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Appleton, WI, United States

Lawrence University is a liberal arts college and conservatory of music in Appleton, Wisconsin. Founded in 1847, the school held its first classes on November 12, 1849. Lawrence was the second college in the United States to be founded as a coeducational institution. The school is a member of the Colleges That Change Lives and one of the Great Books Colleges.In a study by the National Science Foundation, Lawrence ranked 28th nationally in the percentage of graduates who go on to earn doctorates. Wikipedia.


The diamictites of the Neoproterozoic Kapp Lyell Sequence in northern Wedel Jarlsberg Land, southwest Spitsbergen, have long been recognized as ancient glacial deposits, but their place within the global stratigraphic framework of 'snowball Earth' has remained unclear, owing to the complexity of superimposed Caledonian deformation and to the relatively inaccessible terrain in which they occur. Recently deglaciated exposures of the rocks now provide a more complete picture of the changing environment in which the diamictites were deposited, and new understanding of regional correlations help constrain their place in the global chronostratigraphy of the Cryogenian Period. The 2500 m thick Kapp Lyell Sequence consists of three distinct types of glaciomarine diamictite. The succession begins with about 1000 m of finely laminated diamictite containing abundant lonestones. The millimetre- to centimetre-scale laminae, apparent suspension deposits, consist of sand- to silt-sized particles of quartz and dolomite alternating with thin films of graphitic phyllite. The laminated unit gives way abruptly to 500-1000 m of unsorted, unlayered diamictite that alternates and interfingers with graded beds of conglomerate to sandstone. These apparent turbidite deposits become increasingly prevalent toward the top of the exposed section. Regional lithostratigraphic relationships suggest that the Kapp Lyell sequence corresponds to the second major stage of Neoproterozoic glaciation at c. 635 Ma. The graphitic material in the laminated unit yields γ13C values in the range of -20 to -22‰ , pointing to a biogenic origin and an active marine biosphere at the time of deposition. The preservation of organic carbon and unusually large ratios of highly reactive Fe to total Fe suggest that low oxygen conditions prevailed in the deep basin that received these sediments. The transition from laminated, to unsorted, to graded diamictites may represent change from (1) a stable ice margin that released rare icebergs into a deep, quiet basin to (2) a collapsing ice sheet that unleashed flotillas of icebergs and large volumes of sediment to (3) submarine landslides that triggered turbidity flows from the rapidly deposited, gravitationally unstable sediments. The Kapp Lyell diamictite sequence appears to chronicle the demise of a large ice mass in this part of the Neoproterozoic world. © Cambridge University Press 2009. Source


Pseudotachylytes and two distinct types of cataclasite in the Otago Schist at Tucker Hill, South Island, New Zealand, provide evidence for both seismic slip and aseismic creep on a normal fault zone during regional crustal extension in late Cretaceous time. Regional geologic evidence suggests that the fault had its present low-angle dip (ca. 10°) at the time it was active. 'Type A' cataclasites, presumably aseismic, can be recognized by bi-fractal grain size distributions, monomict composition, angular clasts of uniform textural maturity, and a crude fabric defined by oriented grains and transgranular fractures. 'Type B' cataclasites, possibly cosesimic, have characteristics consistent with fluidized grain flow, including heterogeneous clast shapes and types, a bimodal grain size distribution, intrusive relationships with other rocks, and the absence of any fabric or transecting fractures. Pseudotachylyte, which occurs as fault veins, injection veins and more complex types of intrusive structures, consistently cuts across and invades Type A cataclasites but is both intrusive into and included as clasts in Type B cataclasites.These relationships are consistent with a fault evolution model in which the development of a damage zone through aseismic cataclasis (Type A) facilitates the formation of pseudotachylyte in a subsequent seismic event by providing a permeable matrix through which fluids can drain in the early stages of slip, thereby maintaining frictional contact between rock surfaces. The formation of pseudotachylyte, in turn, may seal the fault zone and lead to thermal pressurization in a later seismic cycle, forming fluidized (Type B) cataclasites. Seismic slip on the low-angle normal fault zone at Tucker Hill may have occurred by two distinct modes of dynamic weakening - melt lubrication and thermal pressurization - in successive seismic events.Although there is a perception among geologists that pseudotachylyte is most likely to form in intact, crystalline rocks, geophysical models of fault zones clearly demonstrate that pseudotachylyte formation is actually suppressed in low-permeability rock because any fluids present would be unable to escape the fault zone and thermal pressurization would rapidly reduce frictional resistance. The paradigmatic occurrences of pseudotachylyte in otherwise pristine crystalline rocks probably represent somewhat exceptional circumstances (single rupture events at very high effective stress in dry rock). Coseismic frictional melts may actually be more common in hydrated rocks like the schist at Tucker Hill, but harder to recognize and also vulnerable to overprinting as a fault zone matures. In such rocks, pseudotachylyte may represent an intermediate stage in the evolution of a fault zone, the period between the formation of a high-permeability damage zone and the development of a low-permeability fault core. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Loy A.,Lawrence University | Hofmann H.,Iowa State University
Journal of Statistical Software | Year: 2014

Over the last twenty years there have been numerous developments in diagnostic procedures for hierarchical linear models; however, these procedures are not widely implemented in statistical software packages, and those packages that do contain a complete framework for model assessment are not open source. The lack of availability of diagnostic procedures for hierarchical linear models has limited their adoption in statistical practice. The R package HLMdiag provides diagnostic tools targeting all aspects and levels of continuous response hierarchical linear models with strictly nested dependence structures fit using the lmer() function in the lme4 package. In this paper we discuss the tools implemented in HLMdiag for both residual and influence analysis. Source


Schreiber A.M.,Lawrence University
Current Topics in Developmental Biology | Year: 2013

The most asymmetrically shaped and behaviorally lateralized of all the vertebrates, the flatfishes are an endless source of fascination to all fortunate enough to study them. Although all vertebrates undergo left-right asymmetric internal organ placement during embryogenesis, flatfish are unusual in that they experience an additional period of postembryonic asymmetric remodeling during metamorphosis, and thus deviate from a bilaterally symmetrical body plan more than other vertebrates. As with amphibian metamorphosis, all the developmental programs of flatfish metamorphosis are ultimately under the control of thyroid hormone. At least one gene pathway involved in embryonic organ lateralization (nodal-lefty-pitx2) is re-expressed in the larval stage during flatfish metamorphosis. Aspects of modern flatfish ontogeny, such as the gradual translocation of one eye to the opposite side of the head and the appearance of key neurocranial elements during metamorphosis, seem to elegantly recapitulate flatfish phylogeny. This chapter highlights the current state of knowledge of the developmental biology of flatfish metamorphosis with emphases on the genetic, morphological, behavioral, and evolutionary origins of flatfish asymmetry. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.. Source


Heim N.A.,Stanford University | Knope M.L.,Stanford University | Knope M.L.,Lawrence University | Schaal E.K.,Stanford University | And 2 more authors.
Science | Year: 2015

Cope's rule proposes that animal lineages evolve toward larger body size over time. To test this hypothesis across all marine animals, we compiled a data set of body sizes for 17,208 genera of marine animals spanning the past 542 million years. Mean biovolume across genera has increased by a factor of 150 since the Cambrian, whereas minimum biovolume has decreased by less than a factor of 10, and maximum biovolume has increased by more than a factor of 100,000. Neutral drift from a small initial value cannot explain this pattern. Instead, most of the size increase reflects differential diversification across classes, indicating that the pattern does not reflect a simple scaling-up of widespread and persistent selection for larger size within populations. Source

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