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Cuellar M.J.,Georgia Southern University | Takeda H.,University Laval | Vidgen R.,University of New South Wales | Truex D.,Georgia State University
Journal of the Association of Information Systems | Year: 2016

Assessing the research capital that a scholar has accrued is an essential task for academic administrators, funding agencies, and promotion and tenure committees worldwide. Scholars have criticized the existing methodology of counting papers in ranked journals and made calls to replace it (Adler & Harzing, 2009; Singh, Haddad, & Chow, 2007). In its place, some have made calls to assess the uptake of a scholar’s work instead of assessing “quality” (Truex, Cuellar, Takeda, & Vidgen, 2011a). We identify three dimensions of scholarly capital (ideational influence (who uses one’s work?), connectedness (with whom does one work?) and venue representation (where does one publish their work?)) in this paper as part of a scholarly capital model (SCM). We develop measurement models for the three dimensions of scholarly capital and test the relationships in a path model. We show how one might use the measures to evaluate scholarly research activity. © 2016 by the Association for Information Systems.

Lamontagne L.,University Laval | Bergeron-Guyard A.,Defence Research and Development Canada
Proceedings of the 27th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference, FLAIRS 2014 | Year: 2014

We study in this paper how explicit user feedback can be used by a case-based reasoning system to improve the quality of its retrieval phase. More specifically, we explore how both ranking feedback and relevance feedback can be exploited to modify the weights of case features. We propose some options to cope with each type of feedback. We also evaluate, in an interactive setting, their impact on a travel scenario where some user provides feedback on a series of queries. Our results indicate that the combined weight-learning scheme proposed in this paper succeeds, on average, to assign more weights to the features used to formulate relevance and ranking feedback. Copyright © 2013, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved.

Luxembourg A.,Merck And Co. | Brown D.,Indiana University | Bouchard C.,University Laval | Giuliano A.R.,Moffitt Cancer Center | And 8 more authors.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2015

Our objective was to develop a multivalent prophylactic HPV vaccine that protects against infection and disease caused by HPV16/18 (oncogenic types in existing prophylactic vaccines) plus additional oncogenic types by conducting 3 Phase II studies comparing the immunogenicity (i.e., anti-HPV6/11/16/18 geometric mean titers [GMT]) and safety of 7 vaccine candidates with the licensed quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine (qHPV vaccine) in young women ages 16–26. In the first study (Study 1), subjects received one of 3 dose formulations of an 8-valent HPV6/11/16/18/31/45/52/58 vaccine or qHPV vaccine (control). In Study 2, subjects received one of 3 dose formulations (termed low-, mid-, and high-dose formulations, respectively) of a 9-valent HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine (9vHPV vaccine) or qHPV vaccine (control). In Study 3, subjects concomitantly received qHPV vaccine plus 5-valent HPV31/33/45/52/58 or qHPV vaccine plus placebo (control). All vaccines were administered at day 1/month 2/month 6. In studies 1 and 3, anti-HPV6/ 11/16/18 GMTs at month 7 were non-inferior in the experimental arms compared with the control arm; however, there was a trend for lower antibody responses for all 4 HPV types. In Study 2, this immune interference was overcome with the mid- and high-dose formulations of the 9vHPV vaccine by increasing antigen and adjuvant doses. In all 3 studies, all vaccine candidates were strongly immunogenic with respect to HPV31/33/45/52/58 and were well tolerated. Based on the totality of the results, the middle dose formulation of the 9vHPV vaccine was selected for Phase III evaluation. Each 0.5mL dose contains 30μg/40μg/60μg/40μg/20μg/20μg/20μg/20μg/20μg of HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 viruslike particles, and 500μg of amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate adjuvant.ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT00260039, NCT00543543, and NCT00551187. © 2015, Merck and Co., Inc.

During slowwave sleep, neurons of the thalamocortical network are engaged in a slow oscillation (<1 Hz), which consists of an alternation between the active and the silent states. Several studies have provided insights on the transition from the silent, which are essentially periods of disfacilitation, to the active states. However, the conditions leading to the synchronous onset of the silent state remain elusive. We hypothesized that a synchronous input to local inhibitory neurons could contribute to the transition to the silent state in the cat suprasylvian gyrus during natural sleep and under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. After partial and complete deafferentation of the cortex, we found that the silent state onset was more variable among remote sites. We found that the transition to the silent state was preceded by a reduction in excitatory postsynaptic potentials and firing probability in cortical neurons. We tested the impact of chloride-mediated inhibition in the silent-state onset. We uncovered a long-duration (100–300 ms) inhibitory barrage occurring about 250 ms before the silent state onset in 3–6% of neurons during anesthesia and in 12–15% of cases during natural sleep. These inhibitory activities caused a decrease in cortical firing that reduced the excitatory drive in the neocortical network. That chain reaction of disfacilitation ends up on the silent state. Electrical stimuli could trigger a network silent state with a maximal efficacy in deep cortical layers. We conclude that long-range afferents to the neocortex and chloride-mediated inhibition play a role in the initiation of the silent state. © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

Aadhi A.,Physical Research Laboratory | Aadhi A.,Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar | Vaity P.,University Laval | Apurv Chaitanya N.,Physical Research Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
CLEO: Applications and Technology, CLEO-AT 2015 | Year: 2015

We demonstrate a new class of optical parametric oscillators producing high-power, output beam in 2-D Airy intensity profile. The Airy beam has output power >8 W, longest ever acceleration length (>2 m), and wavelength tunability across 1.51-1.971 μm. © 2015 OSA.

Refaey A.,Mircom Technologies Ltd. | Niati R.,Mircom Technologies Ltd. | Wang X.,University of Western Ontario | Yves-Chouinard J.,University Laval
2014 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security, CNS 2014 | Year: 2014

In a non-cooperative context such as military or spectrum surveillance application, a passive adversary has to solve the problem of estimating the transmitter parameters. In addition, wireless systems cause signaling overhead since their transmitter must inform the receiver about the chosen bit allocation table or the Forward Error Correction (FEC) scheme. In this work, a perception of a smart receiver able to blindly estimate a specific transmission context based on an intercepted stream is proposed. In particular, a new technique addressing the blind recognition of low-density parity-check (LDPC), convolutional, and turbo codes' encoding parameters at the receiver is introduced. The proposed blind detection for the FEC code technique considers a new iterative method based on Gauss-Jordan elimination through a pivoting algorithm devoted to the blind estimation of these codes encoding parameters in a non-noisy context. © 2014 IEEE.

Eardley A.F.,University of Westminster | Edwards G.,University Laval | Edwards G.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Malouin F.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Kennedy J.M.,University of Toronto
Perception | Year: 2016

The question as to whether people totally blind since infancy process allocentric or external spatial information like the sighted has caused considerable debate within the literature. Due to the extreme rarity of the population, researchers have often included individuals with retinopathy of prematurity (RoP—over oxygenation at birth) within the sample. However, RoP is inextricably confounded with prematurity per se. Prematurity, without visual disability, has been associated with spatial processing difficulties. In this experiment, blindfolded sighted participants and two groups of functionally totally blind participants heard text descriptions from a survey (allocentric) or route (egocentric) perspective. One blind group lost their sight due to RoP and a second group before 24 months of age. The accuracy of participants’ mental representations derived from the text descriptions was assessed via questions and maps. The RoP participants had lower scores than the sighted and early blind, who performed similarly. In other words, it was not visual impairment alone that resulted in impaired allocentric spatial performance in this task but visual impairment together with RoP. This finding may help explain the contradictions within the existing literature on the role of vision in allocentric spatial processing. © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015.

Genest J.,McGill University | Hegele R.A.,University of Western Ontario | Bergeron J.,University Laval | Brophy J.,McGill University | And 15 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2014

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common genetic disorder causing premature cardiovascular disease and death. Heterozygous FH conservatively affects approximately 1:500 Canadians, and the more serious homozygous form affects approximately 1:1,000,000 Canadians, although these numbers might be underestimated. Of approximately 83,500 Canadians estimated to have FH, most are undiagnosed, which represents a simultaneous public health deficit and opportunity, because early treatment of heterozygous FHcan normalize life expectancy. Diagnostic algorithms for FH incorporate increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, pathognomonic clinical features, and family history of early cardiovascular disease and hyperlipidemia. DNA-based detection of causative mutations in FH-related genes can help with diagnosis. Maximizing diagnosis and treatment of FH in Canada will involve a multipronged approach, including: (1) increasing awareness of FH among health care providers and patients; (2) creating a national registry for FH individuals; (3) setting standards for screening, including cascade screening in affected families; (4) ensuring availability of standard-of-care therapies, in particular optimization of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and timely access to future validated therapies; (5) promoting patient-based support and advocacy groups; and (6) forming alliances with international colleagues, resources, and initiatives that focus on FH. This document aims to raise awareness of FH nationally, and to mobilize knowledge translation, patient support, and availability of treatment and health care resources for this underrecognized, but important medical condition. © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society.

Bajgiran O.S.,Concordia University at Montreal | Zanjani M.K.,Concordia University at Montreal | Nourelfath M.,University Laval
IIE Annual Conference and Expo 2014 | Year: 2014

The problem investigated in this paper is focused on lumber supply chain which is featured as a divergent value chain. In this industry, raw materials (logs) are shipped from forest contractors to sawmills. Then the logs are sawn to finished lumbers and are distributed to the lumber market through different channels. We aim at addressing harvesting, procurement, production, distribution, and sales decisions in an integrated scheme so as to minimize the backlogged orders and the total cost. A mixed integer programming model is proposed to integrate the aforementioned decisions in the lumber supply chain. Three decoupled models are also formulated representing, respectively, harvesting and procurement, production, sales and distribution. The benefit of the integrated model is evaluated by comparing the cost of the integrated model and decoupled models, in a realistic environment by using real data from industry. It is found that substantial improvement can be reached by considering an integrated model.

Allaire S.E.,Laval University | Baril B.,Laval University | Vanasse A.,Laval University | Lange S.F.,University Laval | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2015

The environmental impacts of switchgrass production for bioenergy could be reduced through the use of biofertilizers rather than mineral fertilizers and through soil amendment with biochar. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the impact of biochar and biofertilizer on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) yield and parameters related to carbon dynamics, (2) to correlate carbon parameters with soil physico-chemical properties over the first two growing seasons, and (3) to develop a C budget. A complete randomized block design was installed in a sandy loam with split plot treatment design, the main plots receiving 0 or 10 t ha-1of biochar and the sub-plots receiving no fertilization, mineral N fertilization, or biofertilizers. Biofertilizers had no significant impact on plant and soil. Biochar increased yield relative to the control treatment by about 10% during the first year and root biomass by up to 50% after 2 yr (P>.1). Mineral N fertilization also increased yield resulting in higher plant C sequestration after 2 yr. Biochar increased CO2 soil concentration (CO2-soil) by up to 50% but its impact on CO2 emission flux (CO2-flux) changed over time. The impact of mineral fertilization on CO2-flux also varied with time. Soil CO2 dynamics was mostly influenced by temperature, N and water content. Biochar and fertilization treatments showed interactions on some plant and soil parameters. The highest C sequestration budget was obtained with a combination of biochar and mineral N fertilization. The equivalent of about one-third of the increase in soil C content associated with biochar treatments was respired away by soil microorganisms. Nearly one-fourth of C sequestered by plants remained in or at the soil surface (root and crop residues). ©, 2015 Agricultural Institute of Canada, All rights reserved.

Guajardo M.,Norwegian School of Management | Ronnqvist M.,Norwegian School of Management | Ronnqvist M.,University Laval
International Transactions in Operational Research | Year: 2016

Collaboration in transportation between two or more agents is becoming an important approach to find efficient solutions or plans. Efficiency can be measured in, for example, lower cost or more flexibility. An important aspect of the collaboration is to decide on how to share the benefits-for example, cost, profit, or resources. There are many sharing mechanisms or cost allocations proposed in the literature. Some are based on simple proportional rules and others are based on theoretical concepts found in game theory. We provide a survey on cost allocation methods found in the literature on collaborative transportation, including problems on planning, vehicle routing, traveling salesman, distribution, and inventory. A total of 55 scientific articles compose the main part of the survey, most of them published between 2010 and 2015. We identify more than 40 cost allocation methods used in this stream of literature. We describe the theoretical basis for the main methods as well as the cases where they are used. We also report savings from the collaborations when they are based on industrial data. Some directions for future research are discussed. © 2016 The Authors.

Drolet P.,Institute Of Readaptation En Deficience Physique Of Quebec Irdpq | Martineau A.,Institute Of Readaptation En Deficience Physique Of Quebec Irdpq | Lacroix R.,Institute Of Readaptation En Deficience Physique Of Quebec Irdpq | Roy J.-S.,Center Interdisciplinaire Of Recherche En Readaptation Et En Integration Sociale Cirris | Roy J.-S.,University Laval
Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine | Year: 2016

Objective: To determine the reliability of quantitative measures of the long head of the biceps tendon using an ultrasound-imaging system. Design: Intra- and inter-rater reliability study. Subjects/patients: Thirty-one participants without shoulder pain. Methods: All participants took part in 3 ultrasound imaging sessions; they were assessed by 2 evaluators (inter-rater reliability), one of whom assessed them twice (intra-rater reliability). All measurements were taken at the widest identified part of the tendon using longitudinal and transverse views. Measurements of the long head of the biceps tendon included width, thickness and cross-sectional area. Intraclass correlation coefficients and minimal detectable change were used to characterize reliability. Results: Intra- and inter-rater reliabilities were excellent for all measures when the mean of 2 measures were considered, except for inter-rater reliability of the width, for which it ranged from 0.76 to 0.86. Minimal detectable change ranged from 0.3 to 1.6 mm for width and thickness, and from 2.8 to 4.9 mm2 for cross-sectional area. Conclusion: Ultrasound measurement of the long head of the biceps tendon is a highly reliable method, except for the width. When measuring the long head of the biceps tendon, a mean of 2 measurements is recommended. Now that reliability has been shown in healthy individuals, the next step will be to determine the validity/reliability of these quantitative measures in symptomatic shoulders. © 2016 The Authors.

Vasseur E.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Gibbons J.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Rushen J.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Pellerin D.,University Laval | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

Effective management and an appropriate environment are essential for dairy cattle health and welfare. Codes of practice provide dairy producers with best practice guidance for the care and handling of their cattle. New Canadian recommendations have been established for the dairy industry. The objectives of this study were to develop an on-farm assessment tool that helps producers assess how well they are meeting their code of practice and that identifies management and environment modifications that could improve dairy cow comfort on their farms. The assessment tool addressed critical areas of dairy cow comfort, including accommodation and housing (stall design, space allowance, stall management, pen management, milking parlor, and transfer alleys), feed and water (body condition scoring, nutrition), and health and welfare (lameness, claw health, and hoof-trimming). Targets of good practices were identified from the requirements and recommendations of the code of practice. Each farm received a score for each target, ranging from 0 (target not reached) to 100 (target reached). One hundred tiestall and 110 freestall farms were surveyed in 3 provinces of Canada (Quebec, Ontario, and Alberta). The duration of the assessment, in 2 visits lasting, on average, 8 and 9. h (range between freestall and tiestall farms) and 4 and 4.1. h, was beyond the targeted 3 to 4. h due mainly to the animal-based measures; strategies to reduce the duration of the assessment were discussed. Standard operating procedures were developed to ensure consistency in measuring and recording data. Periodical checks were conducted by trainers to ensure all 15 assessors remained above target agreement of weighted kappa 0.6. Average scores for all critical areas ranged from 25 to 89% for freestall farms and from 48 to 95% for tiestall farms. These scores need to be considered with caution when comparing farms because scores could not always be calculated the same way between housing systems. An evaluation report was provided and discussed with each producer, identifying strengths and areas for improvement that could benefit dairy cow comfort on their farms. The producers were convinced of the effectiveness of our tool for assessing cow comfort (freestall: 86%; tiestall: 95%) and in assisting them to make decisions for improvements (freestall: 83%; tiestall: 93%). Our cow comfort assessment tool served as background material for the Dairy Farmers of Canada animal care assessment program. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.

Zhornitsky S.,University of Calgary | McKay K.A.,University of British Columbia | Metz L.M.,University of Calgary | Teunissen C.E.,VU University Amsterdam | And 2 more authors.
Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders | Year: 2016

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic central nervous system disease that is associated with progressive loss of myelin and subsequent axonal degeneration. Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cellular and myelin membranes. In this systematic review, we examined the relationship between levels of cholesterol and markers of cholesterol turnover in circulation and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and disease outcomes in adults with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or confirmed MS. Studies suggest that elevated levels of circulating low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol, and particularly, apolipoprotein B and oxidized LDL are associated with adverse clinical and MRI outcomes in MS. These relationships were observed as early as CIS. The studies also suggest that oxysterols, cholesterol precursors, and apolipoprotein E may be markers of specific disease processes in MS, but more research is required to elucidate these processes and relationships. Taken together, the data indicate that cholesterol and markers of cholesterol turnover have potential to be used clinically as biomarkers of disease activity and may even be implicated in the pathogenesis of MS. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Enache C.,Simion Stoilow Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian Academy | Enache C.,American University of Kuwait | Philippin G.A.,University Laval
ZAMM Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik | Year: 2015

This paper deals with the eigenvalues of the Neumann Laplacian on simply-connected Lipschitz planar domains with some rotational symmetry. Our aim is to continue the investigations from Enache and Philippin [7] and derive new isoperimetric estimates for eigenvalues of higher order. This paper deals with the eigenvalues of the Neumann Laplacian on simply-connected Lipschitz planar domains with some rotational symmetry. Our aim is to continue the investigations from Enache and Philippin [Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 36(16), 2145-2153 (2013)] and derive new isoperimetric estimates for eigenvalues of higher order. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Boucherat O.,Laval University | Jeannotte L.,University Laval | Hadchouel A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Hadchouel A.,University of Paris Descartes | And 3 more authors.
Paediatric Respiratory Reviews | Year: 2016

It is well established that a number of birth defects are associated with improper formation of the respiratory tract. Important progress has been made in the identification of components of the regulatory networks controlling lung morphogenesis. They comprise a variety of soluble factors, receptors, transcription factors, and miRNAs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unsolved and fundamental questions, such as those related to lung branching are still unanswered. Congenital cystic lung diseases consist of a heterogeneous group of rare lung diseases mainly detected prenatally and characterized by airway dilatation. Despite their apparent phenotypic heterogeneity, these malformations are proposed to be related to a common malformation sequence occurring during lung branching morphogenesis. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Fortin D.,Laval University | Buono P.-L.,University Laval | Buono P.-L.,University of Ontario Institute of Technology | Schmitz O.J.,The New School | And 8 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Trophic interactions in multiprey systems can be largely determined by prey distributions. Yet, classic predator–prey models assume spatially homogeneous interactions between predators and prey. We developed a spatially informed theory that predicts how habitat heterogeneity alters the landscape-scale distribution of mortality risk of prey from predation, and hence the nature of predator interactions in multiprey systems. The theoretical model is a spatially explicit, multiprey functional response in which species-specific advection–diffusion models account for the response of individual prey to habitat edges. The model demonstrates that distinct responses of alternative prey species can alter the consequences of conspecific aggregation, from increasing safety to increasing predation risk. Observations of threatened boreal caribou, moose and grey wolf interacting over 378 181 km2 of human-managed boreal forest support this principle. This empirically supported theory demonstrates how distinct responses of apparent competitors to landscape heterogeneity, including to human disturbances, can reverse density dependence in fitness correlates. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Vale P.F.,University of Edinburgh | Lafforgue G.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Gatchitch F.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | Gardan R.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

CRISPR-Cas is a form of adaptive sequence-specific immunity in microbes. This system offers unique opportunities for the study of coevolution between bacteria and their viral pathogens, bacteriophages. A full understanding of the coevolutionary dynamics of CRISPR-Cas requires knowing the magnitude of the cost of resisting infection. Here, using the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus and its associated virulent phage 2972, a well-established model system harbouring at least two type II functional CRISPR-Cas systems, we obtained different fitness measures based on growth assays in isolation or in pairwise competition. We measured the fitness cost associated with different components of this adaptive immune system: the cost of Cas protein expression, the constitutive cost of increasing immune memory through additional spacers, and the conditional costs of immunity during phage exposure. We found that Cas protein expression is particularly costly, as Cas-deficient mutants achieved higher competitive abilities than the wild-type strain with functional Cas proteins. Increasing immune memory by acquiring up to four phage-derived spacers was not associated with fitness costs. In addition, the activation of the CRISPR-Cas system during phage exposure induces significant but small fitness costs. Together these results suggest that the costs of the CRISPR-Cas system arise mainly due to the maintenance of the defence system. We discuss the implications of these results for the evolution of CRISPR-Cas-mediated immunity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Moya-Alvarez V.,IRD Montpellier | Moya-Alvarez V.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Mireku M.O.,IRD Montpellier | Mireku M.O.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Introduction: Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far. Materials and Methods: Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semirural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed. Results: At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83), and 128 infants (63%) had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%). Twenty-five infants (12.5%) had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L). Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048) and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03) in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators. Conclusion: Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs) according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due to the high prevalence of elevated BLL, health interventions should look forward to minimize the exposure to lead to better protect the population in West Africa. Copyright © 2016 Moya-Alvarez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Francois A.,University of Poitiers | Francois A.,University Laval | Julian A.,University of Poitiers | Ragot S.,University of Poitiers | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Recent findings indicate that microglia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is senescent whereas peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) could infiltrate the brain to phagocyte amyloid deposits. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the amyloid peptide clearance remain unknown. Autophagy is a physiological degradation of proteins and organelles and can be controlled by pro-inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of inflammation on autophagy in PBMCs from AD patients at baseline, 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Furthermore, PBMCs from healthy patients were also included and treated with 20 μM amyloid peptide 1-42 to mimic AD environment. For each patient, PBMCs were stimulated with the mitogenic factor, phytohaemagglutin (PHA), and treated with either 1 μM C16 as an anti-inflammatory drug or its vehicle. Autophagic markers (Beclin-1, p62/sequestosome 1 and microtubule-associated protein-light chain 3: LC3) were quantified by western blot and cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-1β, Tumor necrosis Factor (TNF)-α and IL-6) by Luminex X-MAP® technology. Beclin-1 and TNF-α levels were inversely correlated in AD PBMCs at 12 months post-inclusion. In addition, Beclin-1 and p62 increased in the low inflammatory environment induced by C16. Only LC3-I levels were inversely correlated with cognitive decline at baseline. For the first time, this study describes longitudinal changes in autophagic markers in PBMCs of AD patients under an inflammatory environment. Inflammation would induce autophagy in the PBMCs of AD patients while an anti-inflammatory environment could inhibit their autophagic response. However, this positive response could be altered in a highly aggressive environment. © 2015 Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Lundstrom J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Ohman K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Ronnqvist M.,University Laval | Gustafsson L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

A rich structural diversity in forests promotes biodiversity. Forests are dynamic and therefore it is crucial to consider future structural potential when selecting reserves, to make robust conservation decisions. We analyzed forests in boreal Sweden based on 17,599 National Forest Inventory (NFI) plots with the main aim to understand how effectiveness of reserves depends on the time dimension in the selection process, specifically by considering future structural diversity. In the study both the economic value and future values of 15 structural variables were simulated during a 100 year period. To get a net present structural value (NPSV), a single value covering both current and future values, we used four discounting alternatives: (1) only considering present values, (2) giving equal importance to values in each of the 100 years within the planning horizon, (3) applying an annual discount rate considering the risk that values could be lost, and (4) only considering the values in year 100. The four alternatives were evaluated in a reserve selection model under budgetconstrained and area-constrained selections. When selecting young forests higher structural richness could be reached at a quarter of the cost over almost twice the area in a budget-constrained selection compared to an area-constrained selection. Our results point to the importance of considering future structural diversity in the selection of forest reserves and not as is done currently to base the selection on existing values. Targeting future values increases structural diversity and implies a relatively lower cost. Further, our results show that a re-orientation from old to young forests would imply savings while offering a more extensive reserve network with high structural qualities in the future. However, caution must be raised against a drastic reorientation of the current old-forest strategy since remnants of ancient forests will need to be prioritized due to their role for disturbance-sensitive species. Copyright © 2016 Lundström et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Aubin K.,Chu Of Quebec Research Centreqc | Safoine M.,Chu Of Quebec Research Centreqc | Proulx M.,Chu Of Quebec Research Centreqc | Tetu F.A.,Clinique de Chirurgie Esthetique Felix Andre Tetu and CHU de QuebecQC | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Representative modelling of human adipose tissue functions is central to metabolic research. Tridimensional models able to recreate human adipogenesis in a physiological tissue-like context in vitro are still scarce. We describe the engineering of white adipose tissues reconstructed from their cultured adipose-derived stromal precursor cells. We hypothesize that these reconstructed tissues can recapitulate key functions of AT under basal and pro-inflammatory conditions. These tissues, featuring human adipocytes surrounded by stroma, were stable and metabolically active in long-term cultures (at least 11 weeks). Secretion of major adipokines and growth factors by the reconstructed tissues was determined and compared to media conditioned by human native fat explants. Interestingly, the secretory profiles of the reconstructed adipose tissues indicated an abundant production of leptin, PAI-1 and angiopoietin-1 proteins, while higher HGF levels were detected for the human fat explants. We next demonstrated the responsiveness of the tissues to the proinflammatory stimulus TNF-α, as reflected by modulation of MCP-1, NGF and HGF secretion, while VEGF and leptin protein expression did not vary. TNF-α exposure induced changes in gene expression for adipocyte metabolism-associated mRNAs such as SLC2A4, FASN and LIPE, as well as for genes implicated in NF-κB activation. Finally, this model was customized to feature adipocytes representative of progressive stages of differentiation, thereby allowing investigations using newly differentiated or more mature adipocytes. In conclusion, we produced tridimensional tissues engineered in vitro that are able to recapitulate key characteristics of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. These tissues are produced from human cells and their neo-synthesized matrix elements without exogenous or synthetic biomaterials. Therefore, they represent unique tools to investigate the effects of pharmacologically active products on human stromal cells, extracellular matrix and differentiated adipocytes, in addition to compounds modulating adipogenesis from precursor cells. © 2015 Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Cenat J.M.,UQAM | Blais M.,UQAM | Hebert M.,UQAM | Lavoie F.,University Laval | Guerrier M.,UQAM
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2015

