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Arsenyan P.,Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2014

A simple strategy for the preparation of novel selenopheno[3,2-b] and [2,3-b]thiophenes by treatment of ethynylthiophenes with selenium(I), (II), and (IV) chlorides and bromides is elaborated. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Versilovskis A.,Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis | de Saeger S.,Ghent University
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2010

Sterigmatocystin (STC) is a mycotoxin produced by fungi of many different Aspergillus species. Other species such as Bipolaris, Chaetomium, Emiricella are also able to produce STC. STC producing fungi were frequently isolated from different foodstuffs, while STC was regularly detected in grains, corn, bread, cheese, spices, coffee beans, soybeans, pistachio nuts, animal feed and silage. STC shows different toxicological, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects in animals and has been recognized as a 2B carcinogen (possible human carcinogen) by International Agency for Research on Cancer. There are more than 775 publications available in Scopus (and more than 505 in PubMed) mentioning STC, but there is no summary information available about STC occurrence and analysis in food. This review presents an overview of the worldwide information on the occurrence of STC in different foodstuffs during the last 40 years, and describes the progress made in analytical metho - dology for the determination of STC in food. © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Source

Kuka J.,Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis
Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology and therapeutics | Year: 2012

Mildronate, an inhibitor of L-carnitine biosynthesis and uptake, is a cardioprotective drug whose mechanism of action is thought to rely on the changes in concentration of L-carnitine in heart tissue. In the present study, we compared the cardioprotective effect of mildronate (100 mg/kg) and a combination of mildronate and L-carnitine (100 + 100 mg/kg) administered for 14 days with respect to the observed changes in l-carnitine level and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I)-dependent fatty acid metabolism in the heart tissues. Concentrations of L-carnitine and its precursor γ-butyrobetaine (GBB) were measured by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, mitochondrial respiration, activity of CPT-I, and expression of CPT-IA/B messenger RNA (mRNA) were measured. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Administration of mildronate induced a 69% decrease in L-carnitine concentration and a 6-fold increase in GBB concentration in the heart tissue as well as a 27% decrease in CPT-I-dependent mitochondrial respiration on palmitoyl-coenzyme A. In addition, mildronate treatment induced a significant reduction in infarct size and also diminished the ischemia-induced respiration stimulation by exogenous cytochrome c. Treatment with a combination had no significant impact on L-carnitine concentration, CPT-I-dependent mitochondrial respiration, and infarct size. Our results demonstrated that the mildronate-induced decrease in L-carnitine concentration, concomitant decrease in fatty acid transport, and maintenance of the intactness of outer mitochondrial membrane in heart mitochondria are the key mechanisms of action for the anti-infarction activity of mildronate. Source

Latvian Institute Of Organic Synthesis | Date: 2013-10-24

The invention discloses the use of pharmaceutical compositions containing 3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium)propionate dihydrate and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof for trimethylamine N-oxide level decrease in a body.

Smits G.,Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis | Zemribo R.,Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis
Organic Letters | Year: 2013

Stereoselective total syntheses of Limazepine E and Barmumycin, potent, naturally occurring antitumor agents, are described. The total syntheses control the olefin geometry via a highly selective chelation-controlled Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of a seven-membered lactone-derived boron enolate for the synthesis of (E)-4-ethylidene proline, a crucial building block for a number of natural products. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

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