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Grenoble, France

The Institut Laue–Langevin, or ILL, is an internationally financed scientific facility, situated in Grenoble, France. It is one of the world centres for research using neutrons. Founded in 1967 and honouring the physicists Max von Laue and Paul Langevin, the ILL currently provides one of the most intense neutron sources in the world and the most intense continuous neutron flux in the world in the moderator region: 1.5x1015 neutrons per second per cm2, with a thermal power of 58.3 MW. The ILL neutron scattering facilities provide an indispensable analytical tool for the analysis of the structure of novel conducting and magnetic materials for future electronic devices, the measurement of stresses in mechanical materials, and investigations into how complex molecular assemblies behave, particularly in a biological environment. The ILL also tackles questions relating to the fundamental properties of matter.The institute was founded by France and Germany, with the United Kingdom becoming the third major partner in 1973. These partner states provide, through Research Councils, the bulk of its funding. Ten other countries have since become partners. Scientists of institutions in the member states may apply to use the ILL facilities, and may invite scientists from other countries to participate. Experimental time is allocated by a scientific council involving ILL users. The use of the facility and travel costs for researchers are paid for by the institute. Commercial use, for which a fee is charged, is not subject to the scientific council review process. Over 750 experiments are completed every year, in fields including magnetism, superconductivity, materials engineering, and the study of liquids, colloids and biological substances. The high-flux research reactor produces neutrons through fission in a specially designed, compact-core fuel element. Neutron moderators cool the neutrons to useful wavelengths, which are then directed at a suite of instruments and used to probe the structure and behaviour of many forms of matter by elastic and inelastic neutron scattering, and to probe the fundamental physical properties of the neutron. Nothing goes to waste: Fission products and gamma rays produced by nuclear reactions in the reactor core are also used by specialised instruments, which forms an important part of the instrument suite.An ambitious modernisation programme was launched in 2000, through the design of new neutron infrastructure and the introduction of new instruments and instrument upgrades. The first phase has already resulted in 17-fold gains in performance. The second phase has started in 2008, it comprises the building of 5 new instruments, the upgrade of 4 others, and the installation of 3 new neutron guides.The ILL shares its site, the 'epn science campus', with other institutions including the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory and the Unit for Viral Host Cell Interactions . Wikipedia.

Nozieres P.,Laue Langevin Institute
Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics | Year: 2012

Condensed matter physics has changed since the fifties: I attempt to retrace its evolution in the light of my own trajectory. It was and it remains a living field, in constant renewal. New ideas, new concepts keep appearing along with new experimental and theoretical tools. The danger lies in the bureaucratic evolution of scientific research, which might sterilize imagination and innovation. The future lies in the hands of young physicists who should defend their independence and creativity against fashions and competition. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Wacklin H.P.,Laue Langevin Institute
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2010

Neutron reflection has become a popular tool to study supported lipid membranes, demonstrating the advantages of the structural and compositional insights given by H/D contrast variation in biophysical membrane studies. While technical advances such as magnetic contrast variation and new data-analysis techniques have increased the accuracy of data modeling and interpretation, the use of complementary techniques has widened the range of membrane applications studied and allowed the investigation of more complex systems. This review describes the major technical developments in the membrane systems studied as well as their rapidly increasing number of applications. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Bacot V.,Laue Langevin Institute
Nature Physics | Year: 2016

Wave control is usually performed by spatially engineering the properties of a medium. Because time and space play similar roles in wave propagation, manipulating time boundaries provides a complementary approach. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the relevance of this concept by introducing instantaneous time mirrors. We show with water waves that a sudden change of the effective gravity generates time-reversed waves that refocus at the source. We generalize this concept for all kinds of waves, introducing a universal framework which explains the effect of any time disruption on wave propagation. We show that sudden changes of the medium properties generate instant wave sources that emerge instantaneously from the entire space at the time disruption. The time-reversed waves originate from these ‘Cauchy sources’, which are the counterpart of Huygens virtual sources on a time boundary. It allows us to revisit the holographic method and introduce a new approach for wave control. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group Source

Dupuis A.-C.,Laue Langevin Institute
Progress in Materials Science | Year: 2011

Given the energy problem that our society is facing, interest has been growing in the so-called hydrogen economy. In this system, fuel cells play an essential part. This paper gives an overview of the different materials currently thought to be potential proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells operated at medium temperatures (100-200 °C). This includes perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membranes like Nafion® but Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, Franceese materials will be given. The most frequently used experimental techniques to study the morphology of these membrane materials and their proton conduction mechanisms and water transport will be reviewed and presented. The aim of this review is double: to help scientists and science managers not yet in this field to easily gain an overview of the state-of-the-art membrane materials and the experimental techniques used to study them; and to give insight to scientists already carrying out research on membrane materials on how to extend their research either on other materials or with other experimental techniques. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

The aim of this work was to study the diversity of vaginal lactobacilli in Lebanese women and to evaluate the antagonism, hydrophobicity, and safety characteristics of these strains. This study was performed on samples from 135 women who visited a gynecology clinic in the north of Lebanon, between September 2012 and January 2013. From these samples, 53 different isolates of vaginal lactobacilli were collected from vaginal swabs and identified using biochemical and molecular methods. The use of genotypic Rep-PCR fingerprinting allowed for the organization of these isolates into 23 different groups. Seven of the isolated lactobacilli were antagonistic against the following vaginal pathogens: Gardnerella vaginalis CIP7074T, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC33862, Escherichia coli CIP103982, and Candida albicans ATCC10231. The antagonistic lactobacilli strains were then identified using 16S rDNA sequence. The data of this study show that the antagonistic lactobacilli were non-hemolytic, sensitive to most antibiotic tests, free of plasmid DNA, and exhibited interesting hydrophobicity and autoaggregation properties positioning them as potential candidates for probiotic design. Source

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