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Tulsa, OK, United States

Singh R.,Oklahoma State University | Bullard J.,Oklahoma State University | Kalra M.,Oklahoma State University | Kalra M.,Laureate Institute of Brain Research | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011

Epidemiological data on bacterial translocation (BT), colonization and inflammation in normal human livers is lacking. In this study we investigated the status of bacterial colonization and inflammation in the normal, cirrhotic primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) human liver tissues. Comparatively normal livers showed increased bacterial colonization than PBC and NASH. We analyzed mRNA levels of Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and TLR4, and protein levels of TLR4. Phosphorylated IKKα (pIKKα) protein estimation served as a marker for nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. In spite of the increased bacterial colonization in normal liver tissues, lower levels of TLR2/4 mRNA and TLR4 and pIKKα proteins were found compared to PBC and NASH indicating the maintenance of suppressed inflammation and immune tolerance in normal livers. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical evidence showing suppressed inflammation despite bacterial colonization in normal human livers thus maintaining liver immune homeostasis. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Ding L.,University of Oklahoma | Ding L.,Laureate Institute of Brain Research | Shou G.,University of Oklahoma | Yuan H.,Laureate Institute of Brain Research | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2014

The long-lasting neuromodulatory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are of great interest for therapeutic applications in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, due to which functional connectivity among brain regions is profoundly disturbed. Classic TMS studies selectively alter neural activity in specific brain regions and observe neural activity changes on nonperturbed areas to infer underlying connectivity and its changes. Less has been indicated in direct measures of functional connectivity and/or neural network and on how connectivity/network alterations occur. Here, we developed a novel analysis framework to directly investigate both neural activity and connectivity changes induced by rTMS from resting-state EEG (rsEEG) acquired in a group of subjects with a chronic disorder of imbalance, known as the mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS). Resting-state activity in multiple functional brain areas was identified through a data-driven blind source separation analysis on rsEEG data, and the connectivity among them was characterized using a phase synchronization measure. Our study revealed that there were significant long-lasting changes in resting-state neural activity, in theta, low alpha, and high alpha bands and neural networks in theta, low alpha, high alpha and beta bands, over broad cortical areas 4 to 5 h after the last application of rTMS in a consecutive five-day protocol. Our results of rsEEG connectivity further indicated that the changes, mainly in the alpha band, over the parietal and occipital cortices from pre-to post-TMS sessions were significantly correlated, in both magnitude and direction, to symptom changes in this group of subjects with MdDS. This connectivity measure not only suggested that rTMS can generate positive treatment effects in MdDS patients, but also revealed new potential targets for future therapeutic trials to improve treatment effects. It is promising that the new connectivity measure from rsEEG can be used to understand the variability in treatment response to rTMS in brain disorders with impaired functional connectivity and, eventually, to determine individually tailored stimulation parameters and treatment procedures in rTMS. © 2014 IEEE.

Shou G.,University of Oklahoma | Yuan H.,Laureate Institute of Brain Research | Urbano D.,Laureate Institute of Brain Research | Cha Y.-H.,Laureate Institute of Brain Research | Ding L.,University of Oklahoma
2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2014 | Year: 2014

Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS) is a chronic disorder of imbalance characterized by a feeling of rocking and swaying. The medical treatment for MdDS is still limited. Motivated by our previous pilot study that demonstrates the promising clinical efficacy of repetitive transcranial stimulation (rTMS) in MdDS patients, a novel rTMS paradigm, i.e., 1 Hz stimulation over ipsilateral dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) with respect to the dominant hand followed by 10 Hz stimulation over contralateral DLPFC, was proposed and conducted in MdDS in the present study. To evaluate the potential efficacy, we examined the changes before and after rTMS in both subjective reported symptom using visual analogue scale (VAS) and direct brain activity in resting state electroencephalography (rsEEG). To disentangle activity from distinct brain substrates and/or local networks in rsEEG signals, a group-wise independent component analysis was employed and the corresponding spectral power changes were examined in the identified components. In general, reduction in rocking sensation was reported in five of ten subjects (with dramatic reductions (changes > 30) in three subjects) after rTMS using the present paradigm, while no changes and slight increases in rocking sensation were reported in the remaining subjects. In rsEEG, significant elevated spectral powers in low frequency bands (i.e., theta and alpha) over broad areas of occipital, parietal, motor, and prefrontal cortices were induced by rTMS, reflecting the enhancement of cortical inhibition over these areas. Meanwhile, the significant correlations between changes in rsEEG and VAS scores were detected in the high frequency bands (i.e., high alpha and beta) over posterior parietal and left visual areas, reflecting the suppression of spatial information processing. Therefore, the present findings demonstrate the promising clinical efficacy of a new rTMS paradigm for MdDS, and suggest its merit for further studies in more patients. © 2014 IEEE.

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