Laval University is the oldest centre of education in Canada , and was the first institution in North America to offer higher education in French. Its main campus is located on the outskirts of the historic city in Quebec City, the capital of the Province of Quebec. The university is ranked among the top ten Canadian universities in terms of research funding. Wikipedia.
Laval University | Date: 2016-10-28
A method for preparing polymers by direct heteroarylation or arylation polycondensation is described herein. The method includes preparing a reaction mixture including at least a monomer to be polymerized, a catalyst and a ligand; heating the reaction mixture; and, optionally, end-capping the reaction mixture.
Gm Global Technology Operations Llc and Laval University | Date: 2016-07-26
An extended-reach assist device for an assembly task includes a base mechanism and a compliant end-effector. The articulated base mechanism provides one or more passive degrees of freedom. The end-effector is connected to the base mechanism, and has one or more active or passive degrees of freedom collectively configured to react to contact forces with the assist device when completing the dexterous assembly task. A weight of the end-effector is supported by the base mechanism. The end-effector may be optionally configured as a passive device configured to produce a remote center of compliance or as a robot mechanism. A mechanism may actively or passively augment a force applied by the operator. A sensor may detect a signature indicative of successful task completion, e.g., an acoustic, visual, or audio sensor.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: BG-09-2016 | Award Amount: 15.49M | Year: 2016
The overall objective of INTAROS is to develop an integrated Arctic Observation System (iAOS) by extending, improving and unifying existing systems in the different regions of the Arctic. INTAROS will have a strong multidisciplinary focus, with tools for integration of data from atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and terrestrial sciences, provided by institutions in Europe, North America and Asia. Satellite earth observation data plays an increasingly important role in such observing systems, because the amount of EO data for observing the global climate and environment grows year by year. In situ observing systems are much more limited due to logistical constraints and cost limitations. The sparseness of in situ data is therefore the largest gap in the overall observing system. INTAROS will assess strengths and weaknesses of existing observing systems and contribute with innovative solutions to fill some of the critical gaps in the in situ observing network. INTAROS will develop a platform, iAOS, to search for and access data from distributed databases. The evolution into a sustainable Arctic observing system requires coordination, mobilization and cooperation between the existing European and international infrastructures (in-situ and remote including space-based), the modeling communities and relevant stakeholder groups. INTAROS will include development of community-based observing systems, where local knowledge is merged with scientific data. An integrated Arctic Observation System will enable better-informed decisions and better-documented processes within key sectors (e.g. local communities, shipping, tourism, fisheries), in order to strengthen the societal and economic role of the Arctic region and support the EU strategy for the Arctic and related maritime and environmental policies.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-05-2014 | Award Amount: 6.46M | Year: 2015
Breast cancer affects more than 360,000 women per year in the EU and causes more than 90,000 deaths. Identification of women at high risk of the disease can lead to disease prevention through intensive screening, chemoprevention or prophylactic surgery. Breast cancer risk is determined by a combination of genetic and lifestyle risk factors. The advent of next generation sequencing has opened up the opportunity for testing in many disease genes, and diagnostic gene panel testing is being introduced in many EU countries. However, the cancer risks associated with most variants in most genes are unknown. This leads to a major problem in appropriate counselling and management of women undergoing panel testing. In this project, we aim to build a knowledge base that will allow identification of women at high-risk of breast cancer, in particular through comprehensive evaluation of DNA variants in known and suspected breast cancer genes. We will exploit the huge resources established through the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and ENIGMA (Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles). We will expand the existing datasets by sequencing all known breast cancer susceptibility genes in 20,000 breast cancer cases and 20,000 controls from population-based studies, and 10,000 cases from multiple case families. Sequence data will be integrated with in-silico and functional data, with data on other known risk factors, to generate a comprehensive risk model that can provide personalised risk estimates. We will develop online tools to aid the interpretation of gene variants and provide risk estimates in a user-friendly format, to help genetic counsellors and patients worldwide to make informed clinical decisions. We will evaluate the acceptability and utility of comprehensive gene panel testing in the clinical genetics context.
