Laureate Institute of Pharmacy

Himachal Pradesh, India

Laureate Institute of Pharmacy

Himachal Pradesh, India
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Rana R.K.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research | Year: 2014

Myrica nagi Thunb. (Syn. Box myrtle) (Myricaceae) is a subtropical tree widely distributed throughout the mid-Himalayas. It has been traditionally used for the treatment of various disorders such as liver diseases, fever, asthma, anemia, chronic dysentery, ulcer and inflammation but it is not scientifically proven. The present communication deals with the antioxidant activity of the polar, non polar and methanolic extracts of Myrica nagi bark powder. Phenolic and Flavonoid content was observed highest in the polar extract of M. nagi and least in the non polar extract of M. nagi. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The highest radical scavenging was observed in the polar extract of M. nagi with IC50 = 296.53μg/ml. All these findings reveal the antioxidant activity of polar extract of M.nagi bark may be because of presence of high amount of flavonoids and phenolic constituents. The results indicate that M. nagi can be utilized as natural antioxidant. © 2014 International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research.


Ali M.S.,Himachal Pradesh University | Pandit V.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy | Jain M.,Himachal Pradesh University | Dhar K.L.,Himachal Pradesh University
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research | Year: 2014

The purpose of the present research was to develop and characterize mucoadhesive microspheres of curcumin for the potential use of treating gastric adenocarcinoma, gastric and duodenal ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori. Curcumin mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared using ethyl cellulose as a matrix and carbopol 934P as a mucoadhesive polymer by an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Response surface methodology was used for optimization of formulation using central composite design (CCD) for two factors at three levels each was employed to study the effect of independent variables, drug:polymer:polymer ratio (curcumin:ethylcellulose:carbopol 934P)(X 1) and surfactant concentration (X2) on dependent variables, namely drug entrapment efficiency (DEE), percentage mucoadhesion (PM), in vitro drug release and particle size (PS). Optimized formulation was obtained using desirability approach of numerical optimization. The experimental values of DEE, PM, % release and PS after 8 h for the optimized formulation were found to be 50.256 ± 1.38%, 66.23%±0.06, 73.564 ± 1.32%, and 139.881 ± 2.56 μm, respectively, which were in close agreement with those predicted by the mathematical models. The drug release was also found to be slow and extended more than 8 h and release rates were fitted to the Power law equation and Higuchi model to compute the diffusional parameters. The prolonged stomach residence time of curcumin mucoadhesive microspheres might make a contribution to H. pylori complete eradication in combination with other antimicrobial agents.


Malipeddi V.R.,Amity University | Dua K.,University of Newcastle | Awasthi R.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy
Drug Delivery and Translational Research | Year: 2016

The present study aimed to improve solubility and prolong the release duration of a poorly soluble drug using a combination of two different types of formulations (solid dispersion and microspheres). The solid dispersions were prepared by fusion method using urea and mannitol as hydrophilic carriers. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit L-100 (EL100) and Eudragit RS PO (ERS) as rate-controlling polymers. Flurbiprofen (FBP)-urea (1:2) solid dispersion and microspheres of FBP-EL-100-ERS (1:0.25:0.75) were used for the development of controlled release formulation by mixing them in different proportions. The FBP-containing formulations were evaluated for percentage yield, drug content, morphology, in vitro release, and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. The best selected formulation was further evaluated for the controlled and improved effects. SEM photomicrograph confirmed the spherical shape of microspheres and with particle size in the range of 73.5–85.4 μm. In vitro release of FBP from controlled release formulations indicated that the formulation containing solid dispersion:microspheres (1:0.5) yielded prolonged effect up to 10 h. The release kinetics followed zero-order, and the mechanism of drug release was found to be diffusion rate controlled. This formulation had shown better inhibition of edema of rat paw up to 16 h and identified as a suitable product for controlled delivery of FBP. In conclusion, the concept of using a binary mixture of solid dispersion and microspheres can be used for other drugs that exhibit a poor solubility in stomach pH and a faster release in intestinal pH. © 2016, Controlled Release Society.


Khatri S.,Ram Eesh Institute of Vocational and Training Education | Awasthi R.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy
Drug Delivery and Translational Research | Year: 2016

The purpose of this investigation was to prepare and characterize acyclovir loaded floating microspheres by emulsification solvent evaporation method. Piperine was added to investigate its effect on acyclovir bioavailability. The microspheres were characterized for size, shape, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters. The morphological characterization of microspheres was done using a scanning electron microscope. The microspheres were spherical and had particle size in the range of 400 to 525 μm. The percent drug entrapment efficiency varied between 56.12 ± 1.32 % to 87.32 ± 5.28 %. The drug release was decreased at higher polymer concentrations. Nearly two times higher AUC0–24 value of acyclovir-loaded piperine containing microspheres (15614.13 ± 6953.13 ng h ml−1) was observed as compared to the drug solution (7552.33 ± 3219.09 ng h ml−1). Under the accelerated storage conditions, the best selected formulation was found to be stable for 90 days. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the developed microspheres containing acyclovir could enhance drug entrapment efficiency, reduce initial burst release, and prolong the drug release with enhanced bioavailability. © 2016, Controlled Release Society.