Purpose Bullying has become a significant public health issue, particularly among youth. This study documents cyberbullying, homophobic bullying and bullying at school or elsewhere and their correlates among both heterosexual and sexual-minority high school students in Quebec (Canada). Method A representative sample of 8194 students aged 14-20 years was recruited in Quebec (Canada) high schools. We assessed cyberbullying, homophobic bullying and bullying at school or elsewhere in the past 12 months and their association with current self-esteem and psychological distress as well as suicidal ideations. Results Bullying at school or elsewhere was the most common form of bullying (26.1%), followed by cyberbullying (22.9%) and homophobic bullying (3.6%). Overall, girls and sexual-minority youth were more likely to experience cyberbullying and other forms of bullying as well as psychological distress, low self-esteem and suicidal ideations. The three forms of bullying were significantly and independently associated with all mental health outcomes. Conclusions The results underscore the relevance of taking into account gender and sexual orientation variations in efforts to prevent bullying experience and its consequences. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Romero M.,University Laval
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

In this study, digital game design is analyzed as a team-based knowledge modelling process. In the context of a graduate seminar, the students were organized in teams and were asked to design a serious game. In the early stages of the process, each team had the possibility to engage in a topic suggested by the professor or decide their topic of interest. Half of the teams choose a suggested topic (herd immunity, intergenerational communication, active ageing); the other half proposed a topic of their choice (inuits and micmacs, banker-customer relationship, French as a Foreign Language). In both cases, the students should engage in a participative design process which requires a learner-centered analysis. We analyze both the digital game design process and outcomes of the game design from the perspective of social participation and the 4C competencies deployed in the game design process: communication, collaboration, creativity and critical thinking. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Hetzenecker A.,University of Regensburg | Hetzenecker A.,Center for Pneumology | Kuna S.T.,University of Pennsylvania | Kuna S.T.,Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
Sleep Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: Impaired sleep efficiency is independently associated with worse prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Therefore, a test was conducted on whether auto-servo ventilation (ASV, biphasic positive airway pressure [BiPAP]-ASV, Philips Respironics) reduces sleep fragmentation and improves sleep efficiency in CHF patients with central sleep apnea (CSA) or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, parallel group trial, a study was conducted on 63 CHF patients (age 64 ± 10 years; left ventricular ejection fraction 29 ± 7%) with CSA or OSA (apnea-hypopnea Index, AHI 47 ± 18/h; 46% CSA) referred to sleep laboratories of the four participating centers. Participants were randomized to either ASV (n = 32) or optimal medical treatment alone (control, n = 31). Results: Polysomnography (PSG) and actigraphy at home (home) with centralized blinded scoring were obtained at baseline and 12 weeks. ASV significantly reduced sleep fragmentation (total arousal indexPSG: -16.4 ± 20.6 vs. -0.6 ± 13.2/h, p = 0.001; sleep fragmentation indexhome: -7.6 ± 15.6 versus 4.3 ± 13.9/h, p = 0.003, respectively) and significantly increased sleep efficiency assessed by actigraphy (SEhome) compared to controls (2.3 ± 10.1 vs. -2.1 ± 6.9%, p = 0.002). Effects of ASV on sleep fragmentation and efficiency were similar in patients suffering from OSA and CSA. Conclusions: At home, ASV treatment modestly improves sleep fragmentation as well as sleep efficiency in CHF patients having either CSA or OSA. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Budell L.,University of Montreal | Kunz M.,University of Bamberg | Jackson P.L.,University Laval | Rainville P.,University of Montreal
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Perception of pain in others via facial expressions has been shown to involve brain areas responsive to self-pain, biological motion, as well as both performed and observed motor actions. Here, we investigated the involvement of these different regions during emotional and motor mirroring of pain expressions using a two-task paradigm, and including both observation and execution of the expressions. BOLD responses were measured as subjects watched video clips showing different intensities of pain expression and, after a variable delay, either expressed the amount of pain they perceived in the clips (pain task), or imitated the facial movements (movement task). In the pain task condition, pain coding involved overlapping activation across observation and execution in the anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula, and the inferior parietal lobule, and a pain-related increase (pain vs. neutral) in the anterior cingulate cortex/supplementary motor area, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the postcentral gyrus. The 'mirroring' response was stronger in the inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus during the pain task, and stronger in the inferior parietal lobule in the movement task. These results strongly suggest that while motor mirroring may contribute to the perception of pain expressions in others, interpreting these expressions in terms of pain content draws more heavily on networks involved in the perception of affective meaning. © 2015 Budell et al.

Thibault S.,University Laval | Thibault S.,ImmerVision | Parent J.,ImmerVision | Zhang H.,ImmerVision | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

In 2014, miniature camera modules are applied to a variety of applications such as webcam, mobile phone, automotive, endoscope, tablets, portable computers and many other products. Mobile phone cameras are probably one of the most challenging parts due to the need for smaller and smaller total track length (TTL) and optimized embedded image processing algorithms. As the technology is developing, higher resolution and higher image quality, new capabilities are required to fulfil the market needs. Consequently, the lens system becomes more complex and requires more optical elements and/or new optical elements. What is the limit? How small an injection molded lens can be? We will discuss those questions by comparing two wide angle lenses for consumer electronic market. The first lens is a 6.56 mm (TTL) panoramic (180° FOV) lens built in 2012. The second is a more recent (2014) panoramic lens (180° FOV) with a TTL of 3.80 mm for mobile phone camera. Both optics are panomorph lenses used with megapixel sensors. Between 2012 and 2014, the development in design and plastic injection molding allowed a reduction of the TTL by more than 40%. This TTL reduction has been achieved by pushing the lens design to the extreme (edge/central air and material thicknesses as well as lens shape). This was also possible due to a better control of the injection molding process and material (low birefringence, haze and thermal stability). These aspects will be presented and discussed. During the next few years, we don’t know if new material will come or new process but we will still need innovative people and industries to push again the limits. © 2014 SPIE.

Duplessis M.,University Laval | Cue R.I.,McGill University | Santschi D.E.,Valacta | Lefebvre D.M.,Valacta | Lacroix R.,Valacta
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

In Québec first calving occurs on average at 27. mo, whereas the target is 23 to 24.5. mo to maximize herd profitability. The aim of this study was to quantify current and future heifer growth using individual heifer random regressions and to generate indicators (such as heifer weight and height at 15 and 24. mo, average daily gain before and after 15. mo, age at which optimal weight for breeding is attained, i.e., 55% of mature weight, and reliability of the 15- and 24-mo weight predictions) that could be used as a practical on-farm tool. Dairy heifer weight estimated by heart girth circumference and height measured at the withers (from 0 to 27. mo) were obtained from the Valacta database (DHI agency, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada) from 1995 to 2012. Indicators were calculated based on the current situation of Holstein (HO), Ayrshire (AY), Jersey (JE), and Brown Swiss (BS) heifer growth in Québec. Heifers with less than 2 records were excluded from the analysis. Mature weights were determined by weight at calving of cows from third or greater lactation for a given breed and were 710. kg for HO, 625. kg for AY, 470. kg for JE, and 670. kg for BS. Estimated weights at 15 and 24. mo were 425 and 627, 334 and 482, 297 and 429, and 379 and 560. kg for HO, AY, JE, and BS, respectively, which are heavy enough for breeding and calving, except for AY. Relative reliabilities of the 15- and 24-mo weight predictions were on average 89 and 60%, respectively, based on measurements up to 15. mo. For HO, AY, JE, and BS, wither heights at 15 and 24. mo were 134 and 143, 125 and 134, 122 and 131, and 130 and 140. cm, respectively. Age at optimal breeding weight was 13.6, 15.5, 12.6, and 14.5. mo for HO, AY, JE, and BS, respectively. These data suggest that it is realistic to expect a first calving at 24. mo for HO, JE, and BS. A growth delay was observed for AY; average daily gain was 655 and 538 g/d before and after 15. mo, respectively. The average daily gain before and after 15. mo was 848 and 747 g/d for HO, 603 and 486 g/d for JE, and 775 and 662 g/d for BS, respectively. These indicators could be calculated for an individual heifer and on a herd-level basis and used on farm as a management tool for reducing age at first breeding and at first calving. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.

Santos-Concejero J.,University of the Basque Country | Santos-Concejero J.,University of Cape Town | Billaut F.,University Laval | Grobler L.,Stellenbosch University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study was to analyze the cerebral oxygenation response to maximal self-paced and incremental exercise in elite Kenyan runners from the Kalenjin tribe. On two separate occasions, 15 elite Kenyan distance runners completed a 5-km time trial (TT) and a peak treadmill speed test (PTS). Changes in cerebral oxygenation were monitored via near-infrared spectroscopy through concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin (Δ[O2Hb] and Δ [HHb]), tissue oxygenation index (TOI), and total hemoglobin index (nTHI). During the 5-km TT (15.2 ± 0.2 min), cerebral oxygenation increased over the first half (increased Δ[O2Hb] and Δ [HHb]) and, thereafter, Δ[O2Hb] remained constant (effect size, ES = 0.33, small effect), whereas Δ [HHb] increased until the end of the trial (P < 0.05, ES = 3.13, large effect). In contrast, during the PTS, from the speed corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold, Δ[O2Hb] decreased (P < 0.05, ES = 1.51, large effect), whereas Δ[HHb] continued to increase progressively until exhaustion (P < 0.05, ES = 1.22, large effect). Last, the TOI was higher during the PTS than during the 5-km TT (P < 0.001, ES = 3.08; very large effect), whereas nTHI values were lower (P < 0.001, ES = 2.36, large effect). This study shows that Kenyan runners from the Kalenjin tribe are able to maintain their cerebral oxygenation within a stable range during a self-paced maximal 5-km time trial, but not during an incremental maximal test. This may contribute to their long-distance running success. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

Doyon C.Y.,Laval University | Tremblay A.,Laval University | Rioux L.-E.,Laval University | Rheaume C.,University of Quebec | And 4 more authors.
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2015

The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4±9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ~230 kJ, ~4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (–812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN- βG and the HW yogurts (–15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts’ protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after theHWyogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake. © 2015, National Research Council of Canada. All rights reserved

Lamothe S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Azimy N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Bazinet L.,University Laval | Bazinet L.,Laval University | And 3 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2014

The consumption of polyphenols in green tea has been associated with beneficial health effects. Although polyphenols are unstable in the intestinal environment, they may be protected by interactions with dairy proteins during digestion. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of a green tea extract on the digestibility of different dairy matrices and to monitor the antioxidant activity of these matrices with or without the green tea extract during digestion in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. Milk, yogurt and cheese with similar fat-to-protein ratios were subjected to simulated digestion. Matrix degradation, protein and fat hydrolysis, polyphenol concentration and radical scavenging activity were analyzed during gastric and intestinal digestion phases. Cheese was the matrix most resistant to protein and fat digestion. The addition of the green tea extract significantly decreased proteolysis in the gastric phase but had no effect in the intestinal phase. The kinetics of fatty acid release was reduced by the presence of the green tea extract. Transition from the gastric phase to the intestinal phase induced a 50% decrease in the antioxidant activity of the control (tea extract dispersed in water) due to the degradation of polyphenols. The presence of dairy matrices significantly improved polyphenol stability in the intestinal phase and increased the antioxidant activity by 29% (cheese) to 42% (milk) compared to the control. These results suggest that simultaneous consumption of green tea and dairy products helps to maintain the integrity and antioxidant activity of polyphenols during digestion. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Carnovale V.,Laval University | Labaeye C.,Laval University | Britten M.,Laval University | Britten M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 3 more authors.
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2016

β-Lactoglobulin (β-lg) is a globular protein accounting for 11% of all milk proteins. Recently, the use of β-lg as vehicles for the delivery of bioactive compounds such as green tea catechins has been explored. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of various calcium concentrations on the interactions between β-lg and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant green tea catechins. Five different calcium concentrations were tested for their effect on complex formation and characteristics. Our results showed that when EGCG was present, the increase in calcium concentration influenced ζ-potential and more importantly, drastically increased particle size. The presence of EGCG was essential to the formation of larger complexes, stabilized mainly by electrostatic interactions via calcium bridging when calcium is present. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Ngueta G.,Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit | Belanger R.E.,Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit | Laouan-Sidi E.A.,Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit | Lucas M.,Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit | And 2 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2015

Objective To ascertain the relationship between cannabis use, obesity, and insulin resistance. Methods Data on 786 Inuit adults from the Nunavik Inuit Health Survey (2004) were analyzed. Information on cannabis use was obtained from a self-completed, confidential questionnaire. Fasting blood glucose and insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) served as surrogate markers of insulin resistance. Analysis of covariance and multivariate logistic regression ascertained relationships between cannabis use and outcomes. Results Cannabis use was highly prevalent in the study population (57.4%) and was statistically associated with lower body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.001), lower % fat mass (P < 0.001), lower fasting insulin (P = 0.04), and lower HOMA-IR (P = 0.01), after adjusting for numerous confounding variables. Further adjustment for BMI rendered fasting insulin and HOMA-IR differences statistically nonsignificant between past-year cannabis users and nonusers. Mediation analysis showed that the effect of cannabis use on insulin resistance was indirect, through BMI. In multivariate analysis, past-year cannabis use was associated with 0.56 lower likelihood of obesity (95% confidence interval 0.37-0.84). Conclusions Cannabis use was associated with lower BMI, and such an association did not occur through the glucose metabolic process or related inflammatory markers. The association between cannabis use and insulin resistance was mediated through its influence on weight. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

Khoutorsky A.,McGill University | Bonin R.P.,Institute University En Santementale Of Quebecqc | Sorge R.E.,McGill University | Gkogkas C.G.,McGill University | And 15 more authors.
eLife | Year: 2015

Activation of the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase in models of acute and chronic pain is strongly implicated in mediating enhanced translation and hyperalgesia. However, the molecular mechanisms by which mTOR regulates nociception remain unclear. Here we show that deletion of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E- BP1), a major mTOR downstream effector, which represses eIF4E activity and cap-dependent translation, leads to mechanical, but not thermal pain hypersensitivity. Mice lacking 4E-BP1 exhibit enhanced spinal cord expression of neuroligin 1, a cell-adhesion postsynaptic protein regulating excitatory synapse function, and show increased excitatory synaptic input into spinal neurons, and a lowered threshold for induction of synaptic potentiation. Pharmacological inhibition of eIF4E or genetic reduction of neuroligin 1 levels normalizes the increased excitatory synaptic activity and reverses mechanical hypersensitivity. Thus, translational control by 4E-BP1 downstream of mTOR effects the expression of neuroligin 1 and excitatory synaptic transmission in the spinal cord, and thereby contributes to enhanced mechanical nociception. © 2015, eLife Sciences Publications Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fausther M.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Fausther M.,Research Service | Goree J.R.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Goree J.R.,Research Service | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The major sources of scar-forming myofibroblasts during liver fibrosis are activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and portal fibroblasts (PF). In contrast to well-characterized HSC, PF remain understudied and poorly defined. This is largely due to the facts that isolation of rodent PF for functional studies is technically challenging and that PF cell lines had not been established. To address this, we have generated two polyclonal portal myofibroblast cell lines, RGF and RGF-N2. RGF and RGF-N2 were established from primary PF isolated from adult rat livers that underwent culture activation and subsequent SV40-mediated immortalization. Specifically, Ntpdase2/Cd39l1-sorted primary PF were used to generate the RGF-N2 cell line. Both cell lines were functionally characterized by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, immunoblot and bromodeoxyuridine-based proliferation assay. First, immortalized RGF and RGF-N2 cells are positive for phenotypic myofibroblast markers alpha smooth muscle actin, type I collagen alpha-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, PF-specific markers elastin, type XV collagen alpha-1 and Ntpdase2/Cd39l1, and mesenchymal cell marker ecto-5'-nucleotidase/ Cd73, while negative for HSC-specific markers desmin and lecithin retinol acyltransferase. Second, both RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines are readily transfectable using standard methods. Finally, RGF and RGF-N2 cells attenuate the growth of Mz-ChA-1 cholangiocarcinoma cells in co-culture, as previously demonstrated for primary PF. Immortalized rat portal myofibroblast RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines express typical markers of activated PF-derived myofibroblasts, are suitable for DNA transfection, and can effectively inhibit cholangiocyte proliferation. Both RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines represent novel in vitro cellular models for the functional studies of portal (myo)fibroblasts and their contribution to the progression of liver fibrosis. © 2015 Fausther et al.

Aminravan F.,University of British Columbia | Sadiq R.,University of British Columbia | Hoorfar M.,University of British Columbia | Rodriguez M.J.,University Laval | Najjaran H.,University of British Columbia
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2015

This paper deals with online water quality monitoring in distribution networks based on surrogate water quality parameters (WQPs). The present strategy is based on multi-level information fusion using hierarchical belief rule-based (BRB) systems. Networked fuzzy belief rule-based (NF-BRB) and high-level BRB systems are introduced for information fusion at the feature level. Primary and secondary features are extracted from online WQP signals. Primary features are analyzed using the NF-BRB system that is built through knowledge elicitation from experts. Secondary features are interpreted through the high-level BRB system that employs a fuzzy partitioning on the feature sets and a hybrid learning strategy for its rule base construction. Finally, the dynamic fuzzy evidential fusion is introduced to aggregate the local and spatial assessments in each analysis window. As an important contribution of this paper, we propose a new validation method for event detection in the water distribution network (WDN) based on adaptive projection of the signal patterns attributed to anomaly events, obtained through contamination experiments in a pilot facility, to the real WQP signals measured across the WDN. Single and composite contamination events based on several biological and chemical contaminants are simulated to evaluate the performance of the proposed framework in event detection. The proposed multi-level information fusion framework obtains a high detection rate and a reduced number of false negative and positive results. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Martel F.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Rancourt D.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Chochol C.,INSA Lyon | St-Amant Y.,University Laval | And 2 more authors.
Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing | Year: 2015

This paper investigates the performance of the Chebyshev polynomial basis to identify the time-varying mechanical impedance of a vertical beam in torsion. The projection, derivation and product properties of Chebyshev polynomials were used to linearize the differential equation of 1-DOF mechanical systems having multiple time-varying parameters. This allowed the identification of a reduced set of projection coefficients without prior knowledge of initial system states conditions. The method was then applied to experimental data obtained from an equilateral beam excited in torsion while one beam support location was changed over time. Results showed 6.62×10-2% error in stiffness predictions compared to theoretical estimates. Signal filtering was critical to avoid contamination by bending modes of the beam and prior knowledge of inertia led to better results. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Kolaei A.,Concordia University at Montreal | Rakheja S.,Concordia University at Montreal | Richard M.J.,University Laval
Computers and Fluids | Year: 2015

The liquid slosh within a partially-filled moving horizontal cylindrical container with different designs of longitudinal baffles is analyzed for predicting transient lateral slosh force and overturning moment, assuming inviscid, incompressible and irrotational flows. A boundary element method is initially formulated to solve the spectral problem of free liquid slosh using the zoning method involving the velocity potentials alone of the half free-surface length, which significantly increases the computational efficiency. The resulting natural slosh frequencies and modes are subsequently implemented in a linear multimodal method to obtain generalized coordinates of the free-surface under a lateral acceleration excitation. Damping due to baffles, estimated from the energy dissipated per cycle, is also implemented into the multimodal equation. The validity of the model is illustrated through comparisons with available analytical solutions. The results are presented for the tank with bottom-mounted, top-mounted and center-mounted partial baffles of different lengths. The effects of baffle design and length on the natural slosh frequencies/modes, damping ratios and hydrodynamic coefficients are further investigated. The lateral force and overturning moment due to liquid motion within the container are derived in terms of generalized coordinates and the natural slosh modes. It is shown that the multimodal method yields computationally efficient solutions of liquid slosh within moving baffled containers. The results suggest that top-mounted baffles are most effective in suppressing the fluid slosh force under more likely fill height conditions in road tankers (well above 50% of diameter), when the baffle is partly submerged in the liquid domain. The center-mounted baffle was effective under intermediate fill levels in the vicinity of 50%, while the bottom mounted baffle was effective only under very low fill heights. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Nolze-Charron G.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Mouiha A.,Institute University En Sante Mentale Of Quebecqc | Duchesne S.,Institute University En Sante Mentale Of Quebecqc | Duchesne S.,University Laval | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2015

Background: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) may have a different impact on cognitive decline depending on strategic localization. Objective: The goal of this study is to assess the impact of global and cholinergic WMH on cognitive decline of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients in the ADNI-1 dataset. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of data from a natural history study. MRI scans (T2 and PD sequences) were assessed with two visual scales: 1) The Cholinergic Pathways HyperIntensities Scale (CHIPS) score, designed to assess WMH in the cholinergic tracts, and 2) the Age-Related White Matter Changes Scale (ARWMC), a scale to assess the global WMH burden. All subjects underwent standardized neuropsychological testing. Results: Subjects included 310 individuals with MCI. Analysis showed no association betweenWMHat baseline and conversion from MCI to Alzheimer's disease (AD), either for the global WMH burden or WMH within the cholinergic pathways. However, ARWMC scores had a significant confounding effect (p = 0.03) on conversion to dementia (hazard ratio of 0.37) among MCI subjects with low executive functions. Conclusion: We found no association between the burden of WMH at baseline in MCI and conversion to AD over 3 years. However, a higher global WMH burden appears to reduce the risk of conversion to AD in subjects with low executive functions. These results suggest that higher WMH burden in MCI individuals may be associated with a more gradual cognitive decline or stabilization, compared to a low WMH burden. © 2015-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Doodman S.,University of Tehran | Afghantoloee A.,University of Tehran | Mostafavi M.A.,University Laval | Karimipour F.,University of Tehran
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2014

Recent advances in electrical, mechanical and communication systems have led to development of efficient low-cost and multi-function geosensor networks. The efficiency of a geosensor network is significantly based on network coverage, which is the result of network deployment. Several optimization methods have been proposed to enhance the deployment efficiency and hence increase the coverage, but most of them considered the problem in the 2D environment models, which is usually far from the real situation. This paper extends a Voronoi-based deployment algorithm to 3D environment, which takes the 3D features into account. The proposed approach is applied on two case studies whose results are evaluated and discussed.

