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Gornas P.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing | Siger A.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań | Polewski K.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań | Pugajeva I.,Institute of Food Safety | Waskiewicz A.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2014

Qualitative and quantitative determination of tocopherols in filtered and unfiltered coffee brews was investigated. The NP-HPLC/FLD and RP-UPLC-ESI/MSn techniques as well as fluorescence spectroscopy turned out to be very useful tools not only to estimate tocopherol contents, but also to detect contaminants in coffee brew tocopherol extracts. In all analysed coffee brew samples, only α- and β-T were detected. In Arabica coffee brews, the content of the β homologue was three to four times higher than that of the α homologue; however, in Robusta, they were almost identical. Unfiltered coffee brews contained about ten times more tocopherols, 3.02-5.26 and 3.39-16.52, than filtered brews, 0.4-0.71 and 1.26-1.77 μg/100 ml for α-T and β-T, respectively. The reduction in the size of ground coffee beans from 0.7 to 0.3 mm increases the concentration of tocopherols almost three times. Suspended coffee bean dust was the main source of tocopherols in coffee brews. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Gornas P.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing | Seglina D.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing | Lacis G.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing | Pugajeva I.,Institute of Food Safety
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Tocochromanols composition in apple seeds, obtained as a by-product during the fruit salad and juice production, of twelve varieties - seven crab apple ('Kerr', 'Kuku', 'Quaker Beauty', 'Riku', 'Ritika', 'Ruti' and K-8/9-24) and five dessert apples ('Antej', 'Beforest', 'Kent', 'Sinap Orlovskij' and 'Zarja Alatau') were studied. Tocopherols and tocotrienols were isolated using the micro-saponification method of high precision and accuracy and they were analysedanalysed by rapid RP-HPLC/FLD and RP-UPLC-ESI/MSn. Four tocopherols, with predominance of homologues α and β, were detected in each tested sample. The seeds from two apple cultivars 'Antej' and 'Beforest' were characterized by unique and similar ratios of all four tocopherol homologues α:β:γ:δ (1.7:1.5:1.3:1.0 and 2.1:2.0:1.3:1.0, respectively). The concentration range of individual tocopherol homologues (α, β, γ and δ) in apple seeds were as follows: 17.22-25.79, 7.53-29.05, 0.61-13.82 and 0.16-10.79mg/100g dry weight basis (dwb), respectively. Moreover, three tocotrienols (α, β and γ) were identified in lesser amounts (0.02-0.74 mg/100g dwb). Use of apple seeds to isolate tocopherol homologues can ensure better environmental sustainability and effective use of natural plant material. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Gornas P.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing | Siger A.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań | Pugajeva I.,Institute of Food Safety | Seglina D.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2014

Thirteen cold-pressed oils (Japanese quince seed, black caraway, flaxseed, rapeseed, hemp, peanut, sunflower, pumpkin, hazelnut, poppy, walnut, almond and sesame oil) manufactured by the same company over a 2-year period (2011-12) were assessed for lipophilic compounds. The presence of sesamin and sesamolin, two characteristic lignans of sesame oil, were detected in all tested plant oils. Both lignans were identified by NP-HPLC/FLD/DAD and confirmed by a RP-UPLC-ESI/MSn method. The lowest amount of sesamin and sesamolin was found for Japanese quince seed oil (0.10 and 0.27 mg/100 g), and the highest, excluding sesame oil, for almond oil (36.21 and 105.42 mg/100 g, respectively). The highly significant correlation between sesamolin and sesamin concentrations was found in all samples tested (r = 0.9999; p < 0.00001). These results indicate contamination of cold-pressed oils from the same source. This investigation highlights the fact that increasing the range of products manufactured by the same company can contribute to a lesser regard for the quality of the final product. Moreover, less attention paid to the quality of final product can be related to the health risks of consumers especially sensitive to allergens. Therefore, proper cleaning of processing equipment is needed to prevent cross-contact of cold-pressed oils. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Gornas P.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing | Pugajeva I.,Institute of Food Safety | Seglina D.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2014