Vinh-Thang H.,Laval University |
Kaliaguine S.,Laval University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013
Researchers share their views on the latest scientific and technological advances in the development of theoretical models focused on the prediction of the gas separation performance of mixed-matrix membranes (MMM). An overview of the latest MMMs using various kinds of fillers is introduced for better understanding. The status, applicability, and future theoretical research for estimating the gas separation performance of MMMs are highlighted and validated. The mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) where inorganic fillers in solid, liquid, or solid and liquid forms are dispersed in a polymer matrix, have been identified to provide a solution to the upper-bound trade-off limit of the polymeric membranes while addressing the brittleness obstacle of the inorganic membranes. MMMs are also expected to combine the potential advantages in separation performances of inorganic and polymer membranes.
Rodes-Cabau J.,Laval University
Nature Reviews Cardiology | Year: 2012
The first human transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in 2002, and several subsequent single-center series, showed the feasibility of this new approach for the treatment of patients with severe aortic stenosis who were considered to be at very high or prohibitive surgical risk. More-recent multicenter registries have confirmed the safety and efficacy of this procedure, despite a very-high-risk patient profile. Moreover, the randomized, controlled PARTNER trial has confirmed both the superiority of TAVI over medical treatment in patients not considered to be candidates for standard surgical aortic valve replacement and the noninferiority of TAVI compared with surgical aortic valve replacement in high-risk patients. The hemodynamics of transcatheter valves are usually excellent, although residual paravalvular aortic regurgitation (usually trivial or mild) is frequent. Stroke, major vascular complications, and conduction disturbances leading to permanent pacemaker implantation remain among the most-concerning periprocedural complications of TAVI. Nevertheless, promising preliminary data exist for long-term outcomes following TAVI, 'valve-in-valve' TAVI for surgical prosthesis dysfunction, and for the treatment of lower-risk patients. Improvements in transcatheter valve technology, optimization of procedural and midterm results, and confirmation of long-term durability of transcatheter valve prostheses will determine the expansion of TAVI towards the treatment of a broader spectrum of patients. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Abdelaal E.,Laval University
JACC. Cardiovascular interventions | Year: 2013
This study sought to evaluate outcomes of same-day discharge (SDD) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus overnight hospitalization (ON). Although there are data on the safety and feasibility of SDD after PCI, ON continues to be prevalent. The Cochrane search strategy was used to search the PubMed database, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant literature. Thirteen studies (5 randomized and 8 observational) of SDD after uncomplicated PCI versus ON met inclusion criteria. Data were pooled using a random effects model, and reported as odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). The primary outcomes were incidence of total complications, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and rehospitalization within 30 days after PCI. A total of 13 studies, involving 111,830 patients were pooled. There was significant variation in the definition of outcomes across studies. For total complications, the strategy of SDD compared with ON after PCI had an estimated OR of 1.20 (95% CI: 0.82 to 1.74) in randomized and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.27 to 1.66) in observational studies. Similar results were found for MACE (randomized, OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.45 to 2.18; observational, OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.06 to 5.57) and rehospitalizations (randomized, OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.70 to 1.74; observational, OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.10 to 3.98) at 30 days post PCI. There is considerable heterogeneity across published studies comparing SDD with ON. This, coupled with the low event rate and wide corresponding CIs, suggest that an adequately powered multicenter randomized trial comparing SDD with ON would require a very large sample size (>17,000). Until such a trial is completed, SDD after uncomplicated PCI seems a reasonable approach in selected patients. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mercier L.G.,Laval University |
Leclerc M.,Laval University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013
The coupling of aryl halides with catalytically activated aryl C-H bondsprovides a desirable and atom-economical alternative to standard cross-coupling reactions for the construction of new C-C bonds. The reaction, termed direct (hetero)arylation, is believed to follow a base-assisted, concerted metalation-deprotonation (CMD) pathway. During this process, carboxylate or carbonate anions coordinate to the metal center, typically palladium, in situ and assist in the deprotonation transition state. Researchers have employed this methodology with numerous arenes and heteroarenes, including substituted benzenes, perfluorinated benzenes, and thiophenes. Thiophene substrates have demonstrated high reactivity toward C-H bond activation when appropriately substituted with electron-rich and/or electron-deficient groups. Because of the pervasive use of thiophenes in materials for organic electronics, researchers have used this chemistry to modularly prepare conjugated small molecules and, more recently, conjugated