Awasthi R.,Jawaharlal Nehru University | Awasthi R.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy | Kulkarni G.T.,ITM University
Drug Delivery | Year: 2016

A major constraint in oral controlled release drug delivery is that not all the drug candidates are absorbed uniformly throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Drugs having "absorption window" are absorbed in a particular portion of GIT only or are absorbed to a different extent in various segments of the GIT. Thus, only the drug released in the region preceding and in close vicinity to the absorption window is available for absorption. The drug must be released from the dosage form in solution form; otherwise, it is generally not absorbed. Hence, much research has been dedicated to the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems that may optimize the bioavailability and subsequent therapeutic efficacy of such drugs, as these systems have unique properties to bypass the gastric emptying process. These systems show excellent in vitro results but fail to give desirable in vivo performance. During the last 2-3 decades, researchers from the academia and industries are giving considerable importance in this field. Unfortunately, till date, few so-called gastroretentive dosage forms have been brought to the market in spite of numerous academic publications. The manuscript considers strategies that are commonly used in the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems with a special attention on various parameters, which needs to be monitored during formulation development. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Awasthi R.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy | Kulkarni G.T.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy
Current Drug Delivery | Year: 2012

The objective of present project was to improve the dissolution profile of gliclazide by developing floating alginate beads using various biodegradable polymers like gelatin, pectin and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). The floating beads were prepared by a simple ionotropic gelatin method using calcium carbonate as gas generating agent. The developed beads were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared beads showed good in vitro floatation, which was dependent on the concentration of gas forming agent. SEM photomicrographs confirmed that the developed beads were spherical in shape and had particle size in the range of 730 to 890 m. The incorporation efficiency was found to be in the range of 59.96 to 85.1%. The cumulative percent drug release from the beads after 10 h dissolution study at pH 1.2 and pH 5.8 was in the range of 33 to 46% and 82 to 95% respectively. The concentration of the gas generating agent was found to influence the release rate. The mechanism of drug release was Fickian diffusion with swelling. The in vivo sub-acute hypoglycemic study in high fat diet induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice demonstrated significant (p <0.05) hypoglycemic effect over a period of 12 h and 24 h, respectively, with HPMC and pectin beads. A significant (p <0.05) reduction in fasting and non-fasting blood glucose levels, reduction in fasting plasma insulin level and a significant improvement in glucose tolerance were observed in animals treated with formulations. The developed beads were suitable carriers for improving the systemic absorption of gliclazide and maintaining reduced blood glucose levels. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.


Awasthi R.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to evaluate rheological properties of pectin solutions to determine the influence of polymer concentration, pH, preservatives and heating duration on viscosity, using Brookfield R/S Plus Rheometer. The results shows that dilute pectin solutions are showing Newtonian, but at a moderate concentration they exhibit the non-Newtonian behavior, and the psudoplastic nature was found to increase with concentration. As the pH of the polymer solution lowered there was increase in viscosity of the system observed, this may be due do the carboxyl acid groups on the pectin chains are neutralize i.e. reduction in ionization, and leads to reduction in hydration of the carboxylic acid groups. As a result of reduced ionisation, the polysaccharide molecules do not repel each other over their entire length. The result shows that pectin solutions are stable at broad range of pH. It was observed that as the temperature or pH of the system increases there was decrease in viscosity.


Manish K.,Rajiv Academy for Pharmacy | Kulkarni G.T.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2012

In the present update on ocular drug delivery system, particulate carrier, the tremendous advances in ocular drug delivery system, the polymers used in particulate carriers for ocular dosage forms, the use of drug complexes and other technological advances are discussed. This review focuses on recent literature regarding mucoadhesive particulate dosage forms with special attention to in vivo studies.


Srivastav P.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy
Current drug delivery | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize levocetirizine hydrochloride loaded liposome of by film hydration technique followed by sonication. Sorbitol was added to facilitate the hydration of dried liposome into vesicles or to prepare rehydration system. The liposomes were characterized for size, shape, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release and stability. The morphology of liposomes was characterized through a phase-contrast microscope and transmission electron microscope. The percent entrapment efficiency and particle size varied between 55.6 ± 0.21 to 81.2 ± 0.52 and 15.73 ± 0.99 to 24.52 ± 0.97 μm, respectively. The drug release increased at higher concentration of phospholipids. On the other hand, the drug release was decreased at higher concentration of cholesterol. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the developed multi-lamellar vesicles containing levocetirizine hydrochloride could enhance drug entrapment efficiency, reduce the initial burst release and modulate the drug release.


Awasthi R.,Jawaharlal Nehru University | Awasthi R.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy | Kulkarni G.T.,Laureate Institute of Pharmacy
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy | Year: 2014

Aim: The current communication deals with the development of hollow floating beads of gliclazide. The primary effect of this drug is to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic islet-β-cells by induction of a decrease in potassium efflux from these cells. Because of the poor aqueous solubility, its absorption is limited. Thus, an attempt was made to improve its release profile. Methods: The hollow drug-loaded alginate beads in combination with low methoxyl pectin and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) were prepared by a simple ionotropic gelation method. The beads were evaluated for particle size and morphology using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Mucoadhesion test was done using goat stomach mucosal membrane. Release characteristics of the gliclazide-loaded hollow beads were studied in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) and phosphate buffer (pH 5.8). Results: The developed beads were spherical in shape with hollow internal structure and had a particle size in the range of 0.730 ± 0.05 to 0.890 ± 0.03 mm. The incorporation efficiency of alginate-pectin beads was higher than alginate-HPMC beads. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction analysis showed stable character of drug in the drug-loaded hollow beads and revealed the absence of any drug-polymer interactions. The beads remained buoyant for more than 12 h. The drug release from beads followed Fickian diffusion with swelling. Conclusion: The preliminary results of this study suggest that the developed beads containing gliclazide could enhance drug entrapment efficiency, reduce the initial burst release and modulate the drug release. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

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