Tocochromanol composition was analysed in the seeds of nine various fruits: apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), red currant (Ribes rubrum L.), gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa L.), grape (Vitis vinifera L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. ex Spach), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and canary melon (Cucumis melo L.), recovered from by-products of fruit industry. The concentration range of subsequent tocopherols (Ts) and tocotrienols (T3s) was as follows: 1.29-29.30, 0.00-11.68, 0.42-95.11, 0.00-7.66, 0.03-5.03, 0.00-0.18 and 0.00-6.68 mg/100 g of seed dry weight for α-T, β-T, γ-T, δ-T, α-T3, β-T3 and γ-T3, respectively. The δ-T3 was not detected in any of the tested seeds. All tocochromanols were successfully separated by rapid RP-HPLC/FLD method and confirmed by the RP-UPLC-ESI/MS3 technique. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Ikase L.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing | Lacis G.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Latvia is situated in the northern region of apple production with specific requirements for winter-hardiness and length of the growing season. Fluctuating winter and spring temperatures and relative abundance of precipitation add to the challenges. The origin of apple cultivars in Latvia can be traced to back to Germany, Russia, Poland-Lithuania and Scandinavia. Until the 20th century, open-pollinated seedlings were the only source of important local cultivars like 'Baltais Dzidrais' ('Transparente Blanche'). In the 1950s and early 21st century expeditions were organized collecting and evaluating landraces, clones, amateur cultivars and the best chance seedlings. Currently, the genetic resource collection includes about 260 accessions of Latvian origin held at the Latvia State Institute of Fruit-Growing and the Pure Horticulture Research Centre, the base collection (109) is duplicated at both locations. About 400 accessions are still being evaluated, principally for their use in breeding. Controlled crosses were started in the 1950s, using cultivars best adapted to the Latvian climate and later involving donors of compact growth, columnar habit and scab resistance genes Rvi5 and Rvi6. Several of the resulting cultivars are grown commercially ('Iedzenu', 'Forele' and 'Agra') or are promising for commercial orchards ('Eksotika', 'Daina', etc.). The latest releases include scab resistant (Rvi6) cultivars 'Dace', 'Edite', 'Gita', 'Ligita', 'Roberts' and columnar apples 'Inese' (Rvi6), 'Duets', 'Baiba', 'Uldis' and 'Zane'. The present breeding program is aimed at combining traits important for the development of competitive commercial apple production in Latvia - improved fruit quality and prolonged storage, complex resistance to fungal diseases (scab, Nectria canker, mildew, storage rots, etc.) and physiological disorders, regular yields with self-thinning fruits, easy tree habit and winter-hardiness. Analysis of 129 apple accessions by 7 SSR markers was conducted to evaluate genetic diversity and clarify their relationships and possible parentages. Results showed a high diversity of analyzed germplasm and ensured more accurate cultivar relationship information.


Stalazs A.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Currants are the second most important berry crops in Latvia. During the last ten years the increase of gall mites (genus Cecidophyopsis) in Latvia in several currant plantations was observed. However, the distribution of the gall mites was unclear and in 2008 gall mite distribution and faunal studies were started. Sixty-five localities in Latvia were inspected and gall mites were observed in 38 of the 65 locations. Gall mites were observed from all types of inspected areas and on plants from three currant groups - blackcurrants (Ribes, subg. Ribes sect. Botrycarpum), redcurrants (Ribes, subg. Ribes sect. Ribes) and alpine currants (Ribes, subg. Berisia sect. Berisia). In commercial currant plantations, the blackcurrant cultivars 'Katyusha' and 'Mara Eglite' were most susceptible to gall mites. The blackcurrant cultivar 'Titania' was highly infested only in some areas. Gall mites are also a serious problem in currant plant genetic resource collections.