polymers. Although optimization of reaction conditions such as solvent system, phosphine ligand, carboxylate additives, temperature, and time is necessary for efficient C-H bond reactivity of each monomer, direct (hetero)arylation polymerization (DHAP) can afford high yielding polymeric materials with elevated molecular weights. The properties of these materials often rival those of polymers prepared by traditional methods. Moreover, DHAP provides a facile means for the synthesis of polymers that were previously inaccessible or difficult to prepare due to the instability of organometallic monomers. The major downfall of direct (hetero)arylation, however, is the lack of C-H bond selectivity, particularly for thiophene substrates, which can result in cross-linked material during polymerization reactions. Further fine-tuning of reaction conditions such as temperature and reaction time may suppress these unwanted side reactions. Alternatively, new monomers can be designed where other reactive bonds are blocked, either sterically or by substitution with unreactive alkyl or halogen groups. In this Account, we illustrate these methods and present examples of DHAP reactions that involve the preparation of common homopolymers used in organic electronics (P3HT, PEDOT, PProDOT), copolymers formed by activation of electron-rich (bithiophene, fused bithiophenes) and electron-deficient monomers (TPD, 1,2,4,5-tetrafluorobenzene, 2,2′-bithiazole). Our group is optimizing these reactions and developing ways to make DHAP a common atom-economical synthetic tool for polymer chemists. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Beaulieu J.-M.,Laval University
Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience | Year: 2012
Mental illnesses, such as bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression and schizophrenia are a major public health concern worldwide. Several pharmacologic agents acting on monoamine neurotransmission are used for the management of these disorders. However, there is still little understanding of the ultimate molecular mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effects of these drugs or their relations with disease etiology. Here I provide an overview of recent advances on the involvement of the signalling molec ules Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) in the regulation of behaviour by the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT). I examine the possible participation of these signalling molecules to the effects of antidepressants, lithium and anti psychotics, as well as their possible contribution to mental disorders. Regulation of Akt and GSK3 may constitute an important signalling hub in the subcellular integration of 5-HT and DA neurotransmission. It may also provide a link between the action of these neurotransmitters and gene products, like disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) and neuregulin (NRG), that are associated with increased risk for mental disorders. However, changes in Akt and GSK3 signalling are not restricted to a single disorder, and their contribution to specific behavioural symptoms or therapeutic effects may be modulated by broader changes in biologic contexts or signalling landscapes. Under standing these interactions may provide a better understanding of mental illnesses, leading to better efficacy of new therapeutic approaches. © 2012 Canadian Medical Association.
Bujold E.,Laval University
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2010
Objective: To estimate the effect of low-dose aspirin started in early pregnancy on the incidence of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Data Sources: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed through electronic database searches (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase). Methods of Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials of pregnant women at risk of preeclampsia who were assigned to receive aspirin or placebo (or no treatment) were reviewed. Secondary outcomes included IUGR, severe preeclampsia and preterm birth. The effect of aspirin was analyzed as a function of gestational age at initiation of the intervention (16 weeks of gestation or less, 16 weeks of gestation or more). Tabulation, Integration, and Results: Thirty-four randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria, including 27 studies (11,348 women) with follow-up for the outcome of preeclampsia. Low-dose aspirin started at 16 weeks or earlier was associated with a significant reduction in preeclampsia (relative risk [RR] 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.65, prevalence in 9.3% treated compared with 21.3% control) and IUGR (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.30-0.65, 7% treated compared with 16.3% control), whereas aspirin started after 16 weeks was not (preeclampsia: RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.63-1.03, prevalence in 7.3% treated compared with 8.1% control; IUGR: RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.87-1.10, 10.3% treated compared with 10.5% control). Low-dose aspirin started at 16 weeks or earlier also was associated with a reduction in severe preeclampsia (RR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.37, 0.7% treated compared with 15.0% control), gestational hypertension (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.84, 16.7% treated compared with 29.7% control), and preterm birth (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.49, 3.5% treated compared with 16.9% control). Of note, all studies for which aspirin had been started at 16 weeks or earlier included women identified to be at moderate or high risk for preeclampsia. Conclusion: Low-dose aspirin initiated in early pregnancy is an efficient method of reducing the incidence of preeclampsia and IUGR. © 2010 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.