Lancaster D.G.,University of South Australia | Lancaster D.G.,University of Adelaide | Stevens V.J.,University of South Australia | Michaud-Belleau V.,University Laval | And 4 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2015

We demonstrate the increasing applicability of compact ultra-fast laser inscribed glass guided-wave lasers and report the highest-power glass waveguide laser with over 1.1 W of output power in monolithic operation in the short-infrared near 2070 nm achieved (51% incident slope efficiency). The holmium doped ZBLAN chip laser is in-band pumped by a 1945 nm thulium fiber laser. When operated in an extended-cavity configuration, over 1 W of output power is realized in a linearly polarized beam. Broad and continuous tunability of the extended-cavity laser is demonstrated from 2004 nm to 2099 nm. Considering its excellent beam quality of M2 = 1.08, this laser shows potential as a flexible master oscillator for single frequency and mode-locking applications. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

Arbour D.,University of Montreal | Tremblay E.,University of Montreal | Martineau E.,University of Montreal | Julien J.-P.,University Laval | Robitaille R.,University of Montreal
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons (MNs) preceded by neuromuscular junction (NMJ) denervation. Despite the importance of NMJ denervation in ALS, the mechanisms involved remain unexplored and ill defined. The contribution of glial cells in the disease has been highlighted, including axonal Schwann cell activation that precedes the decline of motor function and the onset of hindlimb paralysis. Because NMJ denervation occurs early in the process and that perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs), glial cells at the NMJ, regulate morphological stability, integrity, and repair of the NMJ, one could predict that PSC functions would be altered even before denervation, contributing to NMJ malfunctions. We tested this possibility using a slowly progressive model of ALS (SOD1G37R mice).We observed a normal NMJ organization at a presymptomatic stage of ALS (120 d), but PSC detection of endogenous synaptic activity revealed by intracellular Ca2+ changes was enhanced compared with their wild-type littermates. This inappropriate PSC decoding ability was associated with an increased level of neurotransmitter release and dependent on intrinsic glial properties related to enhanced muscarinic receptor activation. The alteration of PSC muscarinic receptor functions also persists during the preonset stage of the disease and became dependent on MN vulnerability with age. Together, these results suggest that PSC properties are altered in the disease process in a manner that would be detrimental for NMJ repair. The impairments of PSC functions may contribute to NMJ dysfunction and ALS pathogenesis. © 2015 the authors.

Wei B.,University of New Brunswick | Romero-Zeron L.,University of New Brunswick | Rodrigue D.,University Laval
Polymer Engineering and Science | Year: 2015

This article presents the chemical formulation and rheological properties of a novel self-assembling biopolymer (SAP) system, which could be a useful alternative in polymer flooding for oil recovery, especially under harsh reservoir conditions of temperature, salinity, and hardness. The nonbonding associations of the side branches of xanthan gum with the surfactant: β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes in aqueous solution generate an improved viscoelastic SAP network system. This system exhibits superior mechanical and thermal stability, and also tolerance to elevated brine salinity and hardness due to the "interlocking effect." Sandpack flood tests conducted at reservoir conditions (Pelican Lake reservoir, Alberta, Canada) demonstrate that the SAP system can produce considerably higher resistance factors than the baseline xanthan gum during flow in porous media, which indicates its effectiveness in controlling the mobility of the displacing fluid. Moreover, this system shows potential as in situ permeability modifier. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 55:523-532, 2015. © 2014 Society of Plastics Engineers.

Chubaty A.M.,Natural Resources Canada | Chubaty A.M.,University Laval | Chubaty A.M.,Simon Fraser University | Hart M.,Simon Fraser University | Roitberg B.D.,Simon Fraser University
Evolutionary Ecology Research | Year: 2014

Background: Energy and time constraints experienced by dispersing animals often limit individual dispersal and subsequent habitat selection decisions. When substantial variation in individual dispersal capability is present, these constraints may have significant impacts on populations where condition-dependent evaluation of habitat sites interacts with statedependent habitat selection. Latty and Reid (2010) hypothesize that the internal state of the dispersers and characteristics of their habitat mediate habitat selection ('condition matching'). Hypothesis: Individual beetles in better energetic condition are more likely to attack betterdefended trees (i.e. riskier habitat). Organism: Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). Field sites: Two field sites were used, and work at both sites coincided with the start of the beetles' emergence and flight period. Beetles used for lipid extraction analysis were collected near Merritt, BC, Canada in 2006, and host tree acceptance experiments were performed in 2010 near Field, BC, Canada. Methods: We sampled a population of beetles to characterize the relationship between beetle size and lipid content, then examined the variation in individual somatic energy condition and date of emergence. We separately tested the effect of somatic energetic condition on habitat (host) selection decisions by experimentally manipulating beetles' somatic energy reserves, placing them on host trees of different nutritional qualities, and measuring the latency in beetles' host tree acceptance. Results: Most beetles emerged early. Their somatic energy condition is higher at the start of the emergence period than near the end, although there is substantial individual variation in both timing and condition upon beetle emergence. Beetles' host selection decisions are influenced by both host tree nutritional quality and individuals' lipid reserves. Trees of good nutritional quality are accepted sooner than ones of poor nutritional quality. Individuals with lower energy reserves are less selective, accepting host trees of poorer quality sooner than beetles with higher energy reserves. © 2014 Alex M. Chuubaty.

Guyard H.,Institute des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski | Guyard H.,General Electric | Guyard H.,University Paris - Sud | Francus P.,General Electric | And 5 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

The Pingualuit Crater (Ungava Peninsula, Canada) hosts a freshwater basin in which a subglacial lake subsisted under the Laurentide Ice Sheet during the last glacial period. Microfacies and microstructures of a 9 m long sediment core are presented to discuss the depositional environment of deformed glacigenic and postglacial sequences deposited in the deep basin of the lake. Five distinct lithofacies are characterized. The range of glacial microstructures observed in the lower facies (Facies IV) reveals that high stress level occurred outside the crater during the formation of this diamicton released by the ablation of debris-rich basal glacier ice in an ice contact subglacial-proglacial lacustrine environment. The overlying subaqueous and glacigenic sediment gravity flow (Facies IIIb) is associated with a temporary absence of ice cover over the coring site, and likely results from the efflux plume and the associated suspension sedimentation produced during the retreat of the ice margin. Then, the finely laminated (<1-2 mm) and normally graded meltout silts (Facies IIIa) containing dropstones and load cast features suggest underflows in an unstable ice marginal lacustrine environment hydrologically separated from the retreating glacier but containing floating glacial ice blocks. Microstructures within occasional diamictic layers indicate sudden meltout deposits from these drifting ice blocks. The above finer-grained sediments (Facies Ib) lack typical glacial microstructures, marking the onset of postglacial organic sedimentation. These postglacial sediments are affected by post-depositional deformations due to an overlying rotational slide (Facies II) that may have perturbed the associated environmental record. © 2014, National Research Council of Canada. All rights reserved.

Cressman S.,British Columbia Cancer Agency | Lam S.,British Columbia Cancer Agency | Tammemagi M.C.,Brock University | Evans W.K.,Juravinski Cancer Center | And 39 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: It is estimated that millions of North Americans would qualify for lung cancer screening and that billions of dollars of national health expenditures would be required to support population-based computed tomography lung cancer screening programs. The decision to implement such programs should be informed by data on resource utilization and costs. Methods: Resource utilization data were collected prospectively from 2059 participants in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Participants who had 2% or greater lung cancer risk over 3 years using a risk prediction tool were recruited from seven major cities across Canada. A cost analysis was conducted from the Canadian public payer's perspective for resources that were used for the screening and treatment of lung cancer in the initial years of the study. Results: The average per-person cost for screening individuals with LDCT was $453 (95% confidence interval [CI], $400-$505) for the initial 18-months of screening following a baseline scan. The screening costs were highly dependent on the detected lung nodule size, presence of cancer, screening intervention, and the screening center. The mean per-person cost of treating lung cancer with curative surgery was $33,344 (95% CI, $31,553-$34,935) over 2 years. This was lower than the cost of treating advanced-stage lung cancer with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or supportive care alone, ($47,792; 95% CI, $43,254-$52,200; p = 0.061). Conclusion: In the Pan-Canadian study, the average cost to screen individuals with a high risk for developing lung cancer using LDCT and the average initial cost of curative intent treatment were lower than the average per-person cost of treating advanced stage lung cancer which infrequently results in a cure. Copyright © 2014 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.

O'Connor C.M.,McMaster University | Marsh-Rollo S.E.,McMaster University | Aubin-Horth N.,University Laval | Balshine S.,McMaster University
Hormones and Behavior | Year: 2016

Comparative studies have revealed that vasopressin-oxytocin pathways are associated with both pair bonding and grouping behavior. However, the relationship between pair bonding and grouping behavior remains unclear. In this study, our aim was to identify whether two species that differ in grouping behavior display a corresponding difference in their pair bonds, and in the underlying vasopressin-oxytocin hormonal pathways. Using two species of cichlid fishes, the highly social Neolamprologus pulcher and the non-social Telmatochromis temporalis, we measured proximity of pairs during pair bond formation, and then measured social behaviors (proximity, aggression, submission, affiliation) and brain gene expression of isotocin and arginine vasotocin (the teleost homologues of oxytocin and vasopressin, respectively), as well as their receptors, after a temporary separation and subsequent reunion of the bonded pairs. Pairs of the social species spent more time in close proximity relative to the non-social species. Rates of aggression increased in both species following the separation and reunion treatment, relative to controls that were not separated. Overall, whole brain expression of isotocin was higher in the social species relative to the non-social species, and correlated with proximity, submission, and affiliation, but only in the social species. Our results suggest that both a social and a non-social cichlid species have similar behavioral responses to a temporary separation from a mate, and we found no difference in the brain gene expression of measured hormones and receptors based on our separation-reunion treatment. However, our results highlight the importance of isotocin in mediating submissive and affiliative behaviors in cichlid fishes, and demonstrate that isotocin has species-specific correlations with socially relevant behaviors. © 2015.

Huynh T.N.,Dublin City University | Duill S.P.O.,Dublin City University | Nguyen L.,University of Nebraska at Omaha | Rusch L.A.,University Laval | Barry L.P.,Dublin City University
Applied Optics | Year: 2014

We employ simple analytical models to construct the entire frequency-modulation (FM)-noise spectrum of tunable semiconductor lasers. Many contributions to the laser FM noise can be clearly identified from the FM-noise spectrum, such as standard Weiner FM noise incorporating laser relaxation oscillation, excess FM noise due to thermal fluctuations, and carrier-induced refractive index fluctuations from stochastic carrier generation in the passive tuning sections. The contribution of the latter effect is identified by noting a correlation between part of the FM-noise spectrum with the FM-modulation response of the passive sections. We pay particular attention to the case of widely tunable lasers with three independent tuning sections, mainly the sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflector laser, and compare with that of a distributed feedback laser. The theoretical model is confirmed with experimental measurements, with the calculations of the important phase-error variance demonstrating excellent agreement. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Arentson-Lantz E.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Clairmont S.,Clairmont Digestive Clinic | Paddon-Jones D.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Tremblay A.,University Laval | And 2 more authors.
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Protein is an essential component of a healthy diet and is a focus of research programs seeking to optimize health at all stages of life. The focus on protein as a nutrient often centers on its thermogenic and satiating effect, and when included as part of a healthy diet, its potential to preserve lean body mass. A growing body of literature, including stable isotope based studies and longer term dietary interventions, suggests that current dietary protein recommendations may not be sufficient to promote optimal muscle health in all populations. A protein intake moderately higher than current recommendations has been widely endorsed by many experts and working groups and may provide health benefits for aging populations. Further, consuming moderate amounts of high-quality protein at each meal may optimally stimulate 24-h muscle protein synthesis and may provide a dietary platform that favors the maintenance of muscle mass and function while promoting successful weight management in overweight and obese individuals. Dietary protein has the potential to serve as a key nutrient for many health outcomes and benefits might be increased when combined with adequate physical activity. Future studies should focus on confirming these health benefits from dietary protein with long-term randomized controlled studies. © 2015, National Research Council of Canada. All rights Reserved.

Kolaei A.,Concordia University at Montreal | Rakheja S.,Concordia University at Montreal | Richard M.J.,University Laval
European Journal of Mechanics, B/Fluids | Year: 2015

Three-dimensional liquid slosh in a horizontal cylindrical tank is analyzed assuming inviscid, incompressible and irrotational flows under simultaneous application of longitudinal and lateral accelerations, idealizing a braking-in-a-turn maneuver in a road tanker. The spectral problem of liquid slosh within the partially-filled tank of arbitrary cross-section and finite length is initially formulated using the higher order boundary element method (BEM). The three-dimensional Laplace equation is subsequently reduced to a two-dimensional Helmholtz equation using the separation of variables, which significantly reduces the computing demand. The computing time is further reduced by reducing the generalized eigenvalue problem to a standard one considering only the velocity potential on the half free-surface length. The resulting natural slosh frequencies and modes are implemented in a linear multimodal method to obtain generalized coordinates of the free-surface in a partly-filled circular cross-section tank. The slosh forces and moments are subsequently formulated in terms of generalized coordinates and hydrodynamic coefficients considering the damping due to liquid viscosity in the boundary layer. It is shown that the proposed BEM integrating the multimodal method yields computationally efficient solution of the three-dimensional liquid slosh within moving horizontal tanks. The validity of the model is demonstrated using reported analytical and experimental results. The range of applicability of the linear theory for predicting three-dimensional transient slosh is further discussed through comparisons with nonlinear simulation results obtained from a commercial CFD code. The results suggest that the linear theory can predict the slosh forces and moments with reasonably good accuracy when the steady-magnitudes of the lateral and longitudinal accelerations are less than 0.3 g and 0.2 g, respectively, for a tank with aspect ratio in the order of 2.4. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Magnan R.,Hydro - Quebec | Cupillard S.,Hydro - Quebec | Gauthier G.,Hydro - Quebec | Giroux A.M.,Hydro - Quebec | And 2 more authors.
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science | Year: 2013

Despite the great progress made over the last 20 years, making reliable predictions with CFD is still a challenge. In fact the hydraulic machinery community rarely relies entirely on numerical simulations to provide final designs. The core of the problem lies with the estimation of the solution accuracy. Grid convergence studies are a useful way to check for grid independence and can provide some insight into the actual solution accuracy. However, conducting such studies for complex, detached flows involves many challenges among which: creating progressively refined grids and comparing with measurement results. This paper investigates this problem through the practical example of the BulbT experimental setup for which multiple CFD runs were conducted. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Montemayor M.B.,University of Waterloo | Price J.,University of Waterloo | Rochefort L.,University Laval
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2015

A partially peat-extracted coastal bog contaminated by seawater was barren and required revegetation as a wetland. Peat fields were rectangular in shape, cambered in cross-section profile, and separated by drainage ditches. Common to all peat fields were symmetrical patterns in micro-topography with slopes between differences in elevation. Saline non-waterlogged slopes of ~5% occurred as a symmetrical pair on each side of the crest of the cambered profile, at one end of each peat field. Three rows were laid across this slope (Top, Middle, and Bottom rows) and transplanted with naturally-growing plant species with their sand substrate, in three experiments, and grown for a year. In the Spartina pectinata experiment, bare root stem sections were also planted. Another experiment was conducted to determine changes in the characteristics of a volume of sand when incubated in saline peat fields. We found the salinity of peat increased with moisture downslope, and pH decreased with increase in salinity. S. pectinata grew best when planted with its sand substrate compared with bare root stem section, and when planted in Bottom rows. Juncus balticus had excellent growth in all rows. Unexpectedly, Festuca rubra that was inconspicuous beneath the J. balticus canopy in the natural donor site grew densely within the J. balticus sods. Agrostis stolonifera grew well but seemed to show intolerance to the surrounding acidic peat by curling up its stolons. The pH of the incubated sand volume was much higher than the surrounding peat. These studies suggest that recognition of plant niches and pH manipulation are important in the revegetation of disturbed Sphagnum peatlands that are found abundantly in the northern hemisphere. Results are also relevant to the reclamation of other disturbed lands. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Ben Abdelghani F.,Institute Superieur Of La Construction Et Of Lurbanisme | Aubertin M.,Environment Canada | Simon R.,Environment Canada | Therrien R.,University Laval
International Journal of Mining Science and Technology | Year: 2015

A numerical tool, called Hydro-Geosphere, was used to simulate unsaturated water flow and contaminants migration around an open pit filled with mining wastes. Numerical simulations had been carried out to assess the influence of various factors on water flow and solute transport in and around the surface openings including recharge, properties of the waste material and presence of fractures in the surrounding rock mass. The effect of the regional hydraulic gradient was also investigated. The analyses were conducted by simulating various 2D cases using experimentally obtained material properties and controlled boundary conditions. The effects of the hydrogeological properties of the filling material (i.e., water retention curve and hydraulic conductivity function), fracture network characteristics and conductivity of the joints were assessed. The results illustrate that fractures control water flow and contaminants transport around the waste disposal area. A fracture network can desaturate the system and improve the regional gradient effect. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of China University of Mining and Technology.

Beaudreau B.C.,University Laval | Lightfoot H.D.,Quebecs Global Environmental and Climate Change Center 3
Energy | Year: 2015

For over three decades, worldwide R&D expenditure has risen steadily, reaching $1.3 trillion in 2011. Underlying this unprecedented growth is a deeply-held belief that R&D is a prime mover of economic growth. Ironically, despite three decades of massive R&D expenditure, growth levels have remained substantially lower than that of the immediate post World War II period. This raises important theoretical questions regarding R&D and its impact on growth per se. For example, R&D-growth has been modeled and continues to be modeled as an unbounded set. This has not been inconsequential because it has introduced an upward bias in growth projections as evidenced in the literature. More importantly, are there physically-determined upper limits to R&D-based growth and, if so, what are they? This paper uses the physical sciences to map the physical limits to R&D-based innovation. A consilient model of economic growth is presented and upper bounds for energy efficiency-based growth rates are provided, both for individual energy sectors and globally. We find that with economic growth by innovation limited by physical conditions, increasing the rate of economic growth can only come through increasing the rate of energy consumption. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Lu H.,Nankai University | Zou W.,Nankai University | Chai P.,Nankai University | Wang J.,Nankai University | Bazinet L.,University Laval
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2016

Antibiotic wastewater is difficult to treat because of the toxic antibiotic residues and its high salinity. The ability of electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF) process for penicillin G- and SO4 2- ions separating from wastewater was evaluated to provide a technology for facilitating treatment of antibiotic wastewater and recovering antibiotic synchronously. A synthetic wastewater containing bovine serum albumin (BSA), SO4 2- and penicillin G- ions was used as feed water of the EDUF system. The influence of applied current on performances of the EDUF process was investigated. Results indicated that BSA was effectively rejected by the ultrafiltration membrane (UFM) and remained in feed solution. Approximately 90% of SO4 2- ions in feed and antibiotic solutions were removed and concentrated in salt solution. 20.3% of penicillin G- in the synthetic wastewater transported from feed to antibiotic compartments and were recovered under a constant current of 0.4 A. UFM and ion exchange membranes retained their integrity and no significant fouling was detected during the EDUF operation. The process cost is estimated to be 10.7 $ for recovering 1 kg with the laboratory-scale equipment. For an enterprise with a production capacity of 1000 ton y-1, the EDUF process may be able to annually recover 203 tons of penicillin G from antibiotic wastewater, and save 203,000 m3 freshwater as well as reduce wastewater discharge amounts of 203,000 m3, generating annual profits of 6.85 million $. Thus, EDUF appears to be a competitive and clean technology to separate antibiotic and sulfate ions from wastewaters. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jit M.,Public Health England | Jit M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Brisson M.,Imperial College London | Brisson M.,University Laval | Choi Y.H.,Public Health England
BMJ (Online) | Year: 2015

Objective: To investigate the incremental cost effectiveness of two dose human papillomavirus vaccination and of additionally giving a third dose. Design: Cost effectiveness study based on a transmission dynamic model of human papillomavirus vaccination. Two dose schedules for bivalent or quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccines were assumed to provide 10, 20, or 30 years' vaccine type protection and cross protection or lifelong vaccine type protection without cross protection. Three dose schedules were assumed to give lifelong vaccine type and cross protection. Setting: United Kingdom. Population: Males and females aged 12-74 years. Interventions: No, two, or three doses of human papillomavirus vaccine given routinely to 12 year old girls, with an initial catch-up campaign to 18 years. Main outcome measure: Costs (from the healthcare provider's perspective), health related utilities, and incremental cost effectiveness ratios. Results: Giving at least two doses of vaccine seems to be highly cost effective across the entire range of scenarios considered at the quadrivalent vaccine list price of £86.50 (€109.23; $136.00) per dose. If two doses give only 10 years' protection but adding a third dose extends this to lifetime protection, then the third dose also seems to be cost effective at £86.50 per dose (median incremental cost effectiveness ratio £17 000, interquartile range £11 700-£25 800). If two doses protect for more than 20 years, then the third dose will have to be priced substantially lower (median threshold price £31, interquartile range £28-£35) to be cost effective. Results are similar for a bivalent vaccine priced at £80.50 per dose and when the same scenarios are explored by parameterising a Canadian model (HPV-ADVISE) with economic data from the United Kingdom. Conclusions: Two dose human papillomavirus vaccine schedules are likely to be the most cost effective option provided protection lasts for at least 20 years. As the precise duration of two dose schedules may not be known for decades, cohorts given two doses should be closely monitored. © 2014, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

Methot P.-O.,University Laval | Methot P.-O.,Center Interuniversitaire Of Recherche Sur La Science Et La Technology | Alizon S.,IRD Montpellier
Virulence | Year: 2014

Until quite recently and since the late 19th century, medical microbiology has been based on the assumption that some micro-organisms are pathogens and others are not. This binary view is now strongly criticized and is even becoming untenable. We first provide a historical overview of the changing nature of host-parasite interactions, in which we argue that large-scale sequencing not only shows that identifying the roots of pathogenesis is much more complicated than previously thought, but also forces us to reconsider what a pathogen is. To address the challenge of defining a pathogen in post-genomic science, we present and discuss recent results that embrace the microbial genetic diversity (both within-and between-host) and underline the relevance of microbial ecology and evolution. By analyzing and extending earlier work on the concept of pathogen, we propose pathogenicity (or virulence) should be viewed as a dynamical feature of an interaction between a host and microbes. © Pierre-Olivier Méthot and Samuel Alizon.

Keivanpour S.,University Laval | Haleh H.,Islamic Azad University | Ganjavi H.S.,University of Tehran
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE) | Year: 2014

Applying a MCDM model has many benefits for decision makers in the course of oil field master development plans preparation and evaluation. In this study, a multi-criteria decision making model is proposed in order to achieve an optimum production profile. The most important criteria and parameters for selection of best production profile are identified. These parameters are derived by several interviews with Iranian oil Industry's experts. The candidate alternatives for production profile are ranked using a combination of group decision making approach and social choice theory. The degree of group consensus is evaluated by using a statistic model to confirm the validity of decision making model. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.

Pinto C.F.,Universidade Sao Francisco | Berger S.B.,University of Northern Parana | Cavalli V.,Sao Lcopoldo Mandic Institute and Research Center | Da Cruz S.E.B.,Foplac Faciplac | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Dentistry | Year: 2015

Purpose: To evaluate the in situ effect of fluoride and MDPB-containing adhesives on antibacterial activity around restorations in conditions of high caries risk. Methods: Bovine enamel and dentin blocks were restored with a fluoride-containing (One-up Bond F Plus - OP) or a MDPB and fluoride-containing adhesive (Clearfil Protect Bond - PB). Volunteers (n=17) wore an intra-oral appliance containing three enamel and three dentin blocks, aligned side-by-side and restored with OP or PB and one enamel and dentin block (controls). The cariogenic challenge was earned out in two phases of 14 days each. The counts of total streptococci (TM), mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) were analyzed in the biofilm formed. Cross-sectional microhardness (CSM) and polarized light microscopy (PLM) evaluated caries lesions around the restorations and the demineralization extension. Data obtained by CSM testing was analyzed by Split-Split Plot ANOVA (P< 0.05). PLM and microbiota results were analyzed by Wilcoxon test (P< 0.05). Results: TM and MS counts were highest for the OP enamel restorations, and these presented higher lesion depths than PB in both the enamel and dentin. The CSM in dentin was the lowest at 60 urn from the restoration wall. None of the adhesives prevented demineralization and bacteria growth, but PB reduced the amount of oral pathogens in enamel and demineralization around restorations in enamel and dentin.

Verloo H.,University of Lausanne | Goulet C.,University of Montreal | Morin D.,University of Lausanne | Morin D.,University Laval | von Gunten A.,University of Lausanne
Clinical Interventions in Aging | Year: 2016

Background: Delirium and frailty – both potentially reversible geriatric syndromes – are seldom studied together, although they often occur jointly in older patients discharged from hospitals. This study aimed to explore the relationship between delirium and frailty in older adults discharged from hospitals. Methods: Of the 221 patients aged >65 years, who were invited to participate, only 114 gave their consent to participate in this study. Delirium was assessed using the confusion assessment method, in which patients were classified dichotomously as delirious or nondelirious according to its algorithm. Frailty was assessed using the Edmonton Frailty Scale, which classifies patients dichotomously as frail or nonfrail. In addition to the sociodemographic characteristics, covariates such as scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale, and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics and details regarding polymedication were collected. A multidimensional linear regression model was used for analysis. Results: Almost 20% of participants had delirium (n=22), and 76.3% were classified as frail (n=87); 31.5% of the variance in the delirium score was explained by frailty (R2=0.315). Age; polymedication; scores of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), instrumental activities of daily living, and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics; and frailty increased the predictability of the variance of delirium by 32% to 64% (R2 =0.64). Conclusion: Frailty is strongly related to delirium in older patients after discharge from the hospital. © 2016 Verloo et al.