Kota I.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing | Lacis G.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Plums belong to the Rosaceae family and are characterized by having the gametophytic self-incompatibility system, which is troublesome in fruit-growing. Successful yields can be obtained only by planting at least two pollen compatible cultivars in an orchard. Lack of information about pollen incompatibility among cultivars limits detailed characterization of germplasm, breeding efforts and appropriate orchard design. The plum germplasm collection at the Latvia State Institute of Fruit-Growing contains a wide diversity of plum accessions: domestic plum (P. domestica L.) cultivars of different origin, myrobalan (P. cerasifera L.) plums, as well as different interspecific hybrids involving P. cerasifera L., P. salicina Lindl. and P. americana Marsh. S-genotyping was performed using consensus primers flanking the first and second intron of S-RNase gene and the SFB intron. Ninety-nine plum accessions were genotyped. All applied primers produced one or two bands per diploid plum cultivar, and one to six bands for hexaploid, domestic plums. In total 13 and 16 putative alleles were detected for the first and second SRNase gene intron, respectively, and 7 alleles for SFB intron. No specific band patterns were discovered for particular plum species or cultivar groups indicating a common genetic basis of self-incompatibility among different plum species with various levels of ploidy. The S-genotyping data obtained can be used as an additional character for germplasm identification and in further research on the plum selfincompatibility system.


The tocochromanol profile was studied in seed oils recovered from by-products of fruit industry, five dessert and seven crab apple varieties grown in Eastern Europe (Latvia). The seed oils obtained from dessert apples were characterized by higher contents of tocopherols (191.05-379.08 mg/100 g oil) when compared to seed oils recovered from crab apples (130.55-202.54 mg/100 g oil). The predominant homologues of tocopherol in all the studied samples were α and β over γ and δ. However, seed oils recovered from the apple cultivars 'Antej' and 'Beforest' had a unique profile of four tocopherol homologues (α:β:γ:δ) 91.41:80.55:72.46:79.03 and 114.55:112.84:78.69:73.00 mg/100 g oil, respectively. A single dilution of seed oils in 2-propanol facilitated the direct use samples in the DPPH assay as well as injection into the RP-HPLC system containing a PFP (pentafluorophenyl) column, which resulted in a rapid separation of all four tocopherol homologues with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gornas P.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing | Siger A.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań | Seglina D.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

The physicochemical characteristics of new promising cold-pressed Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. ex Spach) seed oil were determined in this study, including: saponification value (196.37mg KOH/g), unsaponifiable matter (3.15%), iodine value (96.6g/100g), peroxide value (0.6mEq O2/kg), acid value (0.88mg KOH/g), p-anisidine value (1.86), Totox value (3.06), Rancimat test (7.35h), carotenoid (10.69mg/kg) and chlorophyll content (0.11mg/kg). Linoleic acid (C18:2, 52.36%), oleic acid (C18:1, 33.8%), and palmitic acid (C16:0, 9.46%) were the dominant fatty acids in the Japanese quince seed oil. The following tocochromanols were identified: α-tocopherol as a major tocochromanol (93.74%), β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and plastochromanol-8. The main phytosterol in Japanese quince seed oil was β-sitosterol (82.92%) with the rest being campesterol, stigmasterol and avenasterol. Also large amount of squalene (0.67mg/g) was noted. Six phenolic compounds were detected: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and trans-cinnamic acid. Recorded absorbance in UV-B and UV-C range may indicate a potential use of Japanese quince seed oil against harmful UV radiation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Gornas P.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing | Rudzinska M.,University of Life Sciences in Poznań | Seglina D.,Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2014

The profile of lipophilic compounds was studied in oils obtained from seeds of five dessert and six crab apple cultivars. Apple seeds were collected from by-products generated during the preparation of fruit salads and in juice pressing. The oil yield in the apple seeds ranged from 12.06 to 27.49. g/100. g dry weight base. The average level of oil obtained from crab apple seeds was higher by 30% when compared to dessert apple seeds. The fatty acid composition was dominated by palmitic acid (5.78-8.33%), oleic acid (20.68-29.00%) and linoleic acid (59.37-67.94%). Among the six detected phytosterols β-sitosterol was predominant (51-94%). Total phytosterol concentration as well as squalene varied in different apple seed oils and amounted to 1.13-7.80 and 0.01-0.34. mg/g, respectively. Four significant correlations were found between oil yield and contents of oleic acid (r=0.822, p<. 0.01), α-linolenic acid (r=0.919, p<. 0.0001), β-sitosterol (r=0.931, p<. 0.0001) and total phytosterols (r=0.901, p<. 0.001) in apple seed oils. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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