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Manish K.,Karpagam University | Kulkarni G.T.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology

The main purpose of this study is developed and drug loaded nanoparticles of azelastine hydrochloride, an antiallergic drug and optimization in terms of chemical properties, drug concentration, polymer concentration, cross-linking agent and stirring time. Nanoparticles of azelastine hydrochloride were fabricated using chitosan and sodium alginate as polymers by ionotropic pregelation method. Calcium chloride was also included in the formulation for pregelation of sodium alginate. Chitosan and sodium alginate suspension further crosslinked with calcium chloride. Different formulations of nanoparticles were prepared using different concentrations of chitosan, stirringtime of rotation and polymers to drug ratio in the nanoparticles. The average particle size ranged between 232.30 nm to 638.3 nm. Drug entrapment ranged between 70.00%-92.2%. The result indicated that the drug loaded nanoparticles of azelastine hydrochloride showed optimum particle size, maximum drug entrapment, zeta potential (>30)with drug polymer ratio 05:75, cross-linking agents 0.5 ml, stirring rate 800 rpm and stirring time 30 min. Source

Agrawal S.,Crossing tech | Kulkarni G.T.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy | Sharma V.N.,Crossing tech
Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences

In this study, antioxidant activity of methanol extract of Acacia nilotica (AN) and Berberis chitria (BC) were evaluated using different in vitro methods. ABTS, DPPH, Nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities were used as standard methods of evaluation of antioxidant properties. Total phenolic content of the selected extracts was estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu method and correlated with antioxidant properties of the extracts. Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and Ascorbic acid (ASC) were used as the reference antioxidant compounds. Both the extracts were found to possess significant antioxidant property. Among the two, Acacia nioltica had higher antioxidant property than Berberis chitria. The antioxidant property was directly related to the total phenolic content of the extract, which was found to be 9.88 and 2.73 μg/ml, respectively for AN and BC. From the above studies it can be suggested that Acacia nilotica could be used as an antioxidant, probably for the treatment of diseases related to free radicals, such as, cancer, diabetes, etc. Further studies are needed on the isolation and identification of antioxidant compounds in AN to prove its worth as antioxidant drug. © 2010, American Eurasian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Malipeddi V.R.,Amity University | Awasthi R.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy | Dua K.,University of Newcastle
Interventional Medicine and Applied Science

Metoprolol tartrate is rapidly absorbed from both gastric and intestinal regions, after oral administration. To retard the release rate of the metoprolol tartrate, microspheres were prepared with varying concentrations of a mixture containing ethylcellulose and polyethylene glycol-6000. The prepared microspheres were evaluated for various physicochemical characteristics and in vitro drug release. The percent yield of microspheres was in the range of 75.2-87.3%. The particle size of microspheres was found to be in the range of 73.2-85.5 μm. Fourier transform-infrared spectral analysis and differential scanning calorimetry concluded the absence of any interaction between the drug and the carriers. The release time profile of metoprolol tartrate from microspheres in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution was to the extent of 33.4-60.2%. The complete release of metoprolol tartrate occurred from MPT-3 and MPT-4 in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) within 8 and 7 h, respectively, whereas the incomplete release (72.3%) occurred from MPT-1. Nearly, the complete release (98.5%) of metoprolol occurred from MPT-2 in 10 h. Formulation MPT-2 would be a preferred formulation. The release of metoprolol involves diffusion rate limited (R2 = 0.9865) as a mechanism from drug release. The prepared microspheres of metoprolol tartrate eliminate the need for multiple dosing and provide patient compliance. © 2016 The Author(s). Source

Dhankar V.,Spectrum Institute of Pharmaceutical science and Research | Garg G.,Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology | Awasthi R.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy
Polimery w medycynie

Mucoadhesion enables localization of drugs to a defined region of the gastrointestinal tract through attractive interactions between polymers composing the drug delivery devices and the mucin layer of the intestinal epithelium. Thus, this approach can be used for enhancement of the oral bioavailability of the drug. The current communication deals with the development of ranitidine hydrochloride-loaded chitosan-based mucoadhesive microspheres. Microspheres were prepared by water-in-oil emulsion technique, using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The effect of independent variables like stirring speed and polymer-to-drug ratio on dependent variables, i.e. percentage mucoadhesion, percentage drug loading, particle size and swelling index, was examined using a 3(2); factorial design. The microspheres were discrete, spherical, free-flowing and also showed high percentage drug entrapment efficiency (43-70%). An in vitro mucoadhesion test showed that the microspheres adhered strongly to the mucous layer for an extended period of time. The RC 4 batch exhibited a high percentage of drug encapsulation (70%) and mucoadhesion (75%). The drug release was sustained for more than 12 h. The drug release kinetics were found to follow Peppas' kinetics for all the formulations and the drug release was diffusion controlled. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the developed microspheres containing ranitidine hydrochloride could enhance drug entrapment efficiency, reduce the initial burst release and modulate the drug release. Source

The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize levocetirizine hydrochloride loaded liposome of by film hydration technique followed by sonication. Sorbitol was added to facilitate the hydration of dried liposome into vesicles or to prepare rehydration system. The liposomes were characterized for size, shape, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release and stability. The morphology of liposomes was characterized through a phase-contrast microscope and transmission electron microscope. The percent entrapment efficiency and particle size varied between 55.6 ± 0.21 to 81.2 ± 0.52 and 15.73 ± 0.99 to 24.52 ± 0.97 μm, respectively. The drug release increased at higher concentration of phospholipids. On the other hand, the drug release was decreased at higher concentration of cholesterol. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the developed multi-lamellar vesicles containing levocetirizine hydrochloride could enhance drug entrapment efficiency, reduce the initial burst release and modulate the drug release. Source

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