Bergeron T.S.,Laval University | Roberge S.,University Laval | Carpentier C.,Laval University | Sibai B.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Perinatology | Year: 2016

Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of low-dose aspirin in multiple gestations to prevent preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed through electronic database searches. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of women with multiple gestations assigned to receive aspirin or placebo or no treatment were included. Outcomes included preeclampsia (mild and severe) and SGA neonates. Relative risks (RR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Result Out of 6,853 citations, 6 RCTS, including 898 pregnancies, were included. We observed a significant reduction in the risk of preeclampsia (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48-0.94) and mild preeclampsia (RR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.24-0.82) but not severe preeclampsia (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.61-1.72) with low-dose aspirin. The risk of SGA was not changed (RR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.80-1.47). The reduction of preeclampsia was not different between women randomized before (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.41-1.81) or after 16 weeks' gestation (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43-0.96) (p = 0.50). Conclusion There is low level of evidence supporting the use of low-dose aspirin for the prevention of preeclampsia and SGA neonates in multiple gestations. Copyright © 2016 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Essabir H.,Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology NANOTECH | Boujmal R.,Mohammed V University | Bensalah M.O.,Mohammed V University | Rodrigue D.,University Laval | And 2 more authors.
Mechanics of Materials | Year: 2016

In this work, oil palm fibers (OPF) and clay particles were modified and then incorporated to reinforce high density polyethylene (HDPE). The hybrid composites were prepared and compounded with a compatibilizer by twin-screw extrusion followed by injection molding. The evolution of thermal, mechanical, and dynamic mechanical performances of the hybrid composites as a function of filler content was investigated. The morphological study showed that the alkali treatment of OPF fibers enhanced their surface interaction with the polymer, while the addition of a coupling agent increased the interfacial adhesion between both fillers and the polymer matrix leading to improved filler dispersion/distribution (homogeneity). The tensile properties results showed that the 12.5:12.5 hybrids composite had the best tensile properties with a gain of 49% in Young's modulus and 11% in tensile strength. For the dynamic mechanical characterization, an increase in the complex modulus was observed with filler addition. Finally, the thermal stability of the hybrid composites increased with clay addition which is more thermally stable than OPF. The results obtained confirmed the viability of the combination between fibers and particles, thus opening new perspectives for the use of these natural by-products. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cote L.,University Laval | Bordage G.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Teaching and Learning in Medicine | Year: 2015

Theory: Feedback and debriefing, as portrayed in expertise development and self-assessment, play critical roles in providing residents with useful information to foster their progress. Hypotheses: Prior work has shown that clinical preceptors' use of conceptual frameworks (CFs; ways of thinking based on theories, best practices, or models) while giving feedback to residents was positively associated with a greater diversity of responses. Also, senior preceptors produced more responses, used more CFs, and asked more probing-challenging questions than junior preceptors. The purpose was to confirm the generalization of these initial findings with a broader and better defined sample of preceptors. Method: We conducted a mixed-method study with 20 junior and 20 senior preceptors in a controlled environment to analyze their responses and rationales to residents' educational needs as portrayed in 6 written vignettes. The preceptors were recruited from 3 primary care specialties preceptors (family medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics) of the 3 French-speaking faculties of medicine in Québec, Canada. Results: The preceptors increased the 2012 list of response topics (96 to 126) and doubled the number of distinct CFs (16 to 32). The junior and senior preceptors expressed the same number and diversity of CFs. On average, senior preceptors asked more clarification questions and reflected more than juniors on the learning process that occurs during case discussions. Preceptor specialty and prior training in medical education did not influence the number and diversity of responses and CFs, except that preceptors with prior training generated more responses per vignette and were more reflective. Senior preceptors had a stronger positive relationship between the number of total and distinct CFs and the number of responses than the juniors. Conclusions: Although senior preceptors did not give more responses or use more CFs compared to the prior study, they continue to probe residents more and reflected more. The positive relationship between responses and CFs has important implications for faculty development and calls for more research to better understand the specific contribution of CFs to feedback. Copyright © 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Muller A.,Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans | Sutherland B.J.G.,University of Victoria | Sutherland B.J.G.,University Laval | Koop B.F.,University of Victoria | And 2 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: Sockeye Salmon are an iconic species widely distributed throughout the North Pacific. A devastating pathogen of Sockeye Salmon is infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV, genus Novirhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae). It has been postulated that IHNV is maintained in salmon populations by persisting over the life of its host and/or by residing in natural reservoirs other than its susceptible hosts. Herein we demonstrate the presence of IHNV in the brain of Sockeye Salmon that survived an experimentally-induced outbreak, suggesting the presence of viral persistence in this susceptible species. To understand the viral persistent state in Sockeye Salmon we profiled the transcriptome to evaluate the host response in asymptomatic carriers and to determine what effects (if any) IHNV exposure may have on subsequent virus challenges. Results: A laboratory disease model to simulate a natural IHNV outbreak in Sockeye Salmon resulted in over a third of the population incurring acute IHN disease and mortality during the first four months after initial exposure. Nine months post IHNV exposure, despite the absence of disease and mortality, a small percentage (<4 %) of the surviving population contained IHNV in brain. Transcriptome analysis in brain of asymptomatic virus carriers and survivors without virus exhibited distinct transcriptional profiles in comparison to naïve fish. Characteristic for carriers was the up-regulation of genes involved in antibody production and antigen presentation. In both carriers and survivors a down-regulation of genes related to cholesterol biosynthesis, resembling an antiviral mechanism observed in higher vertebrates was revealed along with differences in nervous system development. Moreover, following challenge with poly(I:C), survivors and carriers displayed an elevated antiviral immune response in comparison to naïve fish. Conclusions: IHN virus persistence was identified in Sockeye Salmon where it elicited a unique brain transcriptome profile suggesting an ongoing adaptive immune response. IHNV carriers remained uncompromised in mounting efficient innate antiviral responses when exposed to a viral mimic. The capacity of IHNV to reside in asymptomatic hosts supports a virus carrier hypothesis and if proven infectious, could have significant epidemiological consequences towards maintaining and spreading IHNV among susceptible host populations. © 2015 Müller et al.

Yun H.,University of British Columbia | Lu Z.,University of British Columbia | Wang Y.,University of British Columbia | Shi W.,University Laval | And 2 more authors.
Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe - Technical Digest | Year: 2015

We demonstrated adiabatic 3-dB couplers on silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides. We obtained average splitting ratios, from 1500 nm to 1600 nm, of 44.5%/55.5% and 50.5%/49.5% for our transverse electric and transverse magnetic couplers, respectively. © 2015 OSA.

Proulx M.,Laval University | Safoine M.,Laval University | Mayrand D.,Laval University | Aubin K.,Laval University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry B | Year: 2016

Inflammation is a normal phase of the wound healing process, which likely occurs following tissue transplantation. For reconstructive surgery purposes, engineered adipose tissues represent promising alternatives to autologous fat grafts. It is therefore important to study the impact of an inflammatory microenvironment on the cellular functions of the different cell types comprised within matrix-rich reconstructed tissues. In this study, human reconstructed adipose tissues (hrATs) featuring a preformed capillary network formed by microvascular endothelial cells (hMVECs) were produced from adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) by the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering. We hypothesized that a prolonged inflammatory context, mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), would impact hrATs' secretory profile and mediate detrimental effects on the microvascular network in vitro. Analysis of conditioned media established tissue responsiveness through the increased secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (up to 23 fold), interleukin-6 (up to 69 fold) and angiopoietin-1 (up to 2.7 fold) after 3 and 6 days of cytokine exposure, along with a significant reduction in adiponectin secretion. Imaging of the preformed capillary network within the hrATs revealed increased disorganization in the presence of TNF/IL-1β, featuring a less extended and less ramified network with apoptotic hMVECs in the remaining capillary structures. These results indicate that a prolonged inflammatory context can be deleterious to the capillary network featured by in vitro engineered tissues. Strategies aiming at preserving the integrity of the vascular network will help develop substitutes that are better suited to face inflammatory conditions upon grafting. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Rocha L.A.,Sao Paulo State University | Rocha L.A.,University of Franca | Freiria J.D.C.,University of Franca | Caiut J.M.A.,Sao Paulo State University | And 6 more authors.
Nanotechnology | Year: 2015

Ordered mesoporous, highly luminescent SiO2 particles have been synthesized by spray pyrolysis from solutions containing tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), Eu(NO3)3.6H2O, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as structure-directing agents. The 1,10-phenantroline (Phen) molecules were coordinated in a post-synthesis step by a simple wet impregnation method. In addition, other matrices were also prepared by the encapsulation of europium complex Eu(fod)3 (where fod = 6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-2,2-dimethyl-3,5-octanedionato) into mesoporous silica, and then the Phen molecules were encapsulated by different impregnation steps, after which the luminescence properties were investigated. The obtained materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Powders with polydisperse spherical grains were obtained, displaying an ordered hexagonal array of mesochannels. Luminescence results revealed that Phen molecules had been successfully coordinated as an additional ligand in the Eu(fod)3 complex into the channels of the mesoporous particles without disrupting the structure. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Cichowolski S.,Institute Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio IAFE | Suad L.A.,CONICET | Pineault S.,University Laval | Noriega-Crespo A.,US Space Telescope Science Institute | And 3 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2015

We present a study of the molecular CO gas and mid/far-infrared radiation arising from the environment surrounding the Wolf-Rayet (WR) star 130. We use the multiwavelength data to analyse the properties of the dense gas and dust, and its possible spatial correlation with that of young stellar objects (YSOs). We use 12CO J=1-0 data from the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory survey as tracer of the molecular gas, and mid/far-infrared data from the recent Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Herschel space surveys to study the dust continuum radiation and to identify a population of associated candidate YSOs. The spatial distribution of the molecular gas shows a ring-like structure very similar to that observed in the HI gas, and over the same velocity interval. The relative spatial distribution of the HI and CO components is consistent with a photodissociation region. We have identified and characterized four main and distinct molecular clouds that create this structure. Cold dust is coincident with the dense gas shown in the CO measurements. We have found several young stellar object candidates that lie along the regions with the highest gas column density, and suggest that they are spatially correlated with the shell. These are indicative of regions of star formation induced by the strong wind and ionization of the WR star. © 2015 The Authors.

Ginouse N.,King Shotcrete Solutions | Jolin M.,University Laval
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology | Year: 2016

Sprayed concrete is a well established application method for concrete repairs and ground supports; its popularity ever increasing in the past decades. In this field, the development of new fundamental and practical knowledge relies heavily on understanding the placement process, which controls the amount of rebound loss and consequently the in-place material composition and properties. In this context, an important experimental study investigating placement mechanisms at the process scale (spray scale) was undertaken and key findings are presented here. Indeed, the spatial distribution of the in-place sprayed material, around the spray axis, offers a unique view of the placement mechanisms; the effect of the spraying process is highlighted through the evaluation of the in-place material composition and distribution. In light of this study, a new approach is provided to initiate a thorough discussion on how shotcreting parameters and equipment can affect rebound losses and the quality of the in-place material. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Mann S.,Cornell University | Yepes F.,Cornell University | Duplessis M.,University Laval | Wakshlag J.J.,Cornell University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

Overfeeding energy in the dry period can affect glucose metabolism and the energy balance of transition dairy cows with potential detrimental effects on the ability to successfully adapt to early lactation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on glucose tolerance and on resting concentrations of blood glucose, glucagon, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the peripartum period. Cows entering second or greater lactation were enrolled at dry-off (57. d before expected parturition) into 1 of 3 treatment groups following a randomized block design: cows that received a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated to meet but not exceed energy requirements during the dry period (n = 28, controlled energy); cows that received a TMR supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements during the dry period (n = 28, high energy); and cows that were fed the same diet as the controlled energy group for the first 28. d, after which the TMR was formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements until calving (n = 28, intermediate energy). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) with rapid administration of 0.25. g of glucose/kg of body weight were performed 28 and 10. d before expected parturition, as well as at 4 and 21. d after calving. Area under the curve for insulin and glucose, maximal concentration and time to half-maximal concentration of insulin and glucose, and clearance rates were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) indices were calculated from baseline samples obtained during IVGTT and Spearman rank correlations determined between IVGTT parameters and IR indices. Treatment did not affect IVGTT parameters at any of the 4 time points. Correlation between IR indices and IVGTT parameters was generally poor. Overfeeding cows energy in excess of predicted requirements by approximately 50% during the entire dry period resulted in decreased postpartum basal plasma glucose and insulin, as well as increased glucagon, BHB, and NEFA concentrations after calving compared with cows fed a controlled energy diet during the dry period. In conclusion, overfeeding energy during the entire dry period or close-up period alone did not affect glucose tolerance as assessed by IVGTT but energy uptake during the dry period was associated with changes in peripartal resting concentrations of glucose, as well as postpartum insulin, glucagon, NEFA, and BHB concentrations. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association.

Rodriguez-Castellanos W.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Rodrigue D.,Laval University | Martinez-Bustos F.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Jimenez-Arevalo O.,University Aeronautica en Queretaro | Stevanovic T.,University Laval
Polymers from Renewable Resources | Year: 2015

In order to produce gelatin-starch polymer matrix reinforced with cellulose using twin-screw extrusion and compression molding, gelatin-potato starch and gelatin-corn starch formulations were plasticized with glycerol (25% w/w) and reinforced with cellulose (0.34% w/w and 0.68% w/w dry basis) to produce flat sheets. According to the analysis of variance performed, adding TEMPOcellulose in the formulations decreased tensile strain at yield, but increased Young's modulus depending on the type of starch used in the formulation. Scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analyses showed that the formation of a polymer matrix from gelatin/potato starch/TEMPO-cellulose and gelatin/corn starch/TEMPO-cellulose was successfully achieved. ©Smithers Information Ltd, 2015.

Reddy S.G.,Physical Research Laboratory | Chithrabhanu P.,Physical Research Laboratory | Vaity P.,University Laval | Aadhi A.,Physical Research Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Optics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2016

We generate perfect optical vortex (POV) beams, whose intensity distribution is independent of the order, and scatter them through a rough surface. We show that the size of produced speckles is independent of the order of the POV and their Fourier transform gives the random non-diffracting fields. The invariant size of speckles over the free space propagation verifies their non-diffracting or non-diverging nature. The size of speckles can be easily controlled by changing the axicon parameter, used to generate the Bessel-Gauss beams whose Fourier transform provides the POV. These results may be useful in applications of POV for authentication in cryptography. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Lorrain D.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Belleville G.,University Laval | Grenier S.,University of Montreal | Preville M.,Universite de Sherbrooke
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Objective: Sleep complaints are often associated with anxiety and depression, but the specific complaints related to each syndrome are poorly characterized, especially in older adults. The objective was to identify subjective sleep characteristics specific to anxiety and depression in this population. Methods: A random sample of 2393 individuals aged 65 years or older was used. Anxiety and depression were categorized using DSM-V criteria for phobias, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, unspeci fi ed anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, and depressive episode with insuf fi cient symptoms. Subjective sleep characteristics were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Logistic regression models predicting anxiety or depression were used to determine the independent sleep characteristics associated with each syndrome adjusting for age, sex, education level, cognitive functioning, anxiolytic/sedative/hypnotic use, antidepressants use, subjective health, chronic diseases, cardiovascular conditions, and anxiety or depression (as appropriate). Results: Nearly all Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subscales were significantly associated with anxiety, but these subscales shared variance and only sleep duration in hours, sleep disturbance score, and daytime functioning score were independently related to anxiety. Within these significant subscales, the main speci fic sleep complaints associated with anxiety were daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances related to coughing/snoring, feeling cold, and bad dreams. The use of sleeping medication was the only specific sleep characteristic associated with depression. Conclusions: These results suggest that in older adults, symptoms of short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances are independently related to anxiety while the use of sleep medication is independently associated to depression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ghiasi M.M.,Petroleum University of Technology of Iran | Mohammadi A.H.,Institute Of Recherche En Genie Chimique Et Petrolier Irgcp | Mohammadi A.H.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Mohammadi A.H.,University Laval
Separation Science and Technology (Philadelphia) | Year: 2015

In gas sweetening plants, one of the most sensitive operating parameters is amine circulation rate that must be carefully examined to yield the optimum design for each application. In this study, effort has been made to use computational intelligences for accurate estimating the Monoethanolamine (MEA) circulation rate in amine treating unit. In the first method, optimal topology for feed-forward type neural network, particularly multi-layer perceptron (MLP), has been obtained. In the second method, least square version of support vector machine (LSSVM) algorithm has been employed for the application of interest. Results of this communication demonstrate that the presented models are capable of predicting MEA circulation rate precisely. Since there is no need to define the topology of the LSSVM model in advance, application of this type of modeling is more preferable. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Long D.G.,Royal Botanic Garden | Forrest L.L.,Royal Botanic Garden | Villarreal J.C.,University Laval | Crandall-Stotler B.J.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Phytotaxa | Year: 2016

Molecular phylogenetic studies of complex thalloid liverworts have resolved relationships that require taxonomic and nomenclatural changes. Since Bucegia and Preissia are deeply nested within Marchantia, species formerly placed in these genera are transferred to Marchantia as Marchantia romanica, comb. nov. and Marchantia quadrata, respectively, and placed in the new subgenus, Marchantia subg. Preissia, comb. et stat. nov. The families Exormothecaceae and Corsiniaceae are merged under the earlier name Corsiniaceae. The genus Stephensoniella Kashyap becomes a synonym of Exormotheca and its sole species S. brevipedunculata is transferred to Exormotheca, with the new combination Exormotheca brevipedunculata. In the Cleveaceae, the recent recognition of Clevea as distinct from Athalamia, necessitates the new combination Clevea nana to replace the name Clevea hyalina on the basis of nomenclatural priority. © 2016 Magnolia Press.

Dube E.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec Inspq Qc | Dube E.,University Laval | Gagnon D.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec Inspq Qc | Huot C.,Direction de Sante Publique de la Capitale NationaleQC | And 6 more authors.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2014

Despite a publicly funded immunization program and continuous promotional efforts, vaccine uptake for seasonal influenza in Quebec (Canada) remains under its goal of 80%. Missed opportunities can explain the low influenza vaccine rates among chronically ill children. To address that, demonstration projects using the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) were implemented in 3 pediatric tertiary care hospitals to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of implementing influenza immunization of chronically ill children in hospitals' outpatient clinics. A diary was used to document barriers and enabling factors regarding the implementation, and a questionnaire was distributed to healthcare professionals involved in the project in each hospital. Parent's knowledge, attitudes and behaviors (KAB) about influenza immunization and acceptability of immunization in outpatient clinics were also measured with a questionnaire. As part of the project, 2,478 children were immunized. Enabling factors included the financial support received from Quebec ministry of Health, the nasal mode of administration of the LAIV and the presence of a leader specifically dedicated to influenza immunization. Barriers to influenza immunization in outpatient clinics included difficulties of hiring extra staff to work in immunization clinics and additional tasks added to regular activities of the clinics. Results from both questionnaires illustrated a high level of acceptability of seasonal influenza immunization in hospitals' outpatient clinics by parents and healthcare professionals. Influenza immunization in pediatric tertiary care hospital is an effective way to reach chronically ill children and does not involve major feasibility or acceptability issues. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Panovska-Griffiths J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Panovska-Griffiths J.,University College London | Vassall A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Prudden H.J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Discussion: Our analysis suggests that tailoring the design of HIV prevention programmes for FSWs can improve impact, and that a certain level of resources are required to achieve demonstrable impact. These insights are critical for optimising the use of limited resources for preventing HIV.Results: As budget levels increase, the optimal intervention strategy is to first increase intervention intensity which achieves little impact, then scale-up coverage to high levels for large increases in impact, and lastly increase intensity further for small additional gains. The cost-effectiveness of these optimal strategies generally improves with increasing resources, while straying from these strategies can triple costs for the same impact. Projections suggest Avahan was close to being optimal, and moderate budget reductions (≥20%) would have reduced impact considerably (>40%).Methods: Behavioural data were used to determine how condom use varied for FSWs with different levels of intervention intensity. Cost data from 64 Avahan districts quantified how district-level costs related to intervention scale and intensity. A deterministic model for HIV transmission amongst FSWs and clients projected the impact and cost of intervention strategies for different scale and intensity, and identified the optimal strategies that maximise impact for different budget levels.Background: The Avahan programme has provided HIV prevention activities, including condom promotion, to female sex workers (FSWs) in southern India since 2004. Evidence suggests Avahan averted 202,000 HIV infections over 4 years. For replicating this intervention elsewhere, it is essential to understand how the intervention's impact could have been optimised for different budget levels. © 2014 Panovska-Griffiths et al.

Huq T.,University of Quebec | Vu K.D.,University of Quebec | Riedl B.,University Laval | Bouchard J.,Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada | Lacroix M.,University of Quebec
Food Microbiology | Year: 2015

Oregano essential oil (. Origanum compactum; 250μg/ml. ), cinnamon essential oil (. Cinnamomum cassia; 250μg/ml) and nisin (16μg/ml) were used alone or in combination to evaluate their efficiency to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on RTE ham. Microencapsulation of the antimicrobial formulations was done to verify the potential effect of the polymer to protect the antimicrobial efficiency during storage. Combined treatments of antimicrobial formulation with γ-irradiation were done to verify the synergistic effect against L.monocytogenes. Microencapsulation of essential oils-nisin and γ-irradiation treatment in combination showed synergistic antimicrobial effect during storage on RTE meat products. Microencapsulated cinnamon and nisin in combination with γ-irradiation (at 1.5kGy) showed 0.03ln CFU/g/day growth rate of L.monocytogenes whereas the growth rate of non-microencapsulated cinnamon and nisin in combination with γ-irradiation was 0.17ln CFU/g/day. Microencapsulation significantly (. P≤0.05) improved the radiosensitivity of L.monocytogenes. Microencapsulated oregano and cinnamon essential oil in combination with nisin showed the highest bacterial radiosensitization 2.89 and 5, respectively, compared to the control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Poulin-Girard A.-S.,Center dOptique | Gingras F.,University Laval | Zambon V.,Center dOptique | Theriault G.,Center dOptique
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

Young people often have biased and pre-conceived ideas about scientists and engineers that can dissuade them from considering a career in optics. This situation is compounded by the fact that existing resources on careers in optics are not suitable since they mostly focus on more general occupations such as a physicist and an electrical engineer. In addition, the linguistic register is not adapted for students, and many of these resources are only available to guidance counselors. To create appropriate resources that will inform high school students on different career opportunities in optics and photonics, we sought the collaboration of our local optics community. We selected seven specific occupations: entrepreneur in optics, university professor, teacher, technician, research and development engineer, sales representative and graduate student in optics. For each career, a list of daily tasks was created from the existing documentation by a guidance counselor and was validated by an expert working in the field of optics. Following a process of validation, we built surveys in which professionals were asked to select the tasks that best represented their occupation. The surveys were also used to gather other information such as level of education and advice for young people wishing to pursue careers in optics. Over 175 professionals answered the surveys. With these results, we created a leaflet and career cards that are available online and depict the activities of people working in optics and photonics. We hope that these resources will help counter the negative bias against scientific careers and inform teenagers and young adults on making career choices that are better suited to their preferences and aspirations. © 2014 SPIE.

