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Osogbo, Nigeria

Olaitan P.B.,LAUTECH Teaching Hospital
Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria

Tear gas is a noxious vapour used in quelling civil disturbances. The law enforcement agents who usually handle this are well trained and rarely injured by the use of this weapon especially during peace times. We report injuries sustained by two policemen handling tear gas as a result of accidents. Case notes of the patients were the source of information. Two policemen were injured while handling tear gas. The equipment accidentally dropped and exploded on attempting to pick them. The mechanisms of injuries and parts of the body injured were similar ie the hands and face with traumatic cataract of an eye in one patient. We conclude that proper training of the law enforcement agents will go a long way in reducing these types of morbidity from tear gas use. Source

Mustapha A.F.,Ladoke Akintola University of Technology | Odu O.O.,Ladoke Akintola University of Technology | Akande O.,LAUTECH Teaching Hospital
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice

Background: The attitudes toward people with epilepsy are influenced by the degree of knowledge of the condition. The social problems encountered by school children with epilepsy as a result of negative attitude and beliefs are quite enormous. Objectives The study therefore looked at the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of teachers, who see a lot of epileptics, relate to them on a daily basis and have influence on them. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey, using a self-administered questionnaire obtained from the author of a similar study in the United States, was carried out among 269 school teachers randomly selected from various secondary schools in Osogbo, the Osun State capital in South-West Nigeria. The questionnaire included the scale of attitudes toward persons with epilepsy and knowledge about epilepsy as well as demographic and teaching experience survey among others. Results Despite the high level of education of the teachers ranging from Masters Degree to National Certificate in Education, there were significant deficits in terms of general knowledge about epilepsy (70% of the respondents reported their general knowledge about epilepsy in the lower half of the scale). There was also poor knowledge of the first aids measures in the classrooms. Below one-third (29.2%) felt it was contagious and 40% of respondents reported that sufferers should not be kept in regular classes. However, their attitudes toward epilepsy were generally positive. Conclusions and Recommendations: We concluded that teachers need to have health education courses on common disease conditions such as epilepsy that are prevalent in school age; this might help to reduce the prejudice and increase the acceptance of epileptic individuals in the classrooms. Also, generally public health campaigns should be encouraged in this field. Source

Adedeji T.O.,LAUTECH Teaching Hospital
The Pan African medical journal

Potentially catastrophic presentations and lifelong complications resulting from corrosive ingestions in humans is one of the most challenging situations encountered in clinical medical practice. This study reviewed pattern, mechanisms and associated socio-medical challenges with ingestion of corrosive agents as seen in a tertiary health institution in South-western Nigeria. A retrospective review of all patients that were managed for corrosive ingestion at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria, over a seven year period. A total of 28 patients M:F: 1.6:1. There were 7 children and 21 adults. Majority (78.6%) of the patients ingested alkaline substances. Accidental ingestion occurred in 28.6% while 71.4% resulted from deliberate self harm especially among adults (66.7%). Almost two thirds (64.3%) of the patients presented after 48hrs of ingestion. Patients who presented early were managed conservatively. Most patients (64.3%) who presented late had nutritional and fluid rehabilitation. Two patients died from oesophageal perforation and resulting septicaemia. Psychiatric evaluation revealed that seven adults (25%) had psychotic illness while (42.9%) of the patients developed oesophageal strictures. Short segment strictures were managed with oesophageal dilatation with good outcome while long and multiple segment strictures were referred to cardiothoracic surgeons for management. Corrosive oesophageal injuries remain a prevalent and preventable condition in the developing countries. Preventive strategies should include regulation and packaging of corrosive substances, organization of psychiatric services, and education of the population on corrosive ingestion. Source

Okunola O.,LAUTECH Teaching Hospital
African journal of medicine and medical sciences

To review available literature on the burden of kidney diseases in Africa from the perspective of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. It also aims to provide information on the status of renal replacement therapy activities, and the emerging roles of the double burden of communicable and non communicable diseases interfacing with the kidney in a continent with distinct environmental, socio-cultural, infrastructural and economical peculiarities. A literature search was conducted on the aetiopathogenesis, management options of peculiar diseases causing both acute kidney injury and chronic kidney diseases and renal replacement therapies in Africa. The literature review used the electronic database; Medline, Pubmed and theAfrican Journal on line (AJOL). Information related to the topic over a 30-year period (1979-2009) was retrieved and reviewed. Search terms used were; acute renal failure in Africa, acute kidney injury in Africa, chronic renal failure/chronic kidney disease in Africa, heamodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and transplantation in Africa. Nephrotoxins and infections are prevalent causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the continent. Chronic glomerulonephritis, hypertension and lately diabetes mellitus are still major peculiar aetiological factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A variety of renal syndromes which can be acute or chronic is associated with the Human immunodiefficency virus infection and its magnitude and consequences portend a grim reality in a continent that is least prepared to respond appropriately. Renal replacement therapy therapy is limited to less than five percent of those that need it especially in the sub-Saharan Africa. There is a huge burden of AKI and CKD in Africa from the perspective of their peculiar aetiological considerations. The status of renal replacement therapy activities is poor except in North and South Africa. The major challenges of kidney diseases in Africa include the high prevalence, delayed presentation, cost of treatment, general lack of preventive measures, lack of epidemiological studies and general lack of functional renal registries. There is thus a need for a strong advocacy for support for renal care in Africa. Source

Left ventricular hypertrophy can be due to various reasons including hypertension. It constitutes an increased cardiovascular risk. Various left ventricular geometric patterns occur in hypertension and may affect the cardiovascular risk profile of hypertensive subjects. One hundred and eighty eight hypertensive participated in this study. Left ventricular hypertrophy was diagnosed by echocardiography. Relative wall thickness was derived by 2 × PWT/LVIDd. Subjects were arbitrarily categorized according to the duration of hypertension. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 15.0. The mean age of the study population was 55.95±10.71 years. Subjects who had hypertension for >5 years were more likely to be older and had a lower ejection fraction, larger left ventricular diastolic internal dimension than those with duration of hypertension <5 years. Concentric remodeling was the commonest left ventricular geometric pattern among the hypertensive subjects closely followed by normal left ventricular geometry. Concentric hypertrophy and eccentric hypertrophy were rare among the study population.Left ventricular geometry was associated mainly with left ventricular chamber and wall dimensions. Concentric remodeling is the commonest pattern of left ventricular geometric pattern of the left ventricle among hypertensive subjects. Left ventricular geometry is associated with the chamber and wall dimensions. Eccentric hypertrophy is associated with the lowest left ventricular systolic function and therefore possibly an herald to progressive systolic impairment. Source

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