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Wells R.,University of Queensland | Kenny A.L.,University of Queensland | Duckett R.,Latrobe University | Wreford N.G.,Monash University | And 2 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2013

The aim was to elucidate the role of LH and FSH in testicular development and growth in the neonatal boar On Day 10 after birth (Day 0 of study), animals were assigned to one of nine groups (n= 6): Group 1, control, no treatment; Group 2, hemicastrated (H); Group 3, H and implanted with GnRH agonist (H + GnRH); Group 4, H + GnRH + FSH 200 μg/kg daily from Days 0 to 14 (D0-14); Group 5, H + GnRH + FSH 400 μg/kg D0-14; Group 6, H + GnRH + FSH 400 μg/kg in PVP D0-14; Group 7, H + GnRH + LH 200 μg/kg D0-14; Group 8, H + GnRH + LH 400 μg/kg D0-14; Group 9, H + GnRH + LH and FSH 200 μg/kg D0-14 The right testis in control and hemicastrated boars was removed on Day 15 Hemicastrated boars had greater (P< 0.05) testicular growth than control boars and testicular growth was prevented in boars treated with GnRH agonist FSH induced Sertoli cell proliferation but not testicular growth whilst LH induced Leydig cell proliferation and testicular growth was similar to control boars but less than hemicastrated boars LH + FSH induced similar testicular growth as LH alone and neither LH and/or FSH supported testicular hypertrophy in hemicastrated boars The findings show conclusively for the first time that LH and FSH respectively induce Leydig cell and Sertoli cell proliferation in the neonatal boar LH additionally supports a normal increase in testicular size in the neonatal boar © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Goddard M.E.,University of Melbourne | Goddard M.E.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Whitelaw E.,Latrobe University
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2014

This review considers the evidence for inheritance across generations of epigenetic marks and how this phenomenon could be exploited in the cattle and sheep industries. Epigenetic marks are chemical changes in the chromosomes that affect the expression of genes and hence the phenotype of the cell and are passed on during mitosis so that the daughter cells have the same chemical changes or epigenetic marks as the parent cell. Although most epigenetic marks are wiped clean in the process of forming a new zygote, some epigenetic marks (epimutations) may be passed on from parent to offspring. The inheritance of epigenetic marks across generations is difficult to prove as there are usually alternative explanations possible. There are few well documented cases, mainly using inbred strains of mice. The epimutations are unstable and revert to wild type after a few generations. Although, there are no known cases in sheep or cattle, it is likely that inherited epimutations occur in these species but it is unlikely that they explain a large part of the inherited or genetic variation. There is limited evidence in mice and rats that an environmental treatment can cause a change in the epigenetic marks of an animal and that this change can be passed on the next generation. If inherited epimutations occur in sheep and cattle, they will already be utilised to some extent by existing genetic improvement programs. It would be possible to modify the statistical models used in the calculation of EBVs to better recognise the variance controlled by epimutations, but it would probably have, at best, a small effect on the rate on genetic (inherited) gain achieved. Although not a genetic improvement, the inheritance of epigenetic marks caused by the environment experienced by the sire offers a new opportunity in sheep and cattle breeding. However, at present we do not know if this occurs or, if it does, what environmental treatment might have a beneficial effect. © 2014 Goddard and Whitelaw.


Briffa J.F.,University of Melbourne | McAinch A.J.,Victoria University | Romano T.,Latrobe University | Wlodek M.E.,University of Melbourne | Hryciw D.H.,University of Melbourne
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Emerging research has highlighted the importance of leptin in fetal growth and development independent of its essential role in the maintenance of hunger and satiety through the modulation of neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin neurons. Alterations in maternal-placental-fetal leptin exchange may modify the development of the fetus and contribute to the increased risk of developing disease in adulthood. In addition, leptin also plays an important role in reproductive functions, with plasma leptin concentrations rising in pregnant women, peaking during the third trimester. Elevated plasma leptin concentrations occur at the completion of organogenesis, and research in animal models has demonstrated that leptin is involved in the development and maturation of a number of organs, including the heart, brain, kidneys, and pancreas. Elevated maternal plasma leptin is associated with maternal obesity, and reduced fetal plasma leptin is correlated with intrauterine growth restriction. Alterations in plasma leptin during development may be associated with an increased risk of developing a number of adulthood diseases, including cardiovascular, metabolic, and renal diseases via altered fetal development and organogenesis. Importantly, research has shown that leptin antagonism after birth significantly reduces maturation of numerous organs. Conversely, restoration of the leptin deficiency after birth in growth-restricted animals restores the offspring’s body weight and improves organogenesis. Therefore, leptin appears to play a major role in organogenesis, which may adversely affect the risk of developing a number of diseases in adulthood. Therefore, greater understanding of the role of leptin during development may assist in the prevention and treatment of a number of disease states that occur in adulthood. © 2015 the American Physiological Society.


Custovic E.,Latrobe University
IEEE Engineering Management Review | Year: 2015

This article raises the case for including learning experiences in the basic skills in the discipline of engineering management. Engineering curriculums tend to cover fundamental and complex topics from electromagnetic theory to quantum mechanics. However, there is little emphasis on the management discipline. Students graduate with an excellent aptitude in applying mathematics, physics and general science to solve problems in industry. However, it is no surprise that industry often evaluates graduates differently, focusing on soft skills. The article concludes with a discussion on the need of effective and collaborative mentoring between engineering managers, educators, researchers, and other practitioners to encourage growth and development of young professionals. © 1973-2011 IEEE.


Wagner J.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Wagner J.,University of Melbourne | Sim W.H.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Lee K.J.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Reviews in Medical Virology | Year: 2013

The aetiology of Crohn's disease (CD) is currently unknown. A viral trigger was proposed more than 40years ago and has been the focus of many investigations. We summarised the current literature surrounding the association between viruses and CD and conducted a systematic review of all studies investigating this association quantitatively. Studies were identified by searching for 13 specific virus names or the general term 'virus' and 'Crohn's disease' in search engines PubMed and OVID. A total of 1315 studies were identified, of which 78 studies had a laboratory result. Of the 78, 46 case-control studies met all the inclusion criteria for forest plot analysis. The most common viruses studied were EBV, CMV and measles virus (MV). Forest plot analysis for each virus was carried out (fitted using random effects) and identified evidence of an association between CD and CMV (risk ratio [RR] 1.602, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.069 to 2.400) with some suggestion that EBV may also be associated with CD (RR 1.366, 95% CI 0.996 to 1.873). However, there was evidence of large heterogeneity in the results from the identified studies for EBV. There was little evidence of an association with CD for MV, human herpes virus 6, human herpes virus 8, human simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, mumps virus, Rubella virus, rotavirus, norovirus and adenovirus. There is still some question around whether CD is associated with the presence of a currently known virus. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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