Gagnon M.-P.,University of Quebec | Gagnon M.-P.,University Laval | Simonyan D.,University of Quebec | Ghandour E.K.,University of Quebec | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Information Management | Year: 2016

In Canada, the healthcare system remains paper-laden, and EHR adoption by physicians lags behind many other industrial countries. Recent reviews identified individual and organizational factors as having the most important influence on EHR adoption and proposed taking a multidimensional perspective to study these adoption determinants. However, most studies have focused on physician EHR adoption measured at the individual level. Objectives First, we used a multilevel regression model to assess whether organizations' characteristics influenced physician behavioral intention to use EHR. Second, we sought to identify individual and organizational factors that explain physician intention. Methods We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study among physicians in 49 primary healthcare organizations in four regions of the province of Quebec (Canada). We first analyzed relationships between individual and organizational variables and intention. Second, we performed multilevel modeling to explore organizational characteristics' impact on physician intention to use EHR. Results 278 completed questionnaires were returned from the 31 organizations that had at least 5 participants (response rate: 39.8%). Questionnaires showed satisfactory psychometric properties. The multilevel modeling found no significant overall influence of organizational level on physician intention to use EHR. Second, six of the individual level constructs had a positive and strongly significant impact on physician intention. Conclusion In the Quebec context, organization-level seems to have no significant impact on EHR adoption by physicians. Hence, particular strategies are more likely to succeed if they target individual physicians rather than organizations. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Taylor A.M.W.,University of California at Irvine | Taylor A.M.W.,University of California at Los Angeles | Castonguay A.,University of Quebec | Castonguay A.,University Laval | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Chronic pain attenuates midbrain dopamine (DA) transmission, as evidenced by a decrease in opioid-evoked DA release in the ventral striatum, suggesting that the occurrence of chronic pain impairs reward-related behaviors. However, mechanisms by which pain modifies DA transmission remain elusive. Using in vivo microdialysis and microinjection of drugs into the mesolimbic DA system, we demonstrate in mice and rats that microglial activation in the VTA compromises not only opioid-evoked release of DA, but also other DA-stimulating drugs, such as cocaine. Our data show that loss of stimulated extracellularDAis due to impaired chloride homeostasis in midbrain GABAergic interneurons. Treatment with minocycline or interfering with BDNF signaling restored chloride transport within these neurons and recovered DA-dependent reward behavior. Our findings demonstrate that a peripheral nerve injury causes activated microglia within reward circuitry that result in disruption of dopaminergic signaling and reward behavior. These results have broad implications that are not restricted to the problem of pain, but are also relevant to affective disorders associated with disruption of reward circuitry. Because chronic pain causes glial activation in areas of the CNS important for mood and affect, our findings may translate to other disorders, including anxiety and depression, that demonstrate high comorbidity with chronic pain. © 2015 the authors.

Xu H.X.,Jilin University | Azarm A.,University Laval | Azarm A.,University of Arizona | Chin S.-L.,University Laval
Chinese Optics Letters | Year: 2014

We demonstrate the control of neutral fragmentation of methane (CH4) induced by a Ti:sapphire intense laser pulse (800 nm, 40 fs) by using a pump-probe spectroscopy. Enhancement of the fluorescence emission from the neutral radical CH (A2Δ → X2Π) induced by the intense laser field (~1014 W/cm2) is observed when the wavelength of the probe laser pulse is tuned to 400 nm. The phenomena are explained based on excitation enhancement of the super-excited state of the parent molecule resulting in an increase in neutral dissociation of the methane molecules.

Cote P.,University Laval | Dumas G.,University Laval | Moisan E.,Alstom | Boutet-Blais G.,Alstom
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

The main objective of the work presented in this paper is to investigate numerically the flow behavior inside a Francis hydro-turbine during the transient event of load rejection. First, a theoretical description of the flow during the event is presented in order to predict the global flow characteristics to be anticipated since no velocity profiles are available for this transient event. The issue of choosing the proper boundary conditions to obtain the absolute pressure and the correct flow characteristics within the runner when using a typical truncated geometry is then discussed. Finally, by using a hypothesis of «quasi-stationarity» and a validated methodology, global flow characteristics within the turbine are highlighted near the no-load operating condition and the unsteady vortical motions within the runner are assessed.

Boucher D.,University of Quebec at Rimouski | Gagne C.,University Laval | Cote F.,University Laval
Psychology and Health | Year: 2015

Objective: This study evaluates the effectiveness of an intervention mapping developed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. Design: Students (n = 394) from two similar public colleges in the Quebec City area (Canada) were asked to participate. A quasi-experimental design was used with a 14-week pause between the pretest and posttest. The control and experimental groups both received information on Canada’s Food Guide recommendations. The experimental group was submitted to an intervention consisting of six interactive workshops carried out inside the college, and three personal exercises to be completed at home. Main outcome: proportion of respondents consuming at least five servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Secondary outcomes: psychosocial variables assessed (theory of planned behaviour). Results: The data collected from 344 participants by means of a self-administered questionnaire were analysed (167 experimental and 177 control). The posttest revealed a significant increase (15%) in the number of participants in the experimental group achieving the primary outcome (d = .38). The intervention also had a significant effect on the targeted psychosocial variables (η2 = .03 to.06). Regularity of consumption acts as a mediator between intention and behaviour. Conclusion: These results may be used to guide health promoters working with college students. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Nsonzi F.,McGill University | Gomaa A.I.,McGill University | Gomaa A.I.,University Laval | Gomaa A.I.,National Research Center of Egypt | And 2 more authors.
Food Structure | Year: 2015

α-Lactalbumin-oleic acid (α-La-OA) complexes with cytotoxicity against selected tumor cells are potential functional food ingredients. This research employed Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), circular dichroism (CD), and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopic techniques to investigate the protein and lipid structures in such complexes and their cytotoxic function against the L1210 cell line as mediated by the preparation temperature under conditions amenable to commercial production. Food-grade α-La-OA samples were prepared from 3.53mM α-La and 0.354mM OA at pH 6.5 by heating at 25, 50, 60, 70, or 80°C for 20min. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that OA, the cytotoxic component in the α-La-OA samples, was protonated. OA concentration increased with temperature up to a 'saturation limit' of 50:1 lipid:protein molar ratio attained at 60°C, 70°C, 80°C. Cytotoxicity against tumor cells increased with temperature up to 60°C and then declined, such that α-La-OA samples prepared at 70 and 80°C were not cytotoxic. Near-UV CD spectroscopy demonstrated positive correlation in magnitude of unfolding in protein tertiary structure with temperature (r2=0.99), and with OA concentration (r2=0.99) in the 25-60°C range. Distinct transitions of unfolding in tertiary structure below and above 60°C were detected by intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. This research demonstrated that temperature-dependent effects on protein structure affected α-La-OA complex tumor cell cytotoxic function. Minimizing loss in cytotoxic function in α-La-OA complexes prepared above 60°C could generate interest in their potential use in the functional food industry. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Saulnier-Talbot E.,University Laval | Larocque-Tobler I.,L.E.S.S. | Gregory-Eaves I.,McGill University | Pienitz R.,University Laval
Arctic | Year: 2015

Sediment cores from three lakes located in the northernmost region of Ungava, Québec (Canada) were examined to define aquatic community and ecosystem variability during the Late Holocene period. A chironomid-based transfer function was used to reconstruct August air temperature trends, and lacustrine primary production was inferred from sedimentary biogenic silica content and siliceous microfossil abundances. Trends in primary production, sediment organic matter content (estimated through loss on ignition), and chironomid-inferred temperature were compared to explore potential effects of environmental change on biotic assemblage composition at centennial to millennial time scales. Although no direct correlation between chironomid-inferred August air temperature and primary production was observed, we found indications that both chironomid and diatom communities were responding to the same overarching regional climatic and environmental processes. Over the last decade, northern Québec has been undergoing notable, rapid warming that contrasts with the relative inertia of the past few millennia. This study provides a baseline against which recent and future environmental changes in this region can be compared. © 2015 The Arctic Institute of North America.

Lee J.,Sunnybrook Research Institute | Sirois M.-J.,University Laval | Moore L.,University Laval | Perry J.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Age and Ageing | Year: 2015

Background: minor traumatic injuries among independent older people have received little attention to date, but increasingly the impact of such injuries is being recognised. Objectives: we assessed the frequency and predictors of acute health care use, defined as return to the emergency department (ED) or hospitalisation. Study design: national multicentre prospective observational study. Setting: eight Canadian teaching EDs between April 2009 and April 2013. Participants: a total of 1,568 patients aged 65-100 years, independent in basic activities of daily living, discharged from ED following a minor traumatic injury. Methods: trained assessors measured baseline data including demographics, functional status, cognition, comorbidities, frailty and injury severity. We then conducted follow-up telephone interviews at 6 months to assess subsequent acute health care use. We used log-binomial regression analyses to identify predictors of acute health care use, and reported relative risks and 95% CIs. Results: participants' mean age was 77.0, 66.4% female, and their injuries included contusions (43.5%), lacerations (25.1%) and fractures (25.4%). The cumulative rate of acute health care use by 6 months post-injury was 21.5% (95% CI: 19.0-24.3%). The strongest predictors of acute health care use within 6 months were cognitive impairment, RR = 1.6 (95% IC: 1.2-2.1) and the mechanism of injury including pedestrian struck or recreational injuries, RR = 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.2). Conclusions: among independent community living older persons with a minor injury, cognitive impairment and mechanism of injury were independent risk factors for acute healthcare use. Future studies should look at whether tailored discharge planning can reduce the need for acute health care use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved.

Mohanna M.,University Laval | Capus L.,University Laval
Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning 2013, ML 2013 | Year: 2013

This paper presents a mobile learning application for a learning course at higher education level. Based on the RSS feed technology, the presented mobile application establishes an in-time communication channel between the instructor and his/her students to keep them up-to-date with all course important dates, instructions and information in addition to a download center to provide them a permanent and fast access to all course lectures and resources. Security issues are also taken into consideration, only students who are currently enrolled in the learning course are allowed to access the mobile application through a security control which is simple and adequate in the same time. The presented mobile learning application is currently available to be downloaded and installed through Google Play store (formerly called Android Market) on almost all Android devices starting from Android 2.1 and higher. Future work includes further enrichment of the application by adding additional modules and functionalities as well as increasing the application availability by developing other versions for Windows 8 and iOS smartphones and tablets in order reach a wider range of students. © 2013 IADIS.

Fontaine A.,University Laval | Fontaine A.,Agro ParisTech | Devillers R.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Peres-Neto P.R.,University of Quebec | Johnson L.E.,University Laval
Diversity and Distributions | Year: 2015

Aim: Ecological maps are increasingly used to support marine management and conservation. However, the biological datasets used to produce these maps are typically limited to taxonomic groups identified to the specific taxonomic levels available. Ecological units should, however, reflect the broader marine ecosystem, independent of the datasets used. This study assessed the influence of taxonomic groups and taxonomic resolution on the process of ecological mapping. Location: Estuary and Gulf of St Lawrence (EGSL), Canada. Methods: A dataset of more than 200 taxa of benthic macrofauna was used to create a set of biological matrices corresponding to different taxonomic groups (i.e. vertebrates, invertebrates, arthropods, echinoderms, molluscs, all taxa) and different taxonomic levels from species to class. Multivariate regression trees (MRTs) were used to identify environmental drivers of taxa distribution and to create ecological maps. Similarity between maps was assessed using pairwise comparisons. First, the relationships between the two classification legends were assessed using association plots on the partitions in the corresponding trees. Then, the spatial agreement of ecological units believed to represent the same habitat types was quantified and mapped. Results: The comparison across different taxonomic groups showed a substantial level of similarity between ecological maps, indicating that ecological units defined for a specific taxonomic group can be considered to some extent as representative of the entire benthic macrofauna. Moreover, little information was lost when working at the family rather than species level, and common patterns of community distribution could still be distinguished at the class level. Main conclusions: Using a novel spatially explicit approach for comparing ecological maps, this study demonstrates that datasets limited by taxonomic breadth or resolution can perform nearly as well as more extensive datasets. These simplifications should improve our ability to manage marine ecosystems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Arsenault B.J.,University of Quebec | Arsenault B.J.,University Laval | Boyer M.,University of Quebec | Boyer M.,University Laval | Kastelein J.J.P.,Dezima Pharma BV
Current Opinion in Lipidology | Year: 2015

Purpose of review: This article summarizes the latest studies relevant to cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition and cardiovascular risk and proposes a series of patient populations that might eventually derive benefits from CETP inhibition. Recent findings: Results of recently published genetic epidemiology studies have helped shape our understanding of the association between lipoprotein-lipid levels and cardiovascular disease risk. These studies have confirmed the proatherogenic role of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and triglycerides and renewed our interest for lipoprotein(a) as a significant and causal predictor of cardiovascular risk. The association between HDL cholesterol levels and cardiovascular risk, albeit strong and consistent, is unlikely to be of causative nature, at least according to genetic epidemiology. However, a handful of intriguing studies have highlighted a predictive role for HDL cholesterol efflux capacities in predicting cardiovascular risk independently of HDL cholesterol levels. Potent CETP inhibitors, currently under investigation, significantly decrease apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and lipoprotein(a) and increase both HDL cholesterol levels and HDL cholesterol efflux capacities. Summary: Two phase 3 cardiovascular outcomes trials testing the hypothesis that CETP inhibition will reduce cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients are well underway. The future of CETP inhibition will depend on the outcomes of these trials. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Proulx J.-N.,University Laval | Romero M.,University Laval
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

Using digital games in the classroom has been associated with higher levels of motivation among the students of different educational levels. However, the underlying psychological factors involved in the process have been rarely analyzed considering the self-determination theory (SDT) components and their relation to the optimal experience or flow [12]. In this paper, we aim to introduce a theoretical framework where the use of digital games in the classroom is analyzed through the game and learning mechanics of the LG-MG model [5] and the relation of the mechanics with the components of the SDT. The implications for the use of digital games in the classroom in order to promote the students’ motivation is discussed in the last section of the paper. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Romero M.,University Laval | Ouellet H.,University Laval
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2016

Digital game design is a complex activity relying on multiple skills of the 21st century as such creativity, problem solving, collaboration in interdisciplinary teams and computational thinking. The complexity of the knowledge modelling and creation process, game design is a powerful learning activity that could benefit in learning from childhood to older adults. Our experiences take advantage of the digital game design as a complex learning activity and engages learners from different age groups in a joint activity. In this paper, we analyze the scaffolding process of intergenerational game design activities as an instructional learning strategy. We argue that the process could help learners from different ages and backgrounds to collaborate together in doing progressive steps through their game design process. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

Ospina-Borras J.E.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Florez-Ospina J.F.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Benitez-Restrepo H.D.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Benitez-Restrepo H.D.,University Laval | Maldague X.,University Laval
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

Quantitative Pulsed Phase Thermography (PPT) has been only used to estimate defect parameters such as depth and thermal resistance. Here, we propose a thermal quadrupole based method that extends quantitative pulsed phase thermography. This approach estimates thermal diffusivity by solving a inversion problem based on non-linear squares estimation. This approach is tested with pulsed thermography data acquired from a composite sample. We compare our results with another technique established in time domain. The proposed quantitative analysis with PPT provides estimates of thermal diffusivity close to those obtained with the time domain approach. This estimation requires only the a priori knowledge of sample thickness. Copyright © 2015 SPIE.

The ability of commercial feed additives to prevent oxidative damage due to deoxynivalenol (DON) in piglets was studied. Sixty piglets (6.0±0.5 kg) were assigned randomly to six wheat–corn–soybean diets: control (<0.5 mg kg−1 DON), DON-rich diet (4 mg kg−1 DON), and four DON-rich diets supplemented with either glucomannan (DON+GLUC), yeast, live bacteria, enzymes and plant extract (DON+YBP), aluminosilicate (DON+ALS), or a mixture of preservatives (DON+PV). Malondialdehyde concentration (MDA), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), catalase activity (CAT) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in the small intestine were measured after 14 d. The DON-rich diet increased MDA in the jejunum while decreasing CAT in the jejunum and SOD in the ileum and increasing GPx in the ileum (P<0.05). The DON+GLUC diet decreased GPx and SOD (P<0.05) and tended to decrease MDA in the jejunum (P<0.10). The DON+YBP, DON+PV and DON+ALS diets all decreased CAT in the jejunum, while DON+YBP and DON+PV also did so in the ileum (P<0.05). DON+GLUC decreased SOD in the jejunum, while DON+YBP increased it (P<0.05). In the ileum, DON+PV decreased SOD, while DON+ALS increased GPx (P<0.05). No significant differences in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in intestinal tissues were found. This study demonstrates that the mycotoxin DON and anti-mycotoxin additives modify oxidative status, including the antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, SOD or GPx) in the intestinal mucosa of piglets. However, it was not possible to identify a specific antioxidant enzyme involved in counteracting the effect of DON. © 2015, Agricultural Institute of Canada. All Rights Reserved.

Chaudhary J.,University of Missouri | Patil G.B.,University of Missouri | Sonah H.,University of Missouri | Sonah H.,University Laval | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Food resources of the modern world are strained due to the increasing population. There is an urgent need for innovative methods and approaches to augment food production. Legume seeds are major resources of human food and animal feed with their unique nutrient compositions including oil, protein, carbohydrates, and other beneficial nutrients. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) together with “omics” technologies have considerably strengthened soybean research. The availability of well annotated soybean genome sequence along with hundreds of identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with different seed traits can be used for gene discovery and molecular marker development for breeding applications. Despite the remarkable progress in these technologies, the analysis and mining of existing seed genomics data are still challenging due to the complexity of genetic inheritance, metabolic partitioning, and developmental regulations. Integration of “omics tools” is an effective strategy to discover key regulators of various seed traits. In this review, recent advances in “omics” approaches and their use in soybean seed trait investigations are presented along with the available databases and technological platforms and their applicability in the improvement of soybean. This article also highlights the use of modern breeding approaches, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), genomic selection (GS), and marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) for developing superior cultivars. A catalog of available important resources for major seed composition traits, such as seed oil, protein, carbohydrates, and yield traits are provided to improve the knowledge base and future utilization of this information in the soybean crop improvement programs. © 2015 Chaudhary, Patil, Sonah, Deshmukh, Vuong, Valliyodan and Nguyen.

Nemri N.,Tunis el Manar University | Hammami A.,Tunis el Manar University | Ghayoula R.,Tunis el Manar University | Ghayoula R.,University Laval | And 3 more authors.
8th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2014 | Year: 2014

This paper describes a global electromagnetic optimization technique using SQP's method and apply it to guide the radiation pattern of linear antenna array in a certain direction, without any mechanical rotation or movement that is only by controlling the phase parameters of N equally spaced and symmetric elements. This paper investigates how the implementation on STM8 of the signal processing in hardware affects the performance of the adaptive array antenna. © 2014 European Association on Antennas and Propagation.

Nadeau L.,University Laval | Perry J.J.,Ottawa Hospital Research Institute | Perry J.J.,University of Ottawa | Baril P.,CHU de Quebec | Emond M.,University Laval
Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Objectives: Over the last decade, computed tomography scanners have gained resolution and have become the standard of care in the investigation of neurologically intact patients suffering from acute headache. The added value of the combined assessment of red blood cells count, visual and spectrophotometric xanthochromia, to detect ruptured aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (ASAH) following a negative head computed tomography (NHCT) was studied. Methods: The population consisted of all patients who had cerebrospinal fluid tested for spectrophotometric xanthochromia between 2003 and 2009 identified through the clinical-laboratory database and who met all the inclusion criteria: > 14 years old, had an initial Glasgow Coma Score of 15, a non-traumatic acute headache with a suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage recorded in the initial ED differential diagnosis and an initial negative head CT scan. Results: A total of 706 patients were included. LP identified 5 ASAH (prevalence: 0.7%). In these patients, LP parameters were as follows: high red blood cell count (from 1310 to 63,000×106/L), positive visual xanthochromia in 4 out of 5 ASAH, and positive spectrophotometric xanthochromia in 5 out of 5 ASAH. All ASAH patients were neurologically intact after intervention. No deaths or missed ASAH were reported. Angiographies were performed on 127 patients (19.5%) of which 47 (34.1%) had positive xanthochromia (visual or spectrophotometric). Conclusions: Considering the low prevalence of ASAH following an NHCT, intense resources were utilized to identify all 5 ASAH. Lumbar puncture analyses combining red blood cell count, visual and spectrophotometric xanthochromia identified all ASAH, allowing intervention and a positive clinical outcome. Our data support 1) that LP identifies the presence of a ruptured ASAH after an NHCT and 2) that a guide to define a subpopulation of patients who would benefit from a lumbar puncture after an NHCT would be desirable. © 2015.

This study was designed to determine the effect of feeding deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminated wheat to growing pigs on growth performance, digestibility and retention of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca). Secondly, we wished to evaluate the potential of four commercial anti-mycotoxin additives in preventing the adverse effects of DON. Sixty piglets (6.0 kg body weight) were assigned to six different corn-soybean meal-wheat diets (control diet: <0.5 mg kg-1 DON; contaminated diet (DON-contaminated): 4 mg kg-1; and four contaminated diets supplemented with a different anti-mycotoxin additive: DON+GLUC (glucomannan), DON+YBP (yeast, live bacteria, enzymes, plant extracts), DON+ALU (aluminosilicate) and DON+PC (preservation components). Piglets were housed individually in pens for 7 d and then transferred to metabolic crates for urine and feces collection for 7 d. At the end of these 2 wk, mannitol and lactulose doses were given by oral administration. Urine was collected for 24 h for an evaluation of barrier integrity of intestinal mucosa. The piglets were then euthanatized and intestinal samples collected for morphology studies. Feeding DON-contaminated wheat reduced average daily feed intake, average daily gain and G:F ratio compared with the control diet (PB0.05). Only DON+PC diet restored the growth performance of piglets fed DON-contaminated diet. Daily retention of N and P was not affected by DON contamination or anti-mycotoxin additives, but retention of Ca was higher in piglets fed the DON-contaminated diets than the control diet. DON-contaminated diet reduced digestibility of dry matter, gross energy and fat, villi height in jejunum, and recovery of mannitol and lactulose compared with the control diet (P<0.05). Finally, DON concentrations in serum from piglets fed the DON-contaminated diets were higher than in the control diet (P<0.05). Piglets fed DON-contaminated wheat had reduced growth possibly caused by impaired jejunal morphology and decreased digestibility of energy and fat.

