, or during remission, with or without use of pharmaceutical agents). By following these recommendations and selecting an appropriate primary outcome, it is hoped that clinical data will emerge in the future that expands our knowledge of which probiotics benefits which subjects and by what mechanism.


Clark W.F.,Lawson Health Research Institute
Journal of Clinical Apheresis | Year: 2012

Over the past 37 year the role of plasma exchange in the treatment of patients with renal disease has undergone several changes. The majority of the changes for the use of plasma exchange relied on randomized control trials and delineations of mechanisms that potentially would benefit from the use of plasma exchange. Over the past 11 years plasma exchange indications for renal disease, the absolute numbers have been relatively unchanged but the indications are quite different. The Canadian Apheresis Group indicated in 2010 that TTP/HUS is still the number 1 indication at 63% of the total plasma exchange activity for renal disease but P and C ANCA Vasculitis had risen to 14% followed by renal transplant at 10%, Goodpasture's Syndrome at 6% and transplant FSGS at 5% with Cryoglobulinemia 2% and Myeloma Nephropathy had dropped dramatically to less than 1% with no cases of SLE reported. This report describes the most common indications for plasma exchange in patient's with renal disease and the evidence that supports it's use in 2011. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Lanius R.A.,Lawson Health Research Institute
European Journal of Psychotraumatology | Year: 2015

The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015). This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1) those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2) those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC) along four dimensions: (1) time; (2) thought; (3) body; and (4) emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation. © 2015 RuthA.Lanius.


An apparatus and method for performing tomography are disclosed herein. The apparatus includes an emitter for scanning an object with a detection beam, a diffuser for scattering a transmitted portion of the detection beam that passes through the object in order to generate a scattered signal, and at least one detector for detecting a portion of the scattered signal. The diffuser has a diffusive surface area, and the detector has a total detection area that is smaller than the diffusive surface area.

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