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Weckwerth P.H.,Sacred Heart University of Brazil | De Mattias Franco A.T.,Sacred Heart University of Brazil | De Magalhaes Lopes C.A.,São Paulo State University | Dos Santos F.,Sacred Heart University of Brazil | And 3 more authors.
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal | Year: 2014

Objective: To characterize the microbial etiology of chronic suppurative otitis media comparing the methods of classical bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction. Design/Setting/Patients: Bacteriological analysis by classical culture and by molecular polymerase chain reaction of 35 effusion otitis samples from patients with cleft lip and palate attending the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies of the University of São Paulo, Bauru, Brazil. Interventions: Collection of clinical samples of otitis by effusion through the external auditory tube. Main Outcome Measure: Otolaryngologic diagnosis of chronic suppurative otitis media. Results: Positive cultures were obtained from 83% of patients. Among the 31 bacterial lineages the following were isolated. In order of decreasing frequency: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (54.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (25.9%), and Enterococcus faecalis (19.2%). No anaerobes were isolated by culture. The polymerase chain reaction was positive for one or more bacteria investigated in 97.1% of samples. Anaerobe lineages were detected by the polymerase chain reaction method, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius. Conclusions: Patients with cleft lip and palate with chronic suppurative otitis media presented high frequency of bacterial infection in the middle ear. The classical bacteriological culture did not detect strict anaerobes, whose presence was identified by the polymerase chain reaction method. © Copyright 2014 American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association.

De Souza Malaspina T.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Gasparoto T.H.,University of Sao Paulo | Costa M.R.S.N.,Institute Lauro Of Souza Lima | De Melo Jr. E.F.,Institute Lauro Of Souza Lima | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy | Year: 2011

PD-1 and PD-L1 can be involved in tumor escape, and little is known about the role of these molecules in oral tumors or pre-malignant lesions. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in the blood and lesion samples of patients with actinic cheilitis (AC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Our results showed that lymphocytes from peripheral blood and tissue samples exhibited high expression of PD-1 in both groups analyzed. Patients with AC presented higher percentage as well as the absolute numbers of CD4+PD-1+ and CD8+PD-1+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) than healthy individuals, while patients with OSCC presented an increased frequency of CD8+PD1 + in PBMC when compared with controls. On the other hand, increased frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing PD-1 + accumulate in samples from OSCC, and the expression of PD-L1 was intense in OSCC and moderate in AC lesion sites. Lower levels of IFN-γ and higher levels of TGF-β were detected in OSCC samples. Our data demonstrate that PD-1 and PD-L1 molecules are present in blood and samples of AC and OSCC patients. Further studies are required to understand the significance of PD-1 and PD-L1 in oral tumors microenvironment. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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