Lepine A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Chandrashekar S.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Chandrashekar S.,St Johns Research Institute | Shetty G.,Karnataka Health Promotion Trust | And 5 more authors.
Health Economics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2016

Expanding essential health services through non-government organisations (NGOs) is a central strategy for achieving universal health coverage in many low-income and middle-income countries. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention services for key populations are commonly delivered through NGOs and have been demonstrated to be cost-effective and of substantial global public health importance. However, funding for HIV prevention remains scarce, and there are growing calls internationally to improve the efficiency of HIV prevention programmes as a key strategy to reach global HIV targets. To date, there is limited evidence on the determinants of costs of HIV prevention delivered through NGOs; and thus, policymakers have little guidance in how best to design programmes that are both effective and efficient. We collected economic costs from the Indian Avahan initiative, the largest HIV prevention project conducted globally, during the first 4 years of its implementation. We use a fixed-effect panel estimator and a random-intercept model to investigate the determinants of average cost. We find that programme design choices such as NGO scale, the extent of community involvement, the way in which support is offered to NGOs and how clinical services are organised substantially impact average cost in a grant-based payment setting. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Sun Z.,Fudan University | Sun Z.,University Laval | Yue Q.,Fudan University | Liu Y.,Fudan University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2014

Core-shell structured porous materials combining the functionalities of the core and shell have great application potential in various fields. Here, we report the synthesis of superparamagnetic core-shell structured microspheres which possess a core of nonporous silica-protected magnetite particle and an outer shell of ordered mesoporous silica with large pores. The synthesis adopts a co-surfactant templating approach under acidic conditions, with triblock-copolymer Pluronic P123 as a primary surfactant and a trace amount of cationic surfactant CTAB as an assistant template. The obtained magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres have uniform large pore size (4.5 nm), tuneable shell thickness (15-50 nm), high specific surface area (190-250 m2 g-1), large pore volume (0.17-0.38 cm3 g-1) and high magnetization (29.3 emu g-1). By using the obtained microspheres as an advanced magnetic absorbent, a fast, convenient, and efficient removal of large-size toxic microcystins in water solution was achieved in 60 seconds. The superparamagnetic properties and unique nanostructure enable the core-shell microspheres to be not only a novel absorbent for large size molecules, but also an ideal carrier for nanocatalysts like noble metallic nanoparticles and tools for peptide purification. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Arjoon D.,University Laval | Mohamed Y.,UNESCO IHE | Goor Q.,SHER Ingenieurs Conseils s.a. | Tilmant A.,University Laval
Water Resources and Economics | Year: 2014

In 2011, the Ethiopian government announced plans for the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile, east of its border with Sudan, at a cost of almost 5 billion USD. The project is expected to generate over 5TWh of electricity per year and will include a reservoir of more than 60km3 capacity. This project is part of a larger development scheme, by the Ethiopian government to expand its hydropower capacity; however, the scheme faces strong concerns, mainly from Egypt who are highly dependent on Nile River flows originating in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian government argues that the dam would supply electricity for Ethiopians and neighbouring countries and would generate positive externalities downstream by reducing floods and providing more constant and predictable flows. This study provides an independent analysis of the hydrologic and economic risks faced by downstream countries when the GERD will be online. To achieve this, an integrated, stochastic hydro-economic model of the entire Eastern Nile River basin is used to analyse various development and management scenarios. Results indicate that if riparian countries agree to cooperative management of the basin, and its major infrastructure, the GERD would significantly increase basin-wide benefits, especially in Ethiopia and in Sudan, and would generate positive externalities in Sudan and Egypt during dry years. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Blamey P.J.,Bionics Institute | Blamey P.J.,University of Melbourne | Maat B.,University of Groningen | Baskent D.,University of Groningen | And 23 more authors.
Ear and Hearing | Year: 2015

To compare speech perception outcomes between bilateral implantation (cochlear implants [CIs]) and bimodal rehabilitation (one CI on one side plus one hearing aid [HA] on the other side) and to explore the clinical factors that may cause asymmetric performances in speech intelligibility between the two ears in case of bilateral implantation. Design: Retrospective data from 2247 patients implanted since 2003 in 15 international centers were collected. Intelligibility scores, measured in quiet and in noise, were converted into percentile ranks to remove differences between centers. The influence of the listening mode among three independent groups, one CI alone (n = 1572), bimodal listening (CI/HA, n = 589), and bilateral CIs (CI/CI, n = 86), was compared in an analysis taking into account the influence of other factors such as duration of profound hearing loss, age, etiology, and duration of CI experience. No within-subject comparison (i.e., monitoring outcome modifications in CI/HA subjects becoming CI/CI) was possible from this dataset. Further analyses were conducted on the CI/CI subgroup to investigate a number of factors, such as implantation side, duration of hearing loss, amount of residual hearing, and use of HAs that may explain asymmetric performances of this subgroup. Results: Intelligibility ranked scores in quiet and in noise were significantly greater with both CI/CI and CI/HA than with a CI-alone group, and improvement with CI/CI (+11% and +16% in quiet and in noise, respectively) was significantly better than with CI/HA (+6% and +9% in quiet and in noise, respectively). From the CI/HA group, only subjects with ranked preoperative aided speech scores >60% performed as well as CI/CI participants. Furthermore, CI/CI subjects displayed significantly lower preoperative aided speech scores on average compared with that displayed by CI/HA subjects. Routine clinical data available from the present database did not explain the asymmetrical results of bilateral implantation. Conclusions: This retrospective study, based on basic speech audiometry (no lateralization cues), indicates that, on average, a second CI is likely to provide slightly better postoperative speech outcome than an additional HA for people with very low preoperative performance. These results may be taken into consideration to refine surgical indications for CIs © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

Ginouse N.,University Laval | Jolin M.,University Laval
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2015

Impact kinetic energy is well known to play a central and key role on rebound and consolidation mechanisms controlling the shotcrete placement process. While the impact velocity of the traveling particles at their exit of the nozzle has received some attention recently, the mass flow distribution of the sprayed material as it impacts the receiving surface remains unexplored despite its obvious importance on rebound. In this context, a novel apparatus that collects the sprayed material traveling out of the nozzle was developed; material spatial distribution and composition are brought forward. The incident mass flow of material was found to be denser in the central region around the spray axis and decrease toward the peripheral regions following a Gaussian-type function. Additionally, a cement-rich layer formed in the spray's peripheral zones is also revealed and its origins are discussed. In light of this work, an innovative and unique analytical characterization tool is proposed to further investigate the spraying process and to improve the understanding of shotcrete, and especially material losses through rebound. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

The aim of this study was to estimate the potential profitability of a combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 given around parturition and in early lactation in commercial dairy herds in Québec. A total of 791 dairy cows from 14 herds were enrolled. Cows were assigned to weekly intramuscular injections of saline or 320 mg of folic acid and 10 mg of vitamin B12. Treatments began 3 wk before the expected calving date and lasted until 8 wk of lactation. Within each herd, data on production, reproduction, and incidence of metabolic disorders and other diseases were recorded. With regard to the Canadian dairy industry, which operates under a supply management system, two scenarios were studied: (1) quota kept constant and (2) number of cows kept constant. For scenarios 1 and 2, eight and seven herds out of 14, respectively, obtained a positive annual net margin per cow following the vitamin supplement. The average net margins were Can$31.18 and Can$−4.86 N cow−1 yr−1 for scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. The variability of the response highlights that supplies of these vitamins by ruminal synthesis were probably different among herds and actual knowledge does not allow predicting supplies according to the diet. © 2014, Agricultural Institute of Canada. All rights reserved.

Rodrigues A.,University Laval | Duchesne J.,Laval University | Fournier B.,Laval University | Durand B.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal | And 2 more authors.
ACI Materials Journal | Year: 2016

Several cases of concrete deterioration involving sulfide-bearing aggregates have been reported over the years. However, no specific guidelines are currently available to enable making a precise decision on the deleterious potential of aggregates containing iron sulfide minerals. The aim of this paper is to provide an innovative assessment protocol to evaluate the potential deleterious effects of iron-sulfide-bearing aggregates prior to their use in concrete. The findings of this paper are based on tests developed within the past few years as part of a major research project. The protocol is divided into three major phases: 1) total sulfur content measurement; 2) oxygen consumption evaluation; and 3) an accelerated mortar bar expansion test. Tentative limits are proposed for each phase of the protocol, which still need to be validated through the testing of a wider range of aggregates. © 2016, American Concrete.

Cellard C.,Laval University | Reeder C.,Kings College London | Paradis-Giroux A.-A.,Laval University | Roy M.-A.,University Laval | And 3 more authors.
Neuropsychological Rehabilitation | Year: 2016

Cognitive remediation therapy is effective for improving cognition, symptoms and social functioning in individuals with schizophrenia; however, the impact on visual episodic memory remains unclear. The objectives of this feasibility study were: (1) to explore whether or not CIRCuiTS - a new computerised cognitive remediation therapy programme developed in England - improves visual episodic memory and other cognitive domains in young adults with early course schizophrenia; and (2) to evaluate acceptability of the CIRCuiTS programme in French-Canadians. Three participants with visual episodic memory impairments at baseline were recruited from clinical settings in Canada, and consented to participate. Neuropsychological, clinical and social functioning was evaluated at baseline and post-treatment. Intervention involved 40 sessions of cognitive remediation. First, the reliable change index (RCI) revealed that each participant demonstrated significant post-therapy change in episodic memory and in other cognitive domains. The response profile was characterised by the use of organisational strategies. Second, the treatment was considered acceptable to participants in terms of session frequency (number of sessions per week), intensity (hours per week; total hours), and number of missed sessions and total completed sessions. This preliminary study yielded encouraging data demonstrating the feasibility of the CIRCuiTS programme in French-Canadian young adults with schizophrenia. © 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.

Tchernof A.,Institute University Of Cardiologie Et Pneumologie Of Quebecqc | Tchernof A.,University Laval | Tchernof A.,Laval University | Mansour M.F.,Institute University Of Cardiologie Et Pneumologie Of Quebecqc | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2015

Over the past decade, adipose tissues have been increasingly known for their endocrine properties, that is, their ability to secrete a number of adipocytokines that may exert local and/or systemic effects. In addition, adipose tissues have long been recognized as significant sites for steroid hormone transformation and action. We hereby provide an updated survey of the many steroid-converting enzymes that may be detected in human adipose tissues, their activities and potential roles. In addition to the now well-established role of aromatase and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1, many enzymes have been reported in adipocyte cell lines, isolated mature cells and/or preadipocytes. These include 11β-HSD type 2, 17β-HSDs, 3β-HSD, 5α-reductases, sulfatases and glucuronosyltransferases. Some of these enzymes are postulated to bear relevance for adipose tissue physiology and perhaps for the pathophysiology of obesity. This elaborate set of steroid-converting enzymes in the cell types of adipose tissue deserves further scientific attention. Our work on 20α-HSD (AKR1C1), 3α-HSD type 3 (AKR1C2) and 17β-HSD type 5 (AKR1C3) allowed us to clarify the relevance of these enzymes for some aspects of adipose tissue function. For example, down-regulation of AKR1C2 expression in preadipocytes seems to potentiate the inhibitory action of dihydrotestosterone on adipogenesis in this model. Many additional studies are warranted to assess the impact of intra-adipose steroid hormone conversions on adipose tissue functions and chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Abbassi L.,McGill University | Malki S.,Carnegie Institution for Science | Cockburn K.,The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute | Macaulay A.,University Laval | And 3 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2016

Reproduction depends on the generation of healthy oocytes. Improving therapeutic strategies to prolong or rescue fertility depends on identifying the inter- and intracellular mechanisms that direct oocyte development under physiological conditions. Growth and proliferation of multiple cell types is regulated by the Hippo signaling pathway, whose chief effectors are thetranscriptional co-activator YAP and its paralogue WWTR1. To resolve conflicting results concerning the potential role of Hippoin mammalian oocyte development, we systematically investigated the expression and localization of YAP in mouse oocytes. We report that that YAP is expressed in the germ cells beginning as early as Embryonic Day 15.5 and subsequently throughout pre- and postnatal oocyte development. However, YAP is restricted to the cytoplasm at all stages. YAP is phosphorylated at serine-112 in growing and fully grown oocytes, identifying a likely mechanistic basis for its nuclear exclusion, and becomes dephosphorylated at this site during meiotic maturation. Phosphorylation at serine-112 is regulated by a mechanism dependent on cyclic AMP and protein kinase A, which is known to be active in oocytes prior to maturation. Growing oocytes also contain a subpopulation of YAP, likely dephosphorylated, that is able enter the oocyte nucleus, but it is not retained there, implying that oocytes lack the cofactors required to retain YAP in the nucleus. Thus, although YAP is expressed throughout oocyte development, phosphorylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms cooperate to ensure that it does not accumulate in the nucleus. We conclude that nuclear YAP does not play a significant physiological role during oocyte development in mammals. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

Nassiri M.A.,Center dExpertise Clinique en Radioprotection | Nassiri M.A.,Center Integre University Of Sante Et Of Services Sociaux Of Lestrie | Rouleau M.,Center dExpertise Clinique en Radioprotection | Rouleau M.,Center Integre University Of Sante Et Of Services Sociaux Of Lestrie | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Radiological Protection | Year: 2016

Many studies have shown a statistically significant increase of life-time risk of radiation-induced cancer from CT examinations. In this context, in Canada, the Quebec s provincial clinical center of expertise in radiation safety (CECR) has led a province-wide tour of 180 CT installations in order to: (i) evaluate the technical and functional performance of CT scanners, (ii) evaluate and improve radiation safety practices and (iii) initiate, with local teams, a CT dose optimization process. The CT tour consisted of a two day visit of CT installations by a CECR multidisciplinary team of medical physicists, engineers and medical imaging technologists (MITs) carried out in close collaboration with local teams composed of MITs, radiologists, physicists, engineers and managers. The CECR has evaluated 112 CT scanners since 2011. Optimization of CT protocols was performed in all centers visited. The average dose reduction obtained from optimization was 19%, 24% and 21% for adult head, thorax and abdomen-pelvis, respectively. The main recommendations often made by the CECR experts were: (1) the implementation of low-dose protocols for the follow-up of pulmonary nodules and for renal calculi, (2) the compliance to the prescribed scan range as defined by local guidelines, (3) the correct positioning of patients and (4) the use of bismuth shielding to reduce the dose to radiosensitive organs. The CECR approach to optimize CT doses to patients is based on the active participation of local stakeholders and takes into account the performance of CT scanners. The clinical requirements as expressed by radiologists remain at the core of the optimization process.

Alhajeri H.,McGill University | Hudson M.,McGill University | Fritzler M.,University of Calgary | Pope J.,University of Western Ontario | And 18 more authors.
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2015

Objective The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the new 2013 classification criteria for systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) in an independent cohort of SSc subjects and to assess the contribution of individual items of the criteria to the overall sensitivity. Methods SSc subjects from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group cohort were assessed. Sensitivity was determined in several subgroups of patients. In patients without the criterion of skin thickening proximal to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints, we recalculated sensitivity after removing the individual criterion. Results A total of 724 SSc patients were included. Most were women (86%), mean age was 55.8 years, mean disease duration was 10.9 years, and 59% had limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc). Overall, the sensitivity of the 2013 criteria was 98.3% compared to 88.3% for the 1980 criteria. This pattern was consistent among those with lcSSc (98.8% versus 85.6%), anticentromere antibodies (98.9% versus 79.8%), disease duration ≤3 years (98.7% versus 84.7%), and no skin involvement proximal to the MCP joints (97% versus 60%). In the latter subgroup, removing Raynaud's phenomenon and sclerodactyly from the criteria reduced the sensitivity to 77% and 79%, respectively. Removing both sclerodactyly and puffy fingers reduced the sensitivity to 62%. Conclusion The 2013 SSc classification criteria classify more SSc patients than the 1980 criteria. The improvement in sensitivity is most striking in those with lcSSc, especially those without skin involvement proximal to the MCP joints. The addition of Raynaud's phenomenon and puffy fingers to the 2013 criteria accounts for important gains in sensitivity. © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

Marini P.,British Petroleum | Marini P.,Center Detudes Nucleaires Of Bordeaux Gradignan | Zheng H.,Texas A&M University | Zheng H.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | And 36 more authors.
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2016

We report on first experimental observations of nuclear fermionic and bosonic components displaying different behaviours in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4π detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. By means of quantum-fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and local partial densities of bosons and fermions could be correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed systems of bosons and fermions, where bosons experience higher phase-space and energy density as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall phenomena observed in the study of Bose condensates and Fermi gases in atomic traps despite the different scales. © 2016 The Authors.

Gagnon M.-P.,University of British Columbia | Gagnon M.-P.,Laval University | Attieh R.,University of British Columbia | Ghandour E.K.,University of British Columbia | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: The translation of research into practices has been incomplete. Organizational readiness for change (ORC) is a potential facilitator of effective knowledge translation (KT). However we know little about the best way to assess ORC. Therefore, we sought to systematically review ORC measurement instruments.Methods: We searched for published studies in bibliographic databases (Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Web of Science, etc.) up to November 1st, 2012. We included publications that developed ORC measures and/or empirically assessed ORC using an instrument at the organizational level in the health care context. We excluded articles if they did not refer specifically to ORC, did not concern the health care domain or were limited to individual-level change readiness. We focused on identifying the psychometric properties of instruments that were developed to assess readiness in an organization prior to implementing KT interventions in health care. We used the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing to assess the psychometric properties of identified ORC measurement instruments.Findings: We found 26 eligible instruments described in 39 publications. According to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 18 (69%) of a total of 26 measurement instruments presented both validity and reliability criteria. The Texas Christian University-ORC (TCU-ORC) scale reported the highest instrument validity with a score of 4 out of 4. Only one instrument, namely the Modified Texas Christian University-Director version (TCU-ORC-D), reported a reliability score of 2 out of 3. No information was provided regarding the reliability and validity of five (19%) instruments.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that there are few valid and reliable ORC measurement instruments that could be applied to KT in the health care sector. The TCU-ORC instrument presents the best evidence in terms of validity testing. Future studies using this instrument could provide more knowledge on its relevance to diverse clinical contexts. © 2014 Gagnon et al.

Yousefian H.,University Laval | Rodrigue D.,University Laval
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2015

Polypropylene (PP)/nano-crystalline cellulose (NCC) composites and foams were produced through extrusion compounding combined with injection molding. From the samples produced, a complete morphological, physical, and mechanical analysis was performed to study the effect of NCC concentration (0-5wt %), foaming agent content (0 to 2wt %) and mold temperature (30°C and 80°C). NCC was very effective to reduce cell size (42-71%) and increase cell density (5-37 times) of the foams, while slightly increasing the overall density (2-7%). The results showed that NCC addition increased the specific tensile modulus (15-22%), specific tensile strength (1-14%) and specific flexural modulus (13-26%) of PP, but decreased specific impact strength (10-20%) and specific elongation at break (50-96%). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Drouin O.,Laval University | Bergeron T.,Laval University | Beaudry A.,Laval University | Demers S.,Laval University | And 3 more authors.
AJP Reports | Year: 2014

Context Uterine scar defects or scar niche are relatively common after cesarean delivery. An association has been observed between the severity of scar defect, also known as isthmocele, some gynecologic symptoms, and the risk of uterine scar dehiscence at the next delivery. It has been suggested that surgical repair of scar defect could improve the gynecological symptoms, but it remains unclear whether such surgery mends the uterine scar itself. Case Report We report the case of a woman with uterine scar defect in whom laparoscopic repair significantly improved the gynecological symptoms without affecting the uterine scar, evaluated by hysterosonography. Conclusion This case highlights the significant dearth of knowledge surrounding the diagnosis, consequences, and benefits of surgical repair of uterine scar defect after cesarean. Copyright © 2014 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Theberge F.,Defence RandD Canada ValcartierQC | Thire N.,INRS EMT | Daigle J.-F.,Defence RandD Canada ValcartierQC | Mathieu P.,Defence RandD Canada ValcartierQC | And 5 more authors.
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

We report on infrared supercontinuum (SC) generation through laser filamentation and subsequent nonlinear propagation in a step-index As2S3 fiber. The 100 μm core and high-purity As2S3 fiber used exhibit zero-dispersion wavelength around 4.5 μm, a mid-infrared background loss of 0.2 dB/m, and a maximum loss of only 0.55 dBMm at the S-H absorption peak around 4.05 μm. When pumping with ultrashort laser pulses slightly above the S-H absorption band, broadband infrared supercontinua were generated with a 20 dB spectral flatness spanning from 1.5 up to 7 μm. The efficiency and spectral shape of the SC produced by ultrashort pulses in large-core As2S3 fiber are mainly determined by its dispersion, the S-H contaminant absorption, and the mid-infrared nonlinear absorption. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Groulx N.,University of Quebec | Groulx N.,University Laval | Turgeon N.,University of Quebec | Duchaine C.,University of Quebec | Duchaine C.,University Laval
Aerosol Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Bacteria, viruses, fungus, and other biological components (toxins, membranes, spores) can spread in the air through various aerosolization processes (breathing, bubbling, explosion, evaporation) and travel until they reach a surface or a host. Nosocomial diseases are an example of illnesses caused by a human contact with such pathogen vectors in hospital settings. Very little is known about the aerosolization processes of viruses and bacteria and their potential to infect people after their passage in the airborne state and about the microbial burden carried by individual aerosol particles. Here we propose a novel approach to study the aerosolization mechanisms of bacteria in single particles using fluorescence spectroscopy and a homemade system allowing the control of the aerosolization and the impaction of bacteria on a black filter. We validated the concept using P. fluorescence and E. coli. The results show that independently of the amount of P. fluorescens and E. coli aerosolized the average distribution of cells impacted on a black filter is described by a Poisson fit with λ ~ 0.6 ± 0.2. This means that using this aerosolization process, an aerosol will present no bacterium, but when it does, the number of bacteria per particle in the distributions will more probably be one. We also observed that the aerosolization processes of these two bacterial species allow P. fluorescens to be preferentially aerosolized against E. coli. These results demonstrate that fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study bioaerosols in single particles. This technique can be used to study several phenomena like preferential aerosolization. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Aerosol Research.

Hughes R.W.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Chamberland C.,University Laval | Tremblay S.,University Laval | Jones D.M.,University of Cardiff | Jones D.M.,University of Western Australia
Journal of Memory and Language | Year: 2016

The role of the compatibility between obligatory perceptual organization and the active assembly of a motor-plan in auditory-verbal serial recall was examined. The classic finding that serial recall is poorer with ear-alternating items was shown to be related to spatial-source localization, thereby confirming a basic tenet of the perceptual-motor account and disconfirming an early account characterizing the two ears as separate input-channels (Experiment 1). Promoting the streaming-by-location of ear-alternating items-and therefore the incompatibility between perceived and actual order-augmented the ear-alternation effect (Experiment 2) whereas demoting streaming-by-location by reducing the regularity of the alternation attenuated it (Experiment 3). Finally, increasing the perceptual variability of an ear-alternating list while demoting the likelihood of streaming-by-location-by adding uncorrelated voice changes-also reduced the ear-alternation effect as did articulatory suppression for that part of the list (pre-recency) associated with motor-planning (Experiment 4). The results are incompatible with theories in which perceptual variability impairs serial recall due to a deficit in encoding items into a limited-capacity short-term memory space and instead point to a central role for perceptual and motor processes in serial short-term memory performance. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Fouad Mansour M.,Laval University | Pelletier M.,Laval University | Boulet M.-M.,Laval University | Boulet M.-M.,University of Quebec | And 11 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2015

Testosterone can be converted into androstenedione (4-dione) by 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activity likely performed by 17β-HSD type 2. Our objective was to evaluate the rate of testosterone conversion to 4-dione as well as expression and localization of 17β-HSD type 2 in omental (OM) vs. subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissues of men. Formation of 4-dione from testosterone was significantly higher in homogenates (p ≤ 0.001) and explants (p ≤ 0.01) of OM than SC tissue. Microscopy analyses and biochemical assays in cell fractions localized the enzyme in the vasculature/endothelial cells of adipose tissues. Conversion of testosterone to 4-dione was weakly detected in most OM and/or SC preadipocyte cultures. Positive correlations were found between 17β-HSD type 2 activity in whole tissue and BMI or SC adipocyte diameter. We conclude that conversion of testosterone to 4-dione detected in abdominal adipose tissue is caused by 17β-HSD type 2 which is localized in the vasculature of the adipose compartment. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Boutin S.,Laval University | Alburaki M.,Laval University | Alburaki M.,The University of Tennessee | Mercier P.-L.,Laval University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: Hygienic behavior is a complex, genetically-based quantitative trait that serves as a key defense mechanism against parasites and diseases in Apis mellifera. Yet, the genomic basis and functional pathways involved in the initiation of this behavior are still unclear. Deciphering the genomic basis of hygienic behavior is a prerequisite to developing an extensive repertoire of genetic markers associated to the performance level of this quantitative trait. To fill this knowledge gap, we performed an RNA-seq on brain samples of 25 honeybees per hives from five hygienic and three non-hygienic hives. Results: This analysis revealed that a limited number of functional genes are involved in honeybee hygienic behavior. The genes identified, and especially their location in the honeybee genome, are consistent with previous findings. Indeed, the genomic sequences of most differentially expressed genes were found on the majority of the QTL regions associated to the hygienic behavior described in previous studies. According to the Gene Ontology annotation, 15 genes are linked to the GO-terms DNA or nucleotide binding, indicating a possible role of these genes in transcription regulation. Furthermore, GO-category enrichment analysis revealed that electron carrier activity is over-represented, involving only genes belonging to the cytochrome P450. Cytochrome P450 enzymes' overexpression can be explained by a disturbance in the regulation of expression induced by changes in transcription regulation or sensitivity to xenobiotics. Over-expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes could potentially degrade the odorant pheromones or chemicals that normally signal the presence of a diseased brood before activation of the removal process thereby inhibit hygienic behavior. Conclusions: These findings improve our understanding on the genetics basis of the hygienic behavior. Our results show that hygienic behavior relies on a limited set of genes linked to different regulation patterns (expression level and biological processes) associated with an over-expression of cytochrome P450 genes. © 2015 Boutin et al.

Duplessis M.,University Laval | Duplessis M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Mann S.,Cornell University | Nydam D.V.,Cornell University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

This study was undertaken to evaluate folate and vitamin B12 concentrations of colostrum and milk in early lactation of dairy cows fed different levels of energy during the dry period. A total of 84 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of the following dietary treatments fed as a total mixed ration 57 d before the expected calving date: (1) high-energy one-group dry cow diet [1.35 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of dry matter (DM); 56% corn silage, 12% wheat straw, and 32% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis]; (2) controlled-energy one-group dry cow diet (1.14 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of DM; 29% corn silage, 36% wheat straw, and 35% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis); or (3) an intermediate step-up diet (controlled-energy diet from dry off until 29 d before the expected calving date and then switching to a diet representing a 50:50 blend of the controlled- and high-energy diets from 28 d before expected calving date until parturition; 1.24 Mcal of net energy for maintenance/kg of DM). After calving, all cows were fed the same diet served as a total mixed ration (44% corn silage, 14% grass silage, and 42% concentrate mix on a daily DM basis) until 42 d in milk (DIM). Colostrum samples were taken at the first milking after parturition and milk samples were taken during the morning milking at 11 and 39±2 DIM. Colostrum from the first milking and milk yields were weighed on the day of sampling. Colostrum yield from the first milking postpartum and milk yields at 11 and 39 DIM were unaffected by treatments. Colostrum yield averaged 6.8 ± 0.7 kg at the first milking postpartum, whereas milk yields at 11 and 39 DIM were, on average, 40.3 ± 1.5 and 48.9 ± 1.3mg/d, respectively. Folate concentrations in colostrum and milk were not different among treatments. Folate concentration of colostrum (440.3 ± 18.8 ng/mL) was higher than folate concentration in milk at 11 (93.7 ± 3.0 ng/mL) and at 39 DIM (78.4 ± 2.6 ng/mL). Vitamin B12 concentration in colostrum was higher for controlled-energy cows (31.7 ± 1.4 ng/mL) than intermediate cows (23.5 ± 1.4 ng/mL), whereas no treatment effect was noted for vitamin B12 concentration in milk. At 11 and 39 DIM, milk concentrations of vitamin B12 averaged 3.8 and 3.2 ± 1.4 ng/mL, respectively. In summary, results suggest that dietary change during the dry period could modify vitamin B12 concentration in colostrum, but had no effect on milk concentration of folates and vitamin B12 during early lactation. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.

Abaza M.,University Laval | Abaza M.,Laval University | Anctil F.,University Laval | Anctil F.,Laval University | And 2 more authors.
Advances in Water Resources | Year: 2015

This paper evaluates Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) sequential data assimilation on a semi-distributed hydrological model implementation on two snow-dominated watersheds, focussing strictly on snow accumulation and melt periods while assimilating streamflow for the updating of various state variables combinations. Three scenarios are explored in depth: (1) updating the three state variables that were previously identified pertinent for snow-free hydrological processes: soil moisture in the intermediate layer, soil moisture in the deep layer, and the overland routing reservoir, (2) updating the snow water equivalent, and (3) updating all of the above state variables. Inputs (precipitation and temperature) and output (streamflow) perturbation factors are first identified for each scenario, based on their performance and reliability for simulation with assimilation. The three EnKF implementations are next compared to one another and to an open-loop run, in an ensemble forecasting context. The third scenario outperforms the others in most situations and provides the largest gain in reliability. The ensemble size may also be reduced, from 1000 to 50 members, without much loss in performance or reliability. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Auclair-Ouellet N.,Institute University en Sante Mentale | Auclair-Ouellet N.,University of Neuchatel | Fossard M.,University of Neuchatel | Macoir J.,University Laval
Geriatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement | Year: 2015

Consensual recommendations for the diagnostic criteria of three variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) were published in 2011. Since their publication, these recommendations were the object of criticism, which has recently led to the proposition of their revision. This article gives a description of the criteria that preceded the consensual criteria currently in use, and presents the different limits and controversies regarding the description of each PPA variant's language profile. These controversies will be examined in terms of the description of each variant's central manifestations, their differential diagnosis, the links between each clinical entity and its underlying pathology, and the evolution of the language profile. Lastly, this article offers perspectives regarding language evaluation in PPA that have several implications for clinical practice and research.

Mohanna M.,University Laval | Capus L.,University Laval
Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning 2012, ML 2012 | Year: 2012

Mobile learning is a special case of distance learning, which in turn is considered as a technological evolution of the conventional learning. This paper proposes a doctoral research project aims to construct a comprehensive model of mobile learning. Research questions and objectives are discussed. CommonKADS methodology accompanied with its model suite is introduced and explained why it has been chosen to guide the modeling process. Research plan is identified including work done so far and next research steps. © 2012 IADIS.

Roberge P.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Fournier L.,Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal Crchum | Brouillet H.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | Delorme A.,Ministere de la Sante | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice | Year: 2015

Rationale, aims and objectives Mental health services for patients with a major depressive disorder are commonly delivered by primary care. To support the uptake of clinical practice guidelines in primary care, we developed and disseminated a practice protocol for depression tailored for a multidisciplinary audience of primary mental health care providers with the ADAPTE methodology. The research questions addressed in this study aimed at examining the experience of the development process of a mental health practice protocol in terms of adaptation, facilitation and implementation. Methods We present a descriptive case study of the development and implementation of a practice protocol for major depressive disorder for primary mental health care in the organizational and cultural context of the province of Québec (Canada), following the steps of the ADAPTE methodology. An expert committee composed of general practitioners, mental health specialists, health care administrators and decision makers at regional and provincial levels participated in the protocol development process. Results The practice protocol was based on two clinical practice guidelines: the NICE guideline on the treatment and management of depression in adults (2009, 2010) and the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments clinical guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder in adults (2009). A stepped care model was embedded in the protocol to facilitate the implementation of clinical recommendations in primary mental health care. A multifaceted dissemination strategy was used to support the uptake of the protocol recommendations in clinical practice. Conclusions The ADAPTE methodology provided structure, rigour and efficiency to the trans-contextual adaptation of guideline recommendations. We will share the challenges associated with the adaptation of clinical recommendations and organizational strategies for a mental health guideline, and the dissemination of the practice protocol in primary care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

King G.,Bloorview Research Institute | Desmarais C.,University Laval | Lindsay S.,Bloorview Research Institute | Pierart G.,Haute Ecole Fribourgeoise de Travail Social | Tetreault S.,University Laval
Disability and Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

Purpose: Delivering pediatric rehabilitation services to immigrant parents of children with disabilities requires the practice of culturally sensitive care. Few studies have examined the specific nature of culturally sensitive care in pediatric rehabilitation, especially the notions of effective communication and client engagement. Method: Interviews were held with 42 therapists (10 social workers, 16 occupational therapists and 16 speech language pathologists) from two locations in Canada (Toronto and Quebec City). Data were analyzed using an inductive content analysis approach. Results: Study themes included the importance and nature of effective communication and client engagement in service delivery involving immigrant parents. Participants discussed using four main types of strategies to engage immigrant parents, including understanding the family situation, building a collaborative relationship, tailoring practice to the client's situation and ensuring parents' understanding of therapy procedures. Conclusions: The findings illuminate the importance of effective, two-way communication in providing the mutual understanding needed by therapists to engage parents in the intervention process. The findings also richly describe the engagement strategies used by therapists. Clinical implications include recommendations for strategies for therapists to employ to engage this group of parents. Furthermore, the findings are applicable to service provision in general, as engaging families in a collaborative relationship through attention to their specific situation is a general principle of good quality, family-centered care. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.

Hajji A.,University Laval | Pellerin R.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal | Gharbi A.,Ecole de Technologie Superieure of Montreal | Leger P.M.,HEC Montreal | Babin G.,HEC Montreal
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2016

Recent researches suggest that the decision to adopt an ERP system has implications outside of firm boundaries, and is likely to impact the adoption decision from stakeholders in the same industrial network. Being able to consider such phenomena, to reproduce the whole dynamic of the diffusion process and to validate empirical evidences can be determinant in the success of a new product introduction. This paper is intended to propose and validate a propagation model for the diffusion of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems among the North American automotive business network. Based on empirical evidence from the adoption of ERP by top 50 firms in the automotive sector from 1994-2005, a micro quantitative diffusion model is proposed. A simulation-based approach is employed to estimate the parameters of the proposed model to represent faithfully the observed diffusion phenomenon. The results show a robust diffusion model with a mean error less than 4% and up to 92% of similarity between the real ERP adopters data gathered through publicly available secondary databases and those obtained via simulations. Finally, the conducted validation experimentations show that when we progress in time the cumulative historical data minimizes the effort of estimation and future adopters' prediction is more effective. Discussion about the usefulness of the proposed model for ERP systems editors to test different strategies for market penetration is also conducted. © 2016, Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ginouse N.,University Laval | Jolin M.,University Laval
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering | Year: 2014

The intent of this paper is to identify the basic physical laws governing particle kinematics in a shotcrete spray. This paper presents a governing equation based on Newton's second law where nozzle and airflow characteristics, and particle features are used to predict impact velocity of the material exiting the nozzle. Experimental values obtained using high-speed imaging measurements on marbles and aggregate particles correlate well with the results of numerical simulations on a simplified spraying system. With the controlling parameters of particle kinematics fully understood, the analysis of the governing equations offers essential elements for nozzle optimization and new mix design investigations. This paper also addresses the necessity of broadening the investigation to the entire spray of particles exiting the nozzle for a complete understanding of the spraying process on placement mechanisms at a process scale. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

F.-Dufour I.,University Laval | Brassard R.,University Laval
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology | Year: 2014

One of the key issues in research on criminal desistance is the impossibility of stating with any degree of certainty that an offender's criminal career is in fact over. When no clear demarcation line can be established for the precise moment when criminal activity has ended, researchers instead distinguish between the cessation of criminal behaviour and the process of desistance. A second issue lies in the contradictions inherent in explanatory theories on desistance that focus either on agents or, conversely, on the structures that provoke and support the process of change. An integrative theoretical framework on criminal desistance, influenced by the work of Margaret Archer (1995, 2000, 2002) and showing the interplay between structures and agents, can be found elsewhere (F.-Dufour, Brassard, and Martel, forthcoming). The application of this framework to empirical data collected from 29 Canadian offenders serving conditional sentences reveals the existence of three distinct processes leading to desistance among those we metaphorically call the transformed, the remorseful and the rescued. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

Garnier A.,University Laval | Gaillet B.,University Laval
Biotechnology and Bioengineering | Year: 2015

Not so many fermentation mathematical models allow analytical solutions of batch process dynamics. The most widely used is the combination of the logistic microbial growth kinetics with Luedeking-Piret bioproduct synthesis relation. However, the logistic equation is principally based on formalistic similarities and only fits a limited range of fermentation types. In this article, we have developed an analytical solution for the combination of Monod growth kinetics with Luedeking-Piret relation, which can be identified by linear regression and used to simulate batch fermentation evolution. Two classical examples are used to show the quality of fit and the simplicity of the method proposed. A solution for the combination of Haldane substrate-limited growth model combined with Luedeking-Piret relation is also provided. These models could prove useful for the analysis of fermentation data in industry as well as academia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Bidarra Z.S.,West Parana State University | Lessard G.,University Laval | Dumont A.,University Laval
Child Abuse and Neglect | Year: 2016

This article proposes a review of the scientific literature on the cooccurrence of intimate partner violence and intrafamilial child sexual abuse. The review of these two types of violence has evolved in distinct research fields and their cooccurrence has rarely been examined. The objective of this article is to examine the existing knowledge about this cooccurrence. A systematic examination of the scientific literature in several relevant databases was conducted using combinations of 20 keywords so as to identify scientific articles, published between 2003 and 2013, that investigated this cooccurrence. The final sample comprised 10 studies. These studies revealed the presence of much heterogeneity regarding the prevalence of the cooccurrence for intimate partner violence with sexual abuse and other maltreatment (from 12% to 70%). The review also highlighted a greater risk for children to be victims of sexual abuse or other maltreatment when exposed to intimate partner violence. The implications of these results and the ensuing recommendations for practice and future research are considered in the discussion section. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Troncoso J.,University of Talca | D'Amours S.,University Laval | Flisberg P.,Forestry Research Institute of Sweden | Ronnqvist M.,University Laval | Weintraub A.,University of Chile
Canadian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2015

When a company is integrated vertically, it can manage and plan its overall value chain in one direct and integrated approach. However in many cases, companies follow a decoupled approach where forests and production plants optimize separately their processes in a supply-driven strategy. In Chile, the two largest forest companies are vertically integrated (i.e., they own forest and mills that produce logs, lumber, plywood, pulp, paper, and bioenergy, etc.). Historically, they have coordinated their value chains using a make-to-stock strategy, for which the forest is the main driver of the value chain activities. In this paper, we propose an integrated planning approach to show the impacts of a demand-driven integration of the value chain in the forest industry. To compare this strategy with the decoupled strategy, we propose a mixed integer programming (MIP) model for the integrated strategy. To illustrate our proposal, we use forest and production information from a Chilean forest company. The decoupled strategy, where the forest and industry planning are planned separately, uses two models. The first model deals with the forest management and harvesting decisions and maximizes the expected net present value (NPV) of logs. In this model, the planning horizon covers one full forest rotation, which in Chile corresponds to about 25 years. The second model maximizes the NPV of the downstream operations for a shorter business planning horizon (five years) constrained by the availability of the logs from the first model. In the integrated approach, all parts of the value chain (forest, transportation, and mills) are driven by final productdemandand where the objective is to maximize the profit of the company (NPV of the entire value chain). Thedemand is only given for the shorter business planning horizon. The two strategies are evaluated using the MIP model, and NPV is used to determine the best practice. According to the results, the NPV can increase up to 5.0% when the proposed integrated strategy is implemented compared to a decoupled strategy. Moreover, the profit for the business period increases up to 8.5%. © 2015, (publisher). All Rights Reserved.

Vodouhe F.G.,University Laval | Vodouhe F.G.,Laboratoire Decologie Appliquee | Khasa D.P.,University Laval
International Journal of Phytoremediation | Year: 2015

This work explores factors supporting people perception about mine site restoration and phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is one of the most eco-friendly restoration strategy emerged since the last two decades but studies on local people perception on this restoration strategy are scarce. To fill in this gap, data were collected from mining stakeholders using a structured questionnaire administered through snowball sampling method. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis as implemented in the software XLSTAT to visualize relationship between participants’ characteristics, their view on mine site restoration and phytoremediation. Results clearly show out that people perception on mine site restoration is influenced by mining activities effects on health and region attractiveness. Phytoremediation (65.21%) was rated positively with regard to its environment potential, aesthetic and consideration for future generation followed by fillings and excavating. Restoration strategy costs have no effect on people choice and participants prefer use of shrubs as vegetation component of phytoremediation to reach their restoration objective. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Kakou C.A.,University Laval | Kakou C.A.,Felix Houphouet-Boigny University | Arrakhiz F.Z.,Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology | Trokourey A.,Felix Houphouet-Boigny University | And 3 more authors.
Materials and Design | Year: 2014

Oil palm fiber reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites which can be used in several applications (mechanical part, fiber panel, etc.) were manufactured by twin-screw extrusion followed by compression molding. In particular, the effect of coupling agent (maleated polypropylene, MAPP) concentration (0, 2, 4 and 6. wt.%) was investigated for 30 and 40. wt.% oil palm fiber. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and mechanical testing (tension and impact) were carried out to determine the effect of fiber and compatibilizer contents. The results showed that compatibilized composites have increased stiffness due to enhanced interfacial adhesion between the fibers and the matrix, as well as better homogeneity (better fiber dispersion) due to chemical bonding. The optimum MAPP content was found to be 4% for the range of conditions tested. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Aadhi A.,Physical Research Laboratory | Aadhi A.,Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar | Vaity P.,University Laval | Chithrabhanu P.,Physical Research Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Applied Optics | Year: 2016

Vector vortex beams are classified into four types depending upon spatial variation in their polarization vector.We have generated all four of these types of vector vortex beams by using a modified polarization Sagnac interferometer with a vortex lens. Further, we have studied the non-coaxial superposition of two vector vortex beams. It is observed that the superposition of two vector vortex beams with same polarization singularity leads to a beam with another kind of polarization singularity in their interaction region. The results may be of importance in ultrahigh security of the polarization-encrypted data that utilizes vector vortex beams and multiple optical trapping with non-coaxial superposition of vector vortex beams. We verified our experimental results with theory. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

Blumensaat F.,ETH Zurich | Blumensaat F.,TU Dresden | Seydel J.,TU Dresden | Krebs P.,TU Dresden | Vanrolleghem P.A.,University Laval
Proceedings - 7th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software: Bold Visions for Environmental Modeling, iEMSs 2014 | Year: 2014

Numerical modeling of physicochemical conditions in rivers influenced by urban drainage and other pressures is increasingly used as supportive method for an integrative environmental impact assessment. In various European countries, protocols for water quality based impact assessment (WQA protocols) are in use, of which many propose the use of water quality models. Despite the increased effort to study uncertainty issues in river water quality modeling in recent years, identifying and differentiating model structure uncertainty remains a challenging task. This study elaborates upon a key conflict in model development: the need to simplify and to still ensure structural adequacy to obtain reliable modeling results. The paper evaluates the adequacy of diverse river water quality modeling approaches when subjected to a changing model structure. This evaluation is achieved by applying a set of calibrated candidate models to two different river case studies under varying pollution conditions. The term 'model structure sensitivity' is introduced to quantify the output variation as a result of a changing model structure. Sensitivity is here, in contrast to previous works, positively interpreted as model flexibility. The study illustrates that the interdependence bet ween model sensitivity and model error is conditional upon complexity, but model adequacy differs depending on the pollution dynamics in the modeled system. Results show that model structure uncertainty has a composite nature: effects related to transport and conversion model contribute with varying shares. Two actions should be considered to improve model structure characterization: i) use of a variety of model structures combined with an analysis of structure and parameter sensitivity, and ii) acquisition of high-resolution reference data to capture varying pollution load dynamics.

Taylor J.K.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Taylor J.K.,University Laval | Revercomb H.E.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Best F.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 6 more authors.
Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, FTS 2015 | Year: 2015

A summary of the Absolute Radiance Interferometer (ARI) radiometric performance demonstrated during vacuum testing at the University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center (UW-SSEC) is presented. © OSA 2015.

Yan J.,French Naval Academy Research Institute | Yan J.,University Laval | Saux E.,French Naval Academy Research Institute | Guilbert E.,University Laval
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

A landform is a subjective individuation of a part of a terrain. Landform recognition is a difficult task because its definition usually relies on a qualitative and fuzzy description. Achieving automatic recognition of landforms requires a formal definition of the landforms properties and their modelling. In the maritime domain, the International Hydrographic Organisation published a standard terminology of undersea feature names which formalises a set of definition mainly for naming and communication purpose. This terminology is here used as a starting point for the definition of an ontology of undersea features and their automatic classification from a terrain model. First, an ontology of undersea features is built. The ontology is composed of an application domain ontology describing the main properties and relationships between features and a representation ontology deals with representation on a chart where features are portrayed by soundings and isobaths. A database model was generated from the ontology. Geometrical properties describing the feature shape are computed from soundings and isobaths and are used for feature classification. An example of automatic classification on a nautical chart is presented and results and on-going research are discussed. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.

Litvinov I.V.,McGill University | Netchiporouk E.,McGill University | Cordeiro B.,McGill University | Dore M.-A.,University Laval | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2015

Purpose: Although many patients with mycosis fungoides presenting with stage I disease enjoy an indolent disease course and normal life expectancy, about 15% to 20% of them progress to higher stages and most ultimately succumb to their disease. Currently, it is not possible to predict which patients will progress and which patients will have a stable disease. Previously, we conducted microarray analyses with RT-PCR validation of gene expression in biopsy specimens from 60 patients with stage I-IV cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), identified three distinct clusters based upon transcription profile, and correlated our molecular findings with 6 years of clinical follow-up. Experimental Design:Wetest by RT-PCR within our prediction model the expression of about 240 genes that were previously reported to play an important role in CTCL carcinogenesis. We further extend the clinical follow-up of our patients to 11 years. We compare the expression of selected genes between mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome and benign inflammatory dermatoses that often mimic this cancer. Results: Our findings demonstrate that 52 of the about 240 genes can be classified into cluster 1-3 expression patterns and such expression is consistent with their suggested biologic roles. Moreover, we determined that 17 genes (CCL18, CCL26, FYB, T3JAM, MMP12, LEF1, LCK, ITK, GNLY, IL2RA, IL26, IL22, CCR4, GTSF1, SYCP1, STAT5A, and TOX) are able to both identify patients who are at risk of progression and also distinguish mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome from benign mimickers. Conclusions: This study, combined with other gene expression analyses, prepares the foundation for the development of personalized molecular approach toward diagnosis and treatment of CTCL. © 2015 AACR.

Rodrigues V.,University of Paris Descartes | Cordeiro-Da-Silva A.,University of Porto | Laforge M.,University of Paris Descartes | Silvestre R.,University of Minho | And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2016

Unicellular eukaryotes of the genus Leishmania are collectively responsible for a heterogeneous group of diseases known as leishmaniasis. The visceral form of leishmaniasis, caused by L. donovani or L. infantum, is a devastating condition, claiming 20,000 to 40,000 lives annually, with particular incidence in some of the poorest regions of the world. Immunity to Leishmania depends on the development of protective type I immune responses capable of activating infected phagocytes to kill intracellular amastigotes. However, despite the induction of protective responses, disease progresses due to a multitude of factors that impede an optimal response. These include the action of suppressive cytokines, exhaustion of specific T cells, loss of lymphoid tissue architecture and a defective humoral response. We will review how these responses are orchestrated during the course of infection, including both early and chronic stages, focusing on the spleen and the liver, which are the main target organs of visceral Leishmania in the host. A comprehensive understanding of the immune events that occur during visceral Leishmania infection is crucial for the implementation of immunotherapeutic approaches that complement the current anti-Leishmania chemotherapy and the development of effective vaccines to prevent disease. © 2016 Rodrigues et al.

Caspers J.N.,Kings College | St-Yves J.,University Laval | Chrostowski L.,University of British Columbia | Shi W.,University Laval | Mojahedi M.,Kings College
Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe - Technical Digest | Year: 2015

We experimentally demonstrate the ability to couple any polarization state from a fiber to the TE-mode of a single waveguide in an integrated silicon photonics circuit. We achieved this by combining a 2D-grating coupler and two tunable Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) into a polarization adapter. We obtain less than ±0.6 dB standard deviation across all input polarization states at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. © 2015 OSA.

Landry G.,Maastricht University | Landry G.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Gaudreault M.,Maastricht University | Gaudreault M.,University Laval | And 4 more authors.
Zeitschrift fur Medizinische Physik | Year: 2016

The goal of this study was to evaluate the noise reduction achievable from dual energy computed tomography (CT) imaging (DECT) using filtered backprojection (FBP) and iterative image reconstruction algorithms combined with increased imaging exposure. We evaluated the data in the context of imaging for brachytherapy dose calculation, where accurate quantification of electron density ρe and effective atomic number Zeff is beneficial. A dual source CT scanner was used to scan a phantom containing tissue mimicking inserts. DECT scans were acquired at 80 kVp/140Sn kVp (where Sn stands for tin filtration) and 100 kVp/140Sn kVp, using the same values of the CT dose index CTDIvol for both settings as a measure for the radiation imaging exposure. Four CTDIvol levels were investigated. Images were reconstructed using FBP and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with strength 1,3 and 5. From DECT scans two material quantities were derived, Zeff and ρe. DECT images were used to assign material types and the amount of improperly assigned voxels was quantified for each protocol. The dosimetric impact of improperly assigned voxels was evaluated with Geant4 Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations for an 125I source in numerical phantoms.Standard deviations for Zeff and ρe were reduced up to a factor ~2 when using SAFIRE with strength 5 compared to FBP. Standard deviations on Zeff and ρe as low as 0.15 and 0.006 were achieved for the muscle insert representing typical soft tissue using a CTDIvol of 40 mGy and 3 mm slice thickness. Dose calculation accuracy was generally improved when using SAFIRE. Mean (maximum absolute) dose errors of up to 1.3% (21%) with FBP were reduced to less than 1% (6%) with SAFIRE at a CTDIvol of 10 mGy. Using a CTDIvol of 40mGy and SAFIRE yielded mean dose calculation errors of the order of 0.6% which was the MC dose calculation precision in this study and no error was larger than ±2.5% as opposed to errors of up to -4% with FPB.This phantom study showed that the SAFIRE image reconstruction algorithm provided reduced standard deviations of Zeff and ρe in uniform regions of interest while preserving mean Zeff and ρe values. This resulted in improved material type assignment. The use of SAFIRE improved brachytherapy dose calculations for the materials from the phantom investigated in this study using 125I. © 2016.

An S.Y.,Concordia University at Montreal | Sun S.,INRS - Institute National de la Recherche Scientifique | Sun S.,University Laval | Oh J.K.,Concordia University at Montreal | Oh J.K.,University Laval
Macromolecular Rapid Communications | Year: 2016

A new approach to stabilize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aqueous solution with a reduction-responsive water-soluble polymer is reported. The novel polymer synthesized by a controlled radical polymerization is functionalized with pendant pyrene groups capable of adhering to the surface of CNTs through π-π noncovalent interactions, and labeled with disulfide linkages to exhibit reduction-responsive cleavage. Upon the cleavage of junction disulfide linkages in a reducing environment, water-soluble polymers are shed, retaining clean CNT surfaces for electrochemical catalytic reactions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Fuentealba A.,University Laval | Fuentealba A.,Concordia University at Montreal | Bauce E.,University Laval
Acta Oecologica | Year: 2016

Woody plants regularly sustain biomass losses to herbivorous insects. Consequently, they have developed various resistance mechanisms to cope with insect attack. However, these mechanisms of defense and how they are affected by resource availability are not well understood. The present study aimed at evaluating and comparing the natural resistance (antibiosis and tolerance) of balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) and white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench) Voss] to spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), and how drainage site quality as a component of resource availability affects the expression of resistance over time (6 years). Our results showed that there are differences in natural resistance between the two tree species to spruce budworm, but it was not significantly affected by drainage quality. Balsam fir exhibited higher foliar toxic secondary compounds concentrations than white spruce in all drainage classes, resulting in lower male pupal mass, survival and longer male developmental time. This, however, did not prevent spruce budworm from consuming more foliage in balsam fir than in white spruce. This response suggests that either natural levels of measured secondary compounds do not provide sufficient toxicity to reduce defoliation, or spruce budworm has developed compensatory mechanisms, which allow it to utilize food resources more efficiently or minimize the toxic effects that are produced by its host's defensive compounds. Larvae exhibited lower pupal mass and higher mortality in rapidly drained and subhygric sites. Drainage class also affected the amount of foliage destroyed but its impact varied over the years and was probably influenced by climatic variables. These results demonstrate the complexity of predicting the effect of resource availability on tree defenses, especially when other confounding environmental factors can affect tree resource allocation and utilization. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Schulze L.S.-C.,Free University of Berlin | Borchardt S.,Free University of Berlin | Ouellet V.,University Laval | Heuwieser W.,Free University of Berlin
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. The pathogen is prevalent in ruminants (goats, sheep, cows), which are the main sources of human infection. In the cattle industry around the world, animal (15 to 20%) and herd (38 to 72%) level prevalences of C. burnetii are high. Vaccination of ruminants against Q fever is considered important to prevent spreading of the disease and risk of infection in humans. However, published information on side effects of the Q fever vaccination under field conditions is limited for cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the phase I C. burnetii inactivated vaccine Coxevac on body temperature and milk yield in dairy cows. In 2 experiments, a total of 508 cows were randomly divided into 2 groups to determine the effect of first vaccination on body temperature and milk yield. The C. burnetii serostatus of all cows was tested before vaccination with an indirect ELISA. The first experiment took place in the teaching and research barn of the Clinic of Animal Reproduction at the Freie Universität Berlin. Temperature was measured vaginally in 10 cows in a crossover design. The second experiment was conducted on a commercial dairy farm. Milk yield of 498 cows was measured 1 wk before and 1 wk after vaccination. In a subset of 41 cows, temperature was measured rectally. In both experiments, body temperature increased significantly after vaccination (1.0 ± 0.9°C and 0.7 ± 0.8°C). A significant difference was also found in body temperature between vaccinated and control cows. Thirty percent of the vaccinated animals in experiment 1 showed reversible swelling at the injection site as a reaction to the vaccination. The results indicate that vaccination against Q fever causes a transient increase of body temperature that peaks in the first 12 to 24. h and declines after that. In experiment 2, vaccinated cows (26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d) produced significantly less milk than did control cows (28.2 ± 0.44 kg/d) 7 d after first vaccination. The cumulative milk loss after first vaccination was influenced by an interaction between C. burnetii serostatus and average milk yield 7 d before first vaccination. This was considered as part of the physiological immune response. Three out of 10 vaccinated animals in experiment 1 showed painful swelling of the skin at the injection site, which had a maximum size of 14.0 ×. 14.0 × 1.1 cm. In conclusion, a transient increase of body temperature and a decrease in milk yield is prevalent after Coxevac vaccination. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association.

Dube E.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | Dube E.,University Laval | Gagnon D.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | Hamel D.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | And 6 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology | Year: 2015

A mass vaccination campaign with the 4CMenB vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis Pharmaceutical Canada Inc) was launched in a serogroup B endemic area in Quebec. A telephone survey was conducted to assess parental and adolescent opinions about the acceptability of the vaccine. Intent to receive the vaccine or vaccine receipt was reported by the majority of parents (93%) and adolescents (75%). Meningitis was perceived as being a dangerous disease by the majority of parents and adolescents. The majority of respondents also considered the 4CMenB vaccine to be safe and effective. The main reason for positive vaccination intention or behaviour was self-protection, while a negative attitude toward vaccination in general was the main reason mentioned by parents who did not intend to have their child vaccinated. Adolescents mainly reported lack of interest, time or information, and low perceived susceptibility and disease severity as the main reasons for not intending to be vaccinated or not being vaccinated.

Batcho C.S.,Catholic University of Louvain | Batcho C.S.,University Laval | Van den Bergh P.,Catholic University of Louvain | Van Damme P.,Scientific Committee of the Belgian Neuromuscular Disease Registry | And 20 more authors.
Neuromuscular Disorders | Year: 2016

This study aims to investigate the clinimetric properties of ACTIVLIM, a measure of activity limitations, when it is used in daily practice in a large nationwide representative cohort of patients with neuromuscular diseases. A cohort of 2986 patients was assessed at least once over 2 years in 6 national neuromuscular diseases reference centers. Successive Rasch analyses were conducted in order to investigate the scale validity, reliability, consistency across demographic and clinical sub-groups and its sensitivity to change. ACTIVLIM confirmed excellent fit to a unidimensional scale, with stable but 3-times more accurate item calibrations compared to the original publication. It showed a good reliability (R = 0.95), an appropriate targeting for 87% of the sample and an excellent invariance across age, gender, language and time. Despite some variations in the item difficulty hierarchy across diagnoses, ACTIVLIM exhibited a good capability to quantify small but significant changes in activity for various diagnostic groups. Overall, ACTIVLIM demonstrated very good clinimetric properties, allowing accurate quantitative measurement of activity limitations in both children and adults with a variety of neuromuscular diseases. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Soucy J.,University of Quebec | Koubaa A.,University of Quebec | Migneault S.,University of Quebec | Riedl B.,University Laval
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology | Year: 2016

A comparative study was conducted using paper mill sludge from three different pulping processes at two primary sludge (PS) to secondary sludge (SS) ratios to better understand the role of PS and SS in the development of wood/high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composite properties. Sludge samples from a thermomechanical (TMP), chemico-thermomechanical (CTMP), and Kraft pulping process were used at three proportions (20, 30, and 40%) to produce different composites. Pulp and combined sludge samples were characterized by conventional chemical analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy enabled the characterization of the inorganic content in the sludge. Results showed that the variation in composite properties according to sludge type could be explained by the chemical composition, regardless of pulping process or SS:PS ratio. Ash and cellulose content were the dominant factors in explaining the composite mechanical properties, and nitrogen content, although low, was the dominant factor in explaining composite toughness. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

There are a number of benefits to practicing sport and physical activity. Unfortunately, it appears that fewer and fewer young people practice sport and, among these, many drop out. In Quebec, track and field is not immune to this phenomenon. Indeed, the Quebec Athletic Federation has seen a decrease in the number of participants over the past few years in the transition from the category 16-17 years old to the 18-19 yearold category. This study aims to better understand the phenomenon of the abandonment of track and field among youth aged 16-19 by identifying the factors that influenced their decision to abandon this sport. To identify factors, six athletes who quit track and field less than two years ago were interviewed. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews. Results suggest that the decision to quit track and field was influenced by several factors, such as: (a) new responsabilities, (b) injuries, (c) coach behavior, and (d) the practice of other sports. © 2015 Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières.

Jolicoeur M.S.,University Laval | Jolicoeur M.S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Brito A.F.,University of New Hampshire | Santschi D.E.,Valacta | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

The present study aimed to determine whether the improvement in postpartum energy balance frequently reported in cows under short dry period management could be due to an improvement in ruminal function related to the reduction in the number of diet changes before calving. Six multiparous and 6 primiparous Holstein cows equipped with ruminal cannula were assigned to 6 blocks of 2 cows each according to parity, projected milk production at 305 d, and expected calving date. Within each block, cows were randomly assigned to either a conventional (CDP; 63.2. ±. 2.0 d) or a short dry period (SDP; 35.2. ±. 2.0 d) management in a randomized complete block design. The CDP cows were fed a far-off diet until 28 d before calving, followed by a prepartum diet, whereas SDP cows received only the prepartum diet. After calving, both groups were fed the same lactation diet. Milk yield and dry matter intake (DMI) were recorded daily and milk composition, weekly. Blood samples were taken twice a week during the first 4 wk postcalving and weekly otherwise. Omasal and ruminal samples were collected approximately 3 wk prior and 3 wk after calving. From 28 d before calving until calving, when the 2 groups of cows were fed the same prepartum diet, there was no effect of the dry period length management on DMI, plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, and glucose and nutrient digestibility in the rumen. However, CDP cows tended to have lower ruminal pH and higher ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acids than SDP cows. From calving to 60 d in milk, daily DMI was higher for SDP than for CDP cows (22.3. ±. 0.44 vs. 20.7. ±. 0.30. kg), but milk production and milk concentrations and yields of fat, protein, and total solids were not affected by the dry period length management. After calving, body weight loss was reduced and body condition score tended to increase more rapidly for SDP than for CDP cows. Nutrient digestibility in the rumen, expressed in kilograms per day, was greater or tended to be greater for SDP cows, but differences were no longer significant when expressed per unit of nutrient ingested. The decrease in plasma nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in SDP cows without effect on milk yield suggests an improved energy balance likely due to greater DMI. Results from the present study seem to indicate that reducing the number of diet changes before calving could facilitate ruminal adaptation to the lactation diet and improve energy balance postpartum. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.

Sun Z.,University Laval | Sun Z.,Fudan University | Sedghkerdar M.H.,University of Calgary | Saayman J.,University of British Columbia | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2014

Highly stabilized mesoporous core-shell-structured CaO-based spheriform CO2 sorbents are fabricated, for the first time, by a novel repeated impregnation coating process combined with the mesoscopic surfactant-templating method. By adopting our established wet-coating strategy along with a sol-gel process, different mesoporous material-shelled sorbents with various shell thicknesses (1-5 μm) and shell compositions (silica/zirconia or pure zirconia) are synthesized. Cyclic CO2 capture performance is tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer with the core-shell pellet sorbents with a ∼1 μm mesoporous zirconia shell exhibiting an unprecedented CO2 uptake capacity of ∼7.2 moles CO2 per kg decarbonated sorbent and the lowest activity loss of only 30.8% after 20 cycles. This is attributed to the unique core-shell coating strategy in which the thermally stable Zr species prevent the aggregation and overgrowth of CaO crystals and sorbent sintering. When comparing the core-shell sorbents with Si-contained mesoporous shells, zirconia shelled ones exhibit significantly more outstanding performance. An attrition study using an air-jet apparatus under the standard test method reveals that the mesoporous zirconia shelled sorbent exhibits enhanced attrition resistance, which is also attributed to the novel core-shell design, offering protection for the reactive core. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Leclerc M.,University Laval | Simard J.,Laval University | Lakhal-Chaieb L.,University Laval
Genetic Epidemiology | Year: 2015

In this work, we propose a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) set association test for censored phenotypes in the presence of a family-based design. The proposed test is valid for both common and rare variants. A proportional hazards Cox model is specified for the marginal distribution of the trait and the familial dependence is modeled via a Gaussian copula. Censored values are treated as partially missing data and a multiple imputation procedure is proposed in order to compute the test statistics. The P-value is then deduced analytically. The finite-sample empirical properties of the proposed method are evaluated and compared to existing competitors by simulations and its use is illustrated using a breast cancer data set from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Sao Joao T.M.,University of Campinas | Rodrigues R.C.M.,University of Campinas | Gallani M.C.B.J.,University Laval | Miura C.T.P.,University of Campinas | And 3 more authors.
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2015

This study provides evidence of construct validity for the Brazilian version of the Godin- Shephard Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (GSLTPAQ), a 1-item instrument used among 236 participants referred for cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The Baecke Habitual Physical Activity Questionnaire (Baecke-HPA) was used to evaluate convergent and divergent validity. The self-reported measure of walking (QCAF) evaluated the convergent validity. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed convergent validity by the Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ), peak measured (VO2peak) and maximum predicted (VO2pred) oxygen uptake. Partial adjusted correlation coefficients between the GSLTPAQ, Baecke-HPA, QCAF, VO2pred and VSAQ provided evidence for convergent validity; while divergent validity was supported by the absence of correlations between the GSLTPAQ and the Occupational Physical Activity domain (Baecke-HPA). The GSLTPAQ presents level 3 of evidence of construct validity and may be useful to assess leisure-time physical activity among patients with cardiovascular disease and healthy individuals. © 2015, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz. All rights reserved.

Thoma B.,University of Saskatchewan | Poitras J.,University Laval | Penciner R.,University of Toronto | Sherbino J.,McMaster University | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2015

Introduction: The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada requires emergency medicine (EM) residency programs to meet training objectives relating to administration and leadership. The purpose of this study was to establish a national consensus on the competencies for inclusion in an EM administration and leadership curriculum. Methods: A modified Delphi process involving two iterative rounds of an electronic survey was used to achieve consensus on competencies for inclusion in an EM administration and leadership curriculum. An initial list of competencies was compiled using peer-reviewed and grey literature. The participants included 14 EM residency program directors and 43 leadership and administration experts from across Canada who were recruited using a snowball technique. The proposed competencies were organized using the CanMEDS Physician Competency Framework and presented in English or French. Consensus was defined a priori as > 70% agreement. Results: Nearly all (13 of 14) of the institutions with an FRCPC EM program had at least one participant complete both surveys. Thirty-five of 57 (61%) participants completed round 1, and 30 (53%) participants completed both rounds. Participants suggested an additional 16 competencies in round 1. The results of round 1 informed the decisions in round 2. Fifty-nine of 109 (54.1%) competencies achieved consensus for inclusion. Conclusions: Based on a national modified Delphi process, we describe 59 competencies for inclusion in an EM administration and leadership curriculum that was arranged by CanMEDS Role. EM educators may consider these competencies when designing local curricula. © Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians.

Desgagne V.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Guay S.-P.,Universite de Sherbrooke | Guerin R.,CIUSSS du Saguenay Lac St Jean | Corbin F.,Universite de Sherbrooke | And 3 more authors.
Epigenetics | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: A high consumption of trans fatty acids (TFAs) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have many cardioprotective properties and transport functional microRNAs (miRNAs) to recipient cells. We hypothesized that dietary TFAs modify the HDL-carried miRNA profile, therefore modulating its cardioprotective properties. We assessed whether consumption of dietary TFAs modifies HDL-carried miR-223-3p and miR-135a-3p concentration and the inter-relationship between diet-induced changes in HDL-carried miRNA concentration and CVD risk markers. In a double blind, randomized, crossover, controlled study, 9 men were fed each of 3 experimental isoenergetic diets: 1) High in industrial TFA (iTFA; 3.7% energy); 2) High in TFA from ruminants (rTFA; 3.7% energy); 3) Low in TFA (control; 0.8% energy) for 4 weeks each. HDLs were isolated by ultracentrifugation and miRNAs were quantified by RT-qPCR. Variations in HDL-miR-223-3p concentration were negatively correlated with variations in HDL-cholesterol after the iTFA diet (rs= 0.82; P = 0.007), and positively correlated with variations in C-reactive protein concentration after the rTFA diet (rs = 0.75; P = 0.020). Variations in HDL-miR-135a-3p concentration were positively correlated with variations in total triglyceride (TG) concentration following the iTFA diet (rs = −0.82; P = 0.007), and with variations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-TG concentration following the rTFA diet (rs = 0.83; P = 0.005), compared to the control diet. However, the consumption of dietary TFAs has no significant unidirectional impact on HDL-carried miR-223-3p and miR-135a-3p concentrations. Our results suggest that the variability in the HDL-carried miRNAs response to TFA intake, by being associated with variations in CVD risk factors, might reflect physiological changes in HDL functions. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Fekete C.-A.C.,University Laval | Fekete C.-A.C.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Doolan P.,University College London | Dias M.F.,Massachusetts General Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2015

To develop an accurate phenomenological model of the cubic spline path estimate of the proton path, accounting for the initial proton energy and water equivalent thickness (WET) traversed. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to calculate the path of protons crossing various WET (10-30 cm) of different material (LN300, water and CB2-50% CaCO3) for a range of initial energies (180-330 MeV). For each MC trajectory, cubic spline trajectories (CST) were constructed based on the entrance and exit information of the protons and compared with the MC using the root mean square (RMS) metric. The CST path is dependent on the direction vector magnitudes (|P0,1|). First, |P0,1| is set to the proton path length (with factor = 1.0). Then, two optimal factor are introduced in |P0,1|. The factors are varied to minimize the RMS difference with MC paths for every configuration. A set of factors, function of WET/water equivalent path length (WEPL), that minimizes the RMS are presented. MTF analysis is then performed on proton radiographs of a line-pair phantom reconstructed using the CST trajectories. was fitted to the WET/WEPL ratio using a quadratic function (Y = A + BX2 where A = 1.01,0.99, B = 0.43,- 0.46 respectively for , ). The RMS deviation calculated along the path, between the CST and the MC, increases with the WET. The increase is larger when using than (difference of 5.0% with WET/WEPL = 0.66). For 230/330 MeV protons, the MTF10% was found to increase by 40/16% respectively for a thin phantom (15 cm) when using the model compared to the model. Calculation times for are scaled down compared to MLP and RMS deviation are similar within standard deviation. Based on the results of this study, using CST with the factors reduces the RMS deviation and increases the spatial resolution when reconstructing proton trajectories. © 2015 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

Tessier V.P.,University Laval | Normandin L.,University Laval | Ensink K.,University Laval | Fonagy P.,University College London
Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic | Year: 2016

In Fonagy and Target's (1996, 2000) developmental model of mentalization, play is theorized as a precursor of later mentalization and reflective function (RF); however, the relationship between play and later mentalization and RF has yet to be empirically tested. These processes are particularly important in the context of trauma, but an empirical model of the relationships among mentalization, play, and trauma is currently lacking. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine whether children's capacity to engage in pretend play, to symbolize, and to make play narratives was associated with later RF in those children. Thirty-nine sexually abused children and 21 nonabused children (aged 3 to 8) participated in the study. The Children's Play Therapy Instrument was used to assess children's free play. Three years after the play assessment, children's RF was assessed using the Child Attachment Interview, coded with the Child and Adolescent Reflective Functioning Scale. Pretend play completion was associated with later other-understanding. Play was also found to mediate the relationship between sexual abuse and children's later mentalization regarding others. These findings are consistent with Fonagy and Target's emphasis on the role of pretend play in the development of a nuanced sense of the qualities of the mind and reality. In sum, the findings lend support to Fonagy and Target's account of playing with reality, and the development of mentalization suggests that it may be more than "fiction." Furthermore, these results suggest that children's ability to create meaningful and coherent play sequences after sexual abuse is associated with the development of a better understanding of their relationships with others. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. © 2016 The Menninger Foundation.

Desiage P.-A.,Institute des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski | Desiage P.-A.,General Electric | Lajeunesse P.,General Electric | Lajeunesse P.,University Laval | And 8 more authors.
Geomorphology | Year: 2015

The Pingualuit Crater, located in the Ungava Peninsula (northern Québec, Canada) is a 1.4-Ma-old impact crater hosting a ~. 245-m-deep lake. The lake has a great potential to preserve unique paleoclimatic and paleoecological sedimentary records of the last glacial/interglacial cycles in the terrestrial Canadian Arctic. In order to investigate the stratigraphy in the lake and the late Quaternary glacial history of the Pingualuit Crater, this study compiles data from three expeditions carried out in May 2007 (~ 9-m-long sediment core), in August 2010 (~ 50 km of seismic lines), and in September 2012 (high-resolution terrestrial LiDAR topography of the inner slopes). Despite the weak penetration (~ 10 m) of the 3.5-kHz subbottom profiling caused by the presence of boulders in the sedimentary column, seismic data coupled with the stratigraphy established from the sediment core enabled the identification of two glaciolacustrine units deposited during the final stages of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) retreat in the crater. Two episodes of postglacial mass wasting events were also identified on the slopes and in the deep basin of the crater. The high-resolution topography of the internal slopes of the crater generated from the LiDAR data permitted the confirmation of a paleolake level at 545. m and determination of the elevation of drainage outlets. Together with the mapping of glacial and deglacial landforms from air photographs, the LiDAR data allowed the development of a new deglaciation and drainage scenario for the Pingualuit Crater Lake and surrounding area. The model proposes three main phases of lake drainage, based on the activation of seven outlets following the retreat of the LIS front toward the southwest. Finally, as opposed to other high-latitude crater lake basins such as Lake El'gygytgyn or Laguna Potrok Aike where high-resolution paleoclimatic records were obtained owing to high sediment accumulation rates, the seismic data from the Pingualuit Crater Lake suggest extremely low sedimentation rates after the retreat of the LIS owing to the absence of tributaries. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Brotherton J.M.L.,National HPV Vaccination Program Register | Brotherton J.M.L.,University of Melbourne | Jit M.,Public Health England | Jit M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2016

This review is one of two complementary reviews that have been prepared in the framework of the Eurogin Roadmap 2015 to evaluate how knowledge about HPV is changing practices in HPV infection and disease control through vaccination and screening. In this review of HPV vaccine knowledge, we present the most significant findings of the past year which have contributed to our knowledge of the two HPV prophylactic vaccines currently in widespread use and about the recently licensed nonavalent HPV vaccine. Whereas anal cancer is dealt with in the companion mini-review on screening, we also review here the rapidly evolving evidence regarding HPV-associated head and neck cancer and priority research areas. © 2016 UICC.

Drolet M.,University Laval | Boily M.-C.,Imperial College London | Jit M.,Public Health England | Jit M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Background: Recent evidence suggests that two doses of HPV vaccines may be as protective as three doses in the short-term. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of two- and three-dose schedules of girls-only and girls & boys HPV vaccination programmes in Canada. Methods: We used HPV-ADVISE, an individual-based transmission-dynamic model of multi-type HPV infection and diseases (anogenital warts, and cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis and oropharynx). We conducted the analysis from the health payer perspective, with a 70-year time horizon and 3% discount rate, and performed extensive sensitivity analyses, including duration of vaccine protection and vaccine cost. Findings: Assuming 80% coverage and a vaccine cost per dose of $85, two-dose girls-only vaccination (vs. no vaccination) produced cost/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY)-gained varying between $7900-24,300. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of giving the third dose to girls (vs. two doses) was below $40,000/QALY-gained when: (i) three doses provide longer protection than two doses and (ii) two-dose protection was shorter than 30 years. Vaccinating boys (with two or three doses) was not cost-effective (vs. girls-only vaccination) under most scenarios investigated. Interpretation: Two-dose HPV vaccination is likely to be cost-effective if its duration of protection is at least 10 years. A third dose of HPV vaccine is unlikely to be cost-effective if two-dose duration of protection is longer than 30 years. Finally, two-dose girls & boys HPV vaccination is unlikely to be cost-effective unless the cost per dose for boys is substantially lower than the cost for girls. © 2014 The Authors.

Gruyer D.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Gruyer D.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Frankland J.D.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Bonnet E.,French Atomic Energy Commission | And 34 more authors.
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2015

In Xe129+Snnat central collisions from 8 to 25 MeV/nucleon, the three-fragment exit channel occurs with a significant cross section. We show that these fragments arise from two successive binary splittings of a heavy composite system. The sequence of fragment production is determined. Strong Coulomb proximity effects are observed in the three-fragment final state. A comparison with Coulomb trajectory calculations shows that the time scale between the consecutive breakups decreases with increasing bombarding energy, becoming quasisimultaneous above excitation energy E∗=4.0±0.5MeV/nucleon. This transition from sequential to simultaneous breakup was interpreted as the signature of the onset of multifragmentation for the three-fragment exit channel in this system. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Tremblay J.E.,University of Quebec | Tremblay J.E.,University Laval | Tremblay J.E.,Takuvik Joint International Laboratory | Raimbault P.,Aix - Marseille University | And 10 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2014

The concentrations and elemental stoichiometry of particulate and dissolved pools of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and silicon (Si) on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf during summer 2009 (MALINA program) were assessed and compared with those of surface waters provided by the Mackenzie river as well as by winter mixing and upwelling of upper halocline waters at the shelf break. Neritic surface waters showed a clear enrichment in dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC, respectively), nitrate, total particulate nitrogen (TPN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) originating from the river. Silicate as well as bulk DON and DOC declined in a near-conservative manner away from the delta's outlet, whereas nitrate dropped nonconservatively to very low background concentrations inside the brackish zone. By contrast, the excess of soluble reactive P (SRP) present in oceanic waters declined in a nonconservative manner toward the river outlet, where concentrations were very low and consistent with P shortage in the Mackenzie River. These opposite gradients imply that the admixture of Pacific-derived, SRP-rich water is necessary to allow phytoplankton to use river-derived nitrate and to a lesser extent DON. A coarse budget based on concurrent estimates of primary production shows that river N deliveries support a modest fraction of primary production when considering the entire shelf, due to the ability of phytoplankton to thrive in the subsurface chlorophyll maximum beneath the thin, nitrate-depleted river plume. Away from shallow coastal bays, local elevations in the concentration of primary production and dissolved organic constituents were consistent with upwelling at the shelf break. By contrast with shallow winter mixing, nutrient deliveries by North American rivers and upwelling relax surface communities from N limitation and permit a more extant utilization of the excess SRP entering through the Bering Strait. In this context, increased nitrogen supply by rivers and upwelling potentially alters the vertical distribution of the excess P exported into the North Atlantic. © Author(